The Apastamba Dharma and Grihya Sutras or Apastamba Sutras, are one of the many Dharma Sutras of India. They were followed mostly in South India, especially by the followers of Krishna Yajurveda, Taitreya Sakha people. They are said to be of Andhra Brahmin origin.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 1. Khāṇḍa 1.
athātas-sāmayācārikān dharmān vyākhyāsyāmaḥ || 1 ||
1. Now, therefore, we will teach the Dharmas which form part of the duty of daily life, as they have been decided by the agreement [of those who know the law].
Now, therefore — after the study of the śrāutā and gṛhya sūtras.
Dharma — ‘acts productive of merit,’ usually translated by ‘duty or law,’ is more accurately defined as an act which produces the state called apūrva, the cause of heavenly bliss and of final liberation.
Sāmaya — ‘agreement, decision of men who know the law,’ is threefold = vidhi – injunction, niyama – restriction or guidelines, and pratiṣedhā – prohibition.
dharmajña samayaḥ pramāṇam || 2 ||
2. The authority [for Dharma] is the agreement of those who know the law. (Manu 2:6, 12; Yajñ. 1:7; Gautama 1:1:]
The Dharma teachings arise from the consensus of those learned scholars who have studied the Scriptures.
vedāśca || 3 ||
3. And [the authorities for the latter are] the Vedas alone.
The knowers of the law are authorities for us and the Vedas alone are their authority. The Vedas are therefore the root authority in matters of dharma and adharma. [Gautama 1;1:2]
Catvāro varṇā brāhmaṇa kṣatriya vaiśya śūdrāḥ || 4 ||
4. [There are] four castes — brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas, and śūdras.
All four are entitled to practice the Dharma set forth by the agreement of the Law-givers.
teṣāṃ pūrvaḥ pūrvo janmataś-śreyān || 5 ||
5. Among these, each preceding [caste] is superior by birth to the one following.
aśūdrāṇām aduṣṭa-karmāṇām upāyanaṃ vedādhyayanam agnyādheyaṃ phalavanti ca karmāṇi || 6
6. [For all these], excepting śūdras and criminals, [are ordained] the initiation [upaṇayana], the study of the Veda, and the setting up of the sacred fire; and [their] works are productive of rewards [in this world and the next]. (Manu 2:35.)
If one omits the ‘a’ prefix in aśūdrāṇām the meaning would be — “those śūdras who are of impeccable behaviour may also be initiated etc.”
śuśḷṣā śūdrasyetareṣāṃ varṇānām || 7 ||
7. To serve the other [three] castes [is ordained] for the śūdra. (Manu 1:91, 8:410 and 9:334 Yajñ. 1:120.)
pūrvasmin pūrvasmin varṇe niśreyasaṃ bhūyaḥ || 8 ||
8. The higher the caste [which the śūdra serves] the greater is the merit.
upanayanaṃ vidyārthasya śrutitas-saṃskāraḥ || 9 ||
9. The initiation [upaṇayana] is the confirmation in accordance with the texts of the Veda, of a male who is desirous of [and can make use of] sacred knowledge.
The deaf and dumb who cannot make use of the sacred knowledge are thus excluded. The stipulation of ‘male’ excludes women for the reason that their domestic duties precludes them from making use of the scriptural knowledge of the Vedas. Although women are required to use certain texts during agnihotra etc. it is recommended that they be taught at the time of performance only.
sarvebhyo vai vedebhyas-sāvitryanūcyata iti hi brāhmaṇam || 10 ||
10. A Brāhmaṇa text declares that the Gāyatrī is learnt for the sake of all the [three] Vedas.
This statement is to remove the doubt whether the ceremony of initiation is to be repeated for each of the Vedas. Only if the Atharvana Veda is to be studied is a separate initiation required.
Tamaso vā eṣa tamaḥ praviśati yam avidvān upanayate yaścā avidvān iti hi brāhmaṇam || 11 ||
11. A Brāhmaṇa text declares that one who’s initiated by a guru unlearned in the Veda indeed enters darkness, and he who initiates comes from darkness.
The one who conducts the upanayana ceremony should himself be learned in the Veda. Nowadays it is customary for the father to do the teaching of the gāyatrī even though unlearned in the Veda.
Tasminnabhijan avidyā samudetaṃ samāhitaṃ saṃskartāram ipset || 12 ||
12. One who desires initiation shall seek to obtain a teacher in whose family sacred learning is hereditary, who himself possesses the knowledge
of the 6 aṅgas of the Veda [along with the meaning], and who is diligent [in following the law].
a teacher in whose family sacred learning is hereditary — it must be remembered that at the time of the sūtras, books were not widely available and learning was confined within families and not institutes of learning.
Samāhita means avoiding the proscribed acts and diligently following the prescribed acts.
Tasminścaiva vidyākarmā ntam avipratipanne dharmebhyaḥ || 13 ||
13. And under him the sacred science must be studied until the end, provided [the teacher] does not fall down from the ordinances of the law.
If the teacher does happen to fall from the practice of Dharma then the student has the right to tactfully upbraid him, if he continues in malpractice the student should leave and find another teacher.
Tasmād dharmān ācinoti sa ācāryaḥ || 14 ||
14. He from whom one gathers [ācinoti] [the knowledge of] Dharma is called the ācārya [teacher]. (Manu 2:69, Yajñ. 1:15.)
tasmai na druhyet kadācana || 15 ||
15. The teacher should never be offended in any way. (Manu 2:144.)
sa hi vidyātastaṃ janayati || 16 ||
16. For he gives a second birth to the student by [imparting to him] sacred learning. (Manu 2:146-148.)
tacchreṣṭhaṃ janma || 17 ||
17. This [second] birth is the best.
Because it procures spiritual advancement and the means to liberation. The guru is considered a “father” and the students are considered as spiritual sons. The disciples between themselves have the relationship of “guru-brothers.”
śarīram eva mātā-pitarau janayataḥ || 18 ||
18. The father and the mother produce the body only. (Manu 2:147) The body is a mere product of matter and is a vehicle for the jīvātman.
vasante brāhmaṇam upanayīta grīṣme rājanyaṃ śaradi vaiśyaṃ garbhāṣṭhameṣu brāhmaṇaṃ garbhaikādaśeṣu rājanyaṃ garbha- dvādaśeṣu vaiśyam || 19 ||
19. Let a Brāhmaṇa be initiated in spring, a Kṣatriya in summer, a Vaiśya in autumn, a Brāhmaṇa in the eighth year of age, a Kṣatriya in the eleventh year and a Vaiśya in the twelfth year. (Manu 2:36.)
atha kāmyāni || 20 ||
20. Now [follows the enumeration of the ages to be chosen] for the fulfilment of some [particular] aim.
Saptame brahma-varcasa kāmam || 21 ||
21. A person desirous of excellence in sacred learning [should be initiated] in his seventh year. (Manu 2:37.)
aṣṭhame āyuṣ kāmam || 22 ||
22. A person desirous of long life in his eighth year,
navame tejas kāmam || 23 ||
23. A person desirous of sexual vigour in his ninth year,
daśamennādya kāmam || 24 ||
24. A person desirous of well-being in his tenth year,
ekādaśa indriya kāmam || 25 ||
25. A person desirous of strong sense-organs in his eleventh year,
dvādaśame paśu kāmam || 26 ||
26. A person desirous of wealth [cattle] in his twelfth year.
ā ṣoḍaśād brāhmaṇasya-anātyaya , ā dvāviṃśāt kṣatriyasya-ā caturviṃśād vaiśyasya yathā vrateṣu samarthaḥ syāt-yāni vakṣyāmaḥ || 27 ||
27. There is no dereliction [of duty, if the initiation takes place], in the case of a Brāhmaṇa before the completion of the 16th year, in the case of a Kshatriya before the completion of the 22nd year, in the case of a Vaiśya before the completion of the 24th year. [Let him be initiated at such an age] that he may be able to perform the duties, which we shall declare below.
The meaning is, that the initiation shall be performed as soon as the child is able to begin the study of the Veda. If it is sufficiently mentally developed at eight years, the ceremony must then be performed; and if it be then neglected, or, if it be neglected at any time when the capacity for learning exists, the expiation prescribed in the following Sūtras must be performed. The age of 16 in the case of Brāhmaṇas is the latest age until which the ceremony may be deferred, in case of incapacity for study only. After the lapse of the 16th year, the expiation becomes also necessary. (Manu 2:38; Yājñ. I:37.
atikrānte sāvitryāḥ kāla ṛtuṃ traividyakaṃ brahmacaryaṃ caret || 28 ||
28. If the proper time for the initiation has passed, one shall observe the duties of a student for a period of two months, as observed by those who are studying the three Vedas.
The meaning is, he shall keep all the restrictions imposed upon a student, such as chastity, etc., but that he shall not perform fire-worship or service to a teacher nor actually study. (Manu 2;39; 11:192, Yājñ. 1. 38;
atha-upanayanam || 29 ||
29. After that he may be initiated.
tataḥ saṃvatsaram udaka-upasparśanam || 30 ||
30. After that he shall bathe [daily] for one year.
Haradatta comments that if he is healthy he shall bathe three times a day — morning. midday, and evening from the time of initiation.
atha-adhyāpyaḥ || 31 ||
31. After that he may be instructed [in the Veda].
atha yasya pitā pitāmaha iti anupetau syātāṃ te brahmaha-saṃstutāḥ || 32 ||
32. He, whose father and grandfather have not been initiated, [and his two ancestors] are called ‘slayers of the Brahman.’
Brahman here means ‘Veda,’ and those who neglect its study may be called metaphorically ‘slayers of the Veda.’ To be initiated implies to also study the Veda. If a person’s father and grandfather have not been initiated and have not studied the Veda then they are demoted to the level of Śūdras. This would apply to the vast majority of “Brahmins” — it is very rare to find one in whose family Vedic learning is still current.
teṣām abhyāgamanaṃ bhojanaṃ vivāham iti ca varjayet || 33 ||
33. Intercourse, eating and intermarriage with them should be avoided. (Manu 2; 40; Aśv. Gri:Su. 1:19:8:9.)
teṣām icchatāṃ prāyaścittam || 34 ||
34. If they wish it [they may perform the following] expiation:—
yathā prathame- ‘atikrama ṛtur evaṃ saṃvatsaraḥ || 35 ||
35. In the same manner as for the first dereliction [of the initiation, a penance of] two months [was] prescribed, so [they shall do penance for] one year.
Compare above, 1:1:1;28
atha-upanayanaṃ tata udaka-upasparśanam || 36 ||
36. Afterwards they may be initiated, and then they must bathe [daily],
Praśna 1. Paṭala 1. Khaṇḍa. 2.
Prati pūruṣaṃ saṅkhyāya saṃvatsarān yāvanto-anupetāḥ syuḥ || 1 ||
1. For as many years as there are uninitiated persons, reckoning [one year] for each ancestor [and the person to be initiated himself],
saptabhiḥ pāvamānībhir “yad anti yac ca dūraka” iti etābhir yajus pavitreṇa sāma pavitreṇa-āṅgiraseṇa-iti || 2 ||
2. [They should bathe daily reciting] the seven Pavamānis, beginning with ‘If near or far,’ the ‘Yajuś-pavitra, [‘May the waters, the mothers purify us,’ etc.] the Sāma-pavitra, [‘With what help assists,’ etc.], and the Aṅgirasa- pavitra [‘A swan, dwelling in purity’],
The seven Pavamānis are seven verses which occur Rig-Veda 9;67;21-27. Yajuś- pavitra is the Taitt. Samh. 1:2:1:1. The Sāma-pavitra is found Sāma-Veda 1, 2, 2, 3, 5. Aṅgirasa-pavitra-Rig-Veda. 4; 40, 5.
api vā vyāhṛtībhir eva || 3 ||
3. Or also reciting the Vyāhṛtis [om, bhuḥ, bhuvaḥ, suvaḥ].
atha-adhyāpyaḥ || 4 ||
4. After that [such a person] may be taught [the Veda].
atha yasya prapitāmaha ādi na-anusmaryata upanayanaṃ te śmaśāna saṃstutāḥ ||5||
5. But those whose great-grandfather’s [grandfather’s and father’s] initiation is not remembered, are called “cremation-grounds.”
teṣām abhyāgamanaṃ bhojanaṃ vivāham iti ca varjayet teṣām icchatāṃ prāyaścittaṃ dvādaśa varṣāṇi traividyakaṃ brahmacaryaṃ caret | atha- upanayanaṃ tatas- udaka upasparśanaṃ pāvamānī ādibhiḥ || 6 ||
6. Intercourse, dining, and intermarriage with them should be avoided. For them, if they like, the [following] penance [is prescribed]. [Such a person] shall keep for twelve years the rules prescribed for a student who is studying the three Vedas. Afterwards he may be initiated. Then he shall bathe, reciting the Pavamānis and the other [texts mentioned above, 1. 1, 2, 2].
atha gṛha-medha upadeśanam || 7 ||
7. Then he may be instructed in the religious duties of a householder.
na-adhyāpanam || 8 ||
8. He shall not be taught [the whole Veda], but only the sacred formulas required for the domestic ceremonies.
tato yo nirvartate tasya saṃskāro yathā prathame- ‘atikrame || 9 ||
9. When he has finished this [study of the Gṛhya-mantras], he may be initiated [after having performed the penance prescribed] for the first neglect [1. 1. 1. 28].
tata ūrdhvaṃ prakṛtivat || 10 ||
10. Afterwards [everything is performed] as in the case of a regular initiation.
The commentators say that for those whose great-great-grandfather or remoter ancestors were not initiated, no penance is prescribed, and that it must be decided by the learned.
upetasya ācārya kule brahmacāri vāsaḥ || 11 ||
11. The initiated one shall dwell as a Brahmacārin in the house of the teacher, (Manu 2:164)
aṣṭācatvāriṃśad varṣāṇi || 12 ||
12. For forty-eight years [if he learns all the four Vedas], (Manu 3;1, and Yajñ. 1:36)
Pādūnam || 13 ||
13. [Or] a quarter less [ ie. for thirty-six years],
ardhena || 14 ||
14. [Or] less by half [ie. for twenty-four years],
tribhir vā || 15 ||
15. [Or] three quarters less [ie. for twelve years],
dvādaśa avara ardhyam || 16 ||
16. Twelve years [should be] the shortest time [for his residence with his teacher].
The commentator declares that in (Manu 3;1, the expression ‘until he has learnt it,’ must be understood in this sense, [that the student may leave his teacher, if he has learnt the Veda after twelve years’ study, never before. But compare also Aśv. Gri. Sūtra. 1, 22, 3.
na brahmacāriṇo vidyā arthasya para upavāso- ‘asti || 17 ||
17. A student who studies the sacred knowledge shall not dwell with anybody else [other than his teacher].
The commentator states that this rule refers only to a temporary, not to a professed student [naiṣṭhika]. He also gives an entirely different explanation to the Sūtra, which, according to some, means, ‘A student who learns the Veda shall not fast in order to obtain heaven’. This rendering also is admissible, as the word para may mean either a ‘stranger’ or ‘heaven’, and upavāsa, ‘dwelling’ or ‘fasting.’
atha brahmacarya vidhiḥ || 18 ||
18. Now the rules for the studentship.
Ācārya adhīnaḥ syād anyatra patanīyebhyaḥ || 19 ||
19. He shall obey his teacher, except [when ordered to commit] crimes which cause loss of caste.
Regarding the crimes which cause loss of caste [pataniya], see below, 1,7,21;7
hitakārī guror apratilomayan vācā || 20 ||
20. One shall do what is beneficial to the teacher, and shall not contradict him. (Manu 2;108, and Yajñ. 1. 27.)
adha āsana śāyī || 21 ||
21. One shall always occupy a couch or seat lower [than that of the teacher]. (Manu 2;108, 198)
na-anudeśyaṃ bhuñjīta || 22 ||
22. One shall not eat food offered [at a sacrifice to the gods or the Manes],
tathā kṣāra-lavaṇa madhu māṃsāni || 23 ||
23. Nor pungent condiments, salt, honey or meat.
Regarding the meaning of “kṣāra”— ‘pungent condiments,’ see Haradatta on 2:6, 15, 15. Other commentators explain the term differently. (Manu 2;177; Yajñ. 1, 33; and Aśv. Gri: Su. 1. 22, 2.
adivā svāpī || 24 ||
24. One shall not sleep in the day-time.
agandha sevī || 25 ||
25. Nor use perfumes. (Manu 2;177; Yajñ. 1:33.)
maithunaṃ na caret || 26 ||
26. Nor engage in sexual activities. (Manu 2;180.)
utsanna ślāghaḥ || 27 ||
27. Nor embellish oneself [by using ointments and the like]. (Manu 2;178; Yajñ. 1;33.)
aṅgāni na prakṣālayīta || 28 ||
28. Nor wash the body [with hot water for pleasure],
prakṣālayīta tv aśuci liptāni guror asaṃdarśe || 29 ||
29. But, if the body is soiled by unclean things, one shall clean it [with earth or water], in a place where one is not seen by a Guru.
Here, in the section on the teacher, the word guru designates the father and the rest also. Haradatta.
na-apsu ślāghamānaḥ snāyād yadi snāyād daṇḍavat plavet || 30 ||
30. One should not frolic about in the water whilst bathing; let him float [motionless] like a stick.
The gist of this sūtra is that bathing, which is normally done in a river or public place should be done with restraint and not cause irritation to others using the same ghaṭ for bathing and washing clothes etc.
Another version of the first portion of this Sūtra, proposed by Haradatta, is, ‘Let him not, whilst bathing, clean himself [with soap powder or the like].’ Another commentator takes Sūtra 28 as a prohibition of the daily bath or washing generally ordained for Brāhmanas, and refers Sūtra 29 to the naimittika snāna or ‘bathing on certain occasions,’ and takes Sūtra 30 as a restriction of the latter.
jaṭilaḥ || 31 ||
31. One shall wear all the hair tied in one knot. (Manu 2;219.)
śikhā jaṭas vā vāpayed itarān || 32 ||
32. Or let one tie a knot of the lock on the crown of the head, and shave the rest of the hair.
Mauñjī || 33 ||
33. The girdle [mekhala] of a Brāhmaṇa shall be made of Muñja grass, and Consists of three strings if possible, [the strings] should be twisted to the right. (Manu 2;42-44; Yajñ. 1;29; Aśv. Gri:Su. 1;19;12.)
jyā rājanyasya || 34 ||
34. A bowstring [should be the girdle] of a Kshatriya,
mauñjī vā’yo-miśrā || 35 ||
35. Or a girdle of Muñja grass to which some pieces of iron have been tied.
Āvī sūtraṃ vaiśyasya || 36 ||
36. A wool thread [shall be the girdle] of a Vaiśya,
sairī tāmalī vetyeke || 37 ||
37. Or a rope used for yoking the oxen to the plough, or a string made of Tamala bark.
pālāśo daṇḍo brāhmaṇasya naiyyagrodha skandhajo- ‘avāṅgro rājanyasya, bādara audumbaro vā vaiśyasya, vārkṣo daṇḍa ity avarṇ- asaṃyogena-eke-upadiśanti || 38 ||
38. The staff carried by a Brāhmaṇa should be made of Palāśa wood, that of a Kshatriya of a branch of the Banyan tree, which grows downwards, that of a Vaiśya of Bādara or Udumbara wood. Some declare, without any reference to caste, that the staff of a student should be made of the wood of a tree [that is fit to be used at the sacrifice]. (Manu 2;45; Yajñ. 1;29; Aśv. Gri:Sūtra 1;19;13;20,1)
vāsaḥ || 39 ||
39. [One shall wear] a cloth [to cover the loins].
śāṇī kṣauma ajināni || 40 ||
40. [It shall be made] of hemp for a Brāhmaṇa, of flax [for a Kshatriya], of the skin of a [clean] animal [for a Vaiśya]. (Manu 2:41)
Clean means here and everywhere else, if applied to animals or things, those which are fit to be used at the sacrifice.
kaṣāyaṃ ca-eke vastram upadiśanti || 41 ||
41. Some declare that the [upper] garment [of a Brāhmaṇa] should be dyed with red Lodh. (Aśv. Gri: Sūtra 1;19;11)
Praśna 1. Paṭala 1. Khaṇḍa 3
māñjiṣṭhaṃ rājanyasya || 1 ||
1. And that of a Kṣatriya dyed with madder (a red dye).
hāridraṃ vaiśyasya || 2 ||
2. And that of a Vaiśya dyed with turmeric.
hāriṇam aiṇeyaṃ vā kṛṣṇaṃ brāhmaṇasya || 3 ||
3. [The skin] worn by a Brāhmaṇa shall be that of a common deer or of a black doe. (Manu 2:41; Yajñ. 1:29; Aśv. Gri: Sūtra. 1:19:10)
kṛṣṇaṃ ced anupastīrṇa āsana śāyī syāt || 4 ||
4. If one wears a black skin, let it not be spread [on the ground] to sit or lie upon it.
rauravaṃ rājanyasya || 5 ||
5. [The skin worn] by a Kshatriya shall be that of a spotted deer.
basta ajinaṃ vaiśyasya || 6 ||
6. [The skin worn] by a Vaiśya shall be that of a he-goat.
āvikaṃ sārva varṇikam || 7 ||
7. The skin of a sheep is fit to be worn by all castes,
kambalaśca || 8 ||
8. And a blanket made of wool.
brahma vṛddhim icchann ajināny eva vasīta kṣatra vṛddhim icchan vastrāṇy eva-ubhaya vṛddhim icchann ubhayam iti hi brāhmaṇam || 9 ||
9 One who wishes the increase of Brahma (Spiritual power) shall wear skins only; one who wishes the increase of Kshatra (worldly power) shall wear cloth only; one who wishes the increase of both shall wear both [skin and cloth]. Thus says a Brāhmaṇa. (See also Gopatha Brāhmana 1. 2, 4.)
ajinaṃ tv eva-uttaraṃ dhārayet || 10 ||
10. But [I, Āpastamba, say], let only a skin be worn as the upper garment.
According to 1;1;2;39 — 1;1;3;10, the rule of dress for students is the following:— according to Apastamba, a student shall wear a piece of cloth to cover his nakedness [laṅgoti], and a skin as upper garment. Other teacher’s allow, besides, an upper dress of cloth, coloured differently for the different castes, with or without the addition of a deer-skin.
anṛtta darśī || 11 ||
11. Dancing should not be watched [by the student]. (Manu 2:178.)
sabhāḥ samājāṃś ca-agantā || 12 ||
12. nor should [a student] attend assemblies [for gambling, etc.], nor join crowds [assembled at festivals].
a janavāda śīlaḥ || 13 ||
13. nor should one be addicted to gossiping. (Manu 11:179; Yajñ. 1:33.)
rahas śīlaḥ || 14 ||
14. [He should always] be discreet.
guror udācāreṣv akartā svairi karmāṇi || 15 ||
15. [a student] should not do anything for his own pleasure in places which his teacher frequents.
‘Anything for his own pleasure,’ ie. having conversations with friends, making his toilet, ‘hanging out’ etc.
strībhir yāvad artha saṃbhāṣī || 16 ||
16. Let him talk with women as much [only] as is necessary.
mṛduḥ || 17 ||
17. One should be gentle.
śāntaḥ || 18 ||
18. One should refrain from unsuitable pursuits (or be peaceful).
dāntaḥ || 19 ||
19. And be tireless in fulfilling one’s duties;
The explanations of the last two terms, śānta [Sūtra 18] and dānta [Sūtra 19], are different from those given usually. Sama is usually explained as the exclusive direction of the mind towards God,’ and dama as ‘the restraining of the senses’ or self-discipline.
Hrīmān || 20 ||
20. [He should be] Modest;
dṛḍha dhṛtiḥ || 21 ||
aglāṃsnuḥ || 22 ||
akrodhanaḥ || 23 ||
23. Free from anger; (Manu 2:178.)
anasūyuḥ || 24 ||
24. Free from envy.
sarvaṃ lābham āharan gurave sāyaṃ prātar amantreṇa bhikṣā caryaṃ cared, [bhikṣamāṇo- ‘anyatra-apapātrebhyo- ‘abhiśastāc ca] || 25 ||
25. Bringing all he obtains to his teacher, he shall go begging with a vessel in the morning and in the evening, [and he may] beg [from everybody] except low-caste people unfit for association [with āryas – apapātra] and Abhiśastas.
Regarding the explanation of the term Abhiśasta, see below, 1;7;21;17. Haradatta —
Apapātras are called those born from a high-caste mother and a low-caste father, such as washermen. For their cooking vessels etc. are unfit for the use of the four castes…. Since Apastamba says, “In the evening and in the morning, food obtained in the evening must not be used for the morning meal, nor food obtained in the morning for the evening meal.” — Manu 2:182, 183, 185; Aśv. Gri: Su. 1:22;4 See also Gopatha-Brāhmana 1:2;6
strīṇāṃ pratyācakṣāṇānāṃ samāhito brahmacārī-iṣṭaṃ dattaṃ hutaṃ prajāṃ paśūn brahmavarcasam annādyaṃ vṛṅkte | tasmād u ha vai brahmacāri saṅghaṃ carantaṃ na pratyācakṣīta, api ha-eṣv evam vidha evaṃ vrataḥ syād- iti hi brāhmaṇam || 26 ||
26. A Brāhmaṇa verse declares:— Since a devout student takes away from women, who refuse [to give him alms, the merit obtained] by [śrauta] sacrifices, by gifts, [and] by burnt-offerings [offered in the domestic fire], as well as their offspring, their cattle, the sacred learning [of their families], therefore, indeed, [a woman] should not refuse [alms] to a group of students; for amongst those [who come to beg], there might be one of that [devout] kind, one who thus [conscientiously] keeps his vow.
na-anumānena bhaikṣam ucchiṣṭaṃ dṛṣṭa śrutābhyāṃ tu || 27 ||
27. Alms [shall] not [be considered] as leavings [ucchiṣṭha] [and be rejected] by inference [from their appearance], but on the strength of ocular or oral testimony [only].
ucchiṣṭaṃ = ‘residue of food’ — refers to (a) food left on a plate after some one has eaten, (b) food from which a portion has already been served to someone before the other diners eat. (c) liquid in a bottle from which someone has drunk thus containing their ‘backwash’.
To eat the residue of the meal (ucchiṣṭa) of any person except that left by the teacher and other Gurus, is not permitted to a student; see also below, 1:1:4:1 seq.; Manu 2:56; Yajñ. 1:33.
bhavat pūrvayā brāhmaṇo bhikṣeta || 28 ||
28. A Brāhmaṇa shall beg, prefacing [his request] by the word ‘Lady’.
“Bhavati bhīkṣāṃ dehi!”
bhavat madhyayā rājanyaḥ || 29 ||
29. A Kshatriya [inserting the word] ‘Lady’ in the middle [between the words ‘give alms’],
“Bhīkṣāṃ bhavati dehi!”
bhavat antyayā vaiśyaḥ || 30 ||
30. A Vaiśya, adding the word ‘ Lady’ [at the end of the formula].
“Bhīkṣāṃ dehi bhavati!”
tat samāhṛtya -upanidhāya-ācāryāya prabrūyā || 31 ||
31. [The student] having taken those [alms] shall place them before his teacher and offer them to him.
— Saying “idam ittham āhṛtam!” tena pradiṣṭaṃ bhuñjīta || 32 ||
32. He may eat [the food] after having been ordered to do so by his teacher. — “saumya tvam eva bhuṅkṣva!”
vipravāse guror ācārya kulāya || 33 ||
33. If the teacher is absent, the student [shall offer the food] to [a member of] the teacher’s family.
tair vipravāse- ‘anyebhyo-‘api śrotriyebhyaḥ || 34 ||
34. If the [family of the teacher] is [also] absent, the student [may offer the food] to other learned Brāhmaṇas [śrotriyas] also [and receive from them the permission to eat].
na-ātma prayojanaś caret || 35 ||
35. One shall not beg for selfish purposes.
If no one is there to give permission the student at home should follow the rule given in 42.
bhuktvā svayam amatraṃ prakṣālayīta || 36 ||
36. After eating, one should clean one’s own bowl.
na ca-ucchiṣṭaṃ kuryāt || 37 ||
37. And leave no residue.
aśaktau bhūmau nikhanet || 38 ||
38. If he cannot [eat all that he has taken in his dish], he shall bury [the remainder].
apsu vā [praveśayet || 39 ||
39. Or he may throw it into the water;
āryāya vā paryavadadhyāt || 40 ||
40. Or he may place [all that remains in a pot], and put it down near an [uninitiated] ārya
A boy of the upper three castes who is not initiated. Children, before initiation are allowed to eat whatever they like.
kāma-bhakṣaḥ ie. antardhine vā śūdrāya || 41 ||
41. Or [he may put it down] near a śūdra servant [belonging to his teacher].
proṣito bhaikṣād agnau kṛtvā bhuñjīta || 42 ||
42. If [the student] is on a journey, he shall offer a part of the alms into the fire and eat [the remainder].
This rule holds good if no śrotriyas (Vedic scholars) are near to give permission for hime to eat. If śrotriyas are to be found, Sūtra 34 applies. Agni, the god of fire, is considered to be of the Brahminical caste, and hence he takes the place of the teacher or of the śrotriyas. (See also Manu 2:247, 248)
bhaikṣaṃ haviṣā saṃstutaṃ tatra-ācāryo devatā arthe || 43 ||
43. Alms are declared to be sacrificial food and the ācārya [is in the position which] a deity [holds in regard to food offered at a sacrifice].
āhavanīya arthe ca || 44 ||
44. And [the teacher holds also the place which] the āhavaniya fire occupies [at a sacrifice, because a portion of the alms is offered in the fire of his stomach].
taṃ bhojayitvā yad ucchiṣtaṃ prāśñāti || 45 ||
45. To him [the teacher] the [student] shall offer [a portion of the alms],
Praśna 1. Paṭala 1. Khaṇḍa 4
yad [ucchiṣṭaṃutśiṣ] prāśñāti || 1 ||
1. And [having done so] eat what is left.
havir ucchiṣṭam eva tat || 2 ||
2. For this [remnant of food] is certainly a remnant of sacrificial food. The remnants of offerings to the gods is known as prasādam and is taken as a sacramental meal.
yad anyāni dravyāṇi yathālābham upaharati dakṣiṇā eva tāḥ || 3 ||
3. If he obtains other things [besides food, such as cattle or fuel, and gives them to his teacher] as he obtains them, then those [things hold the place of] the gratuity [dakṣina — given to priests for the performance of a sacrifice].
sa eṣa brahmacāriṇo yajño nitya pratataḥ || 4 ||
4. This is the sacrifice to be performed daily by a religious student.
na ca-asmai śruti vipratiṣiddham ucchiṣṭaṃ dadyāt || 5 ||
5. And [the teacher] shall not give him anything [to eat] that is forbidden by the Vedas, [not even as] leavings,
yathā kṣāra lavaṇa madhu māṃsāni – iti || 6 ||
6. Such as pungent condiments, salt, honey, or meat [and the like]. These items are permitted to householders but forbidden to students.
etena-anye niyamā vyākhyātāḥ || 7 ||
7. By this [last Sūtra it is] explained [that] the other restrictions [imposed upon a student, such as abstinence from perfumes, ointments, etc., are likewise not to be broken].
See above, 1:1:2:24 seq.:— According to Haradatta, teachers were in the habit of giving ointments and the like forbidden substances to their students, and Apastamba gives this rule in order to show his dissent from the practice.4
śrutir hi balīyasy ānumānikād ācārāt || 8 ||
8. For [explicit] Vedic texts have greater force than custom from which [the existence of a permissive passage of the revelation] may be inferred.
‘Anumānika means “able to be inferred from.” The existence of a Vedic text or tradition [Smṛti] is inferred from an established custom. But, a visible Vedic text has greater weight than an age-old custom from which the existence of a text may be inferred. By this sūtra Āpastamba shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pungent condiments, salt etc. is based on the existing text of a Brāhmaṇa.’ — Haradatta.
dṛśyate ca-api pravṛtti kāraṇam || 9 ||
9. Besides [in this particular case] a [worldly] motive for the practice is apparent.
The text forbidding the use of pungent condiments, salt, meat etc. refers to such substances if they are not sacrificial left-overs — if they were sacrificial left-overs then they could be taken as prasād.
prītir hy upalabhyate || 10 ||
10. For pleasure is obtained [by using or eating forbidden substances].
pitur jyeṣṭhasya ca bhrātur ucchiṣṭaṃ bhoktavyam || 11 ||
11. A residue left by a father and an elder brother may be eaten.
4 The Mīmāṃsa says: prāpti-pūrvaka pratiśeddha bhavati — the existence of a prohibition indicates its practice.
dharma vipratipattāv abhojyam || 12 ||
12. If they act contrary to the law, one must not eat [their leavings].
If by eating their leavings one should commit a sin because they contain salt etc, he shall not do so — Haradatta.
sāyaṃ prātar udakumbham āharet || 13 ||
13. In the evening and the morning one shall fetch water in a vessel [for the use of the teacher]. (Manu 2:182)
The purpose of this is to free the teacher from daily chores so that he can apply himself to teaching the Dharma.
sadā-āraṇyād edhān āhṛtya adho nidadhyāt || 14 ||
14. Daily one shall fetch fuel from the forest and place it on the floor [in the teacher’s house] The reason for placing it on the floor is fear of causing some injury to the children or animals of the teacher, if it fell down from a shelf or the like.
na-astamite astami samid dhāro gacchet || 15 ||
15. One should not go to fetch firewood after sunset.
agnim iddhvā parisamūhya samidha ādadhyāt sāyaṃ prātar yathā upadeśam || 16 ||
16. After having kindled the sacred fire, and having wiped the ground around the altar, one shall place the sacred fuel on the fire every morning and evening, according to the prescription [of the Gṛhya-sūtra].
sāyam eva-agni pūjā-ity eke || 17 ||
17. Some say that the fire is only to be worshipped in the evening. Evening means just before sunset.
samiddham agniṃ pāṇinā parisamūhen na samūhanyā || 18 ||
18. one shall wipe the place around the fire after it has been made to burn [by the addition of fuel], with the hand, and not with the broom [of kuśa grass]. (Ap. Gṛh. Su. 11:22.)
prāk tu yāthākāmī || 19 ||
19. But, before [adding the fuel, one is free to use the broom] at his pleasure.
na-agni udaka śeṣeṇa vṛthā karmāṇi kurvīta -ācāmed vā || 20 ||
20. One shall not perform non-religious acts with the residue of the water
employed for the fire-worship, nor sip it.
During the fire-worship water is used for sprinkling the altar in various ways.
pāṇi saṃkṣubdhena-udakena-eka pāṇi āvarjitena ca na-ācāmet || 21 ||
21. One shall not sip water which has been stirred with the hand, nor such as has been received into one hand only. One should receive holy water in two hands – the right held above the left.
svapnaṃ ca varjayet || 22 ||
22. And one shall avoid sleeping [whilst the teacher is awake].
atha-ahar ahar ācāryaṃ gopāyed dharma artha yuktaiḥ karmabhiḥ || 23 ||
23. Then [after having risen] he shall assist his teacher daily by acts tending to the acquisition of spiritual merit and of wealth.
Acts tending to the acquisition of merit are here — collecting sacred fuel, Kuśa grass, and flowers for worship. Acts tending to the acquisition of wealth are — gathering fuel for cooking, etc. (Manu 2:182)
sa guptvā saṃviśan brūyād dharma gopāyam ājūgupam aham iti || 24 ||
24. Having served [the teacher during the day in this manner, one shall say when going to bed]:—“I have protected the protector of the Dharma” [my teacher].
Another explanation of the words spoken by the student is, “O law, I have protected him; protect thou me.” (See also Gopatha-brāhmaṇa 1.2.4)
pramādād ācāryasya buddhi pūrvaṃ vā niyama atikramaṃ rahasi bodhayet || 25 ||
25. If the teacher transgresses the law through carelessness or knowingly, one shall point it out to him in private.
This is a very interesting guideline — all teachers are also humans who are subjected to the same errors and faults of others. The student should not expect the teacher to be perfect. Vide Taittiriya Upaṇiṣad — convocational address.
anivṛttau svayaṃ karmāṇy ārabheta || 26 ||
26. If [the teacher] does not cease [to transgress], one shall perform those religious acts [which ought to be performed by the teacher];
This refers to the obligatory acts of daily living of which the ācārya has been negligent.
nivartayed vā || 27 ||
27. Or one may return home.
The Sūtra refers to a naiṣṭhika brahmacārin or professed student, who never leaves his teacher’s family, and never enters any other order; and it declares his merit to be
equal to that of one who becomes a householder. (Manu 2:243, 244; Yajñ. 1;49.50) The purpose of living with the teacher is to obtain an education, if this contract is not being fulfilled then the student may leave the ācārya and return home.
atha yaḥ pūrva utthāyī jaghanya saṃveśī tam āhur na svapiti-iti || 28 ||
28. Now of one who rises before [the teacher] and goes to rest later, they say that he does not sleep.
sa ya evaṃ praṇihita ātmā brahmacāry atra-eva-asya sarvāṇi karmāṇi phalavanty avāptāni bhavanti yāny api gṛhamedhe || 29 ||
29. The student who thus entirely fixes the mind there [in the teacher’s family], has thereby performed all acts which yield rewards [such as the Jyotiṣṭoma], and also those which must be performed by a householder.
The student who remains focused and mindful while in the house of the teacher is hereby praised as being completely accomplished.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 2. Khaṇḍa 5.
niyameṣu tapas śabdaḥ || 1 ||
1. The word ‘austerity’ [must be understood to apply] to [the observance of] the rules [of studentship].
The term tapas has many meanings – all of which indicate a ‘generation of internal heat’. It can refer to austere yogic practices, self-discipline and meditation as well as the fulfillment or rules and obligations.
tad atikrame vidyā karma niḥsravati brahma saha-apatyād etasmāt || 2 ||
2. If the rules are transgressed, study drives out the knowledge of the Veda acquired already, from the [offender] and from his children.
The meaning of the phrase, “Study drives out the Veda, which has already been learnt from him who studies transgressing the rules prescribed for the student,” is, “The Veda recited at the Brahma-yajña [daily study], and other religious rites, produces no effect, ie. gains no merit for the reciter.” Manu 3:97. Haradatta gives also the following three explanations of this Sūtra adopted by other commentators:—
a. If these [rules] are transgressed, he loses his capacity for learning, because the Veda forsakes him, etc.
b. If these rules are transgressed, the capacity for learning and the Veda leave him, etc.
c. From him who studies whilst transgressing these rules, the Veda goes out, etc.
garta-patyam anāyuṣyaṃ ca || 3 ||
3. He will fall into a ditch, and his life will be shortened.
By not becoming educated one falls into a metaphoric ditch and becomes ruined through stupidity.
tasmād ṛṣayo- ‘avareṣu na jāyante niyama atikramāt || 4 ||
4. On account of that [transgression of the rules of studentship] no ṛṣis are born amongst the people of later ages.
Amongst the avaras means “amongst the people of modern times, those who live in the Kaliyuga.” “No ṛṣis are born” means there are none who see [receive the revelation of] Mantras i.e. Vedic texts.”— Haradatta.
śruta ṛṣayas tu bhavanti kecit karma phala śeṣeṇa punaḥ saṃbhave || 5 ||
5. But some in their new birth, on account of a residue of the merit acquired by their Karma [in former lives], become [similar to] rṣis by their knowledge [of the Veda],
How is it then that men in our days, though they transgress the rules prescribed for students, learn the four Vedas with little trouble? [The answer is], By virtue of a residue of the reward [due] for the proper observance of those rules [of studentship] in a former Yuga. Therefore Apastamba says, Sūtra 6, — ‘But some,’ etc. New existence means ‘new birth [life].’ — Haradatta.
So according to Apastamba the title “rishi” that may be given is honorific only and does not indicate one who has transcendental cognition.
yathā śvetaketuḥ || 6 ||
6. Like śvetaketu.
An example of this [follows, Sūtra 6]:—’Like śvetaketu. For śvetaketu learned the four Vedas in a short time; as we read in the — Cāṇḍogya Upanishad (Prapāṭhaka 6:1) — Haradatta
yat kiṃ ca samāhito brahma py ācāryād upayuṅkte brahmavad eva tasmin phalaṃ bhavati || 7
7. And whatever else, besides the Veda, [a student] who obeys the rules learns from his teacher, that brings the same reward as the Veda.
Whatever else besides the Veda, such as charms against poison and the like. — Haradatta.
atha-u yat kiñca manasā vācā cakṣuṣā vā saṅkalpan dhyāyaty āha abhi- vipaśyati vā tathā-eva tad bhavati-ity upadiśanti || 8 ||
8. Also, if desirous to accomplish something [be it good or evil], he thinks it in his mind, or pronounces it in words, or looks upon it with his eye, even so it will be; thus teach [those who know the law]. By following the rules of studentship and applying oneself to study and self- development one can become psychic.
guru prasādanīyāni karmāṇi svastyayanam adhyayana saṃvṛttir iti || 9 ||
9. [The duties of a student consist in] acts to please the spiritual teacher, the observance [of rules] conducive to his own welfare, and industry in studying.
‘Acts to please the teacher are — washing his feet and the like; observance [of rules] conducive to welfare are — obedience to the prohibition to cross a river swimming, to eat pungent condiments, and obedience to the injunction to beg.’ — Haradatta.
ato- ‘anyāni nivartante brahmacāriṇaḥ karmāṇi || 10 ||
10. Acts other than these need not be performed by a student. ‘Acts other than these, such as pilgrimages and the like.’ — Haradatta.
svādhyāya dhṛg dharma rucis tapsvy ṛjur mṛduḥ sidhyati brahmacārī || 11 ||
11. A religious student who retains what he has learned, who finds pleasure in the fulfilment of the law, who keeps the rules of studentship, who is upright and forgiving, attains perfection. What this ‘perfection’ is has been declared in Sūtras 7, 8. — Haradatta.
sadā mahāntam apara rātram utthāya guros tiṣṭhan prātar abhivādam abhivādayīta-asāv ahaṃ bho iti || 12 ||
12. Every day he shall rise in the last watch of the night, and standing near his teacher, salute him with [this] salutation:— “I so-and-so [salute thee.]” (Manu 2:121 Yajñ 1:26]
samāna grāme ca vasatām anyeṣām api vṛddhatarāṇāṃ prāk prātar āśāt || 13 ||
13. And [he shall salute in a similar manner] before the morning meal also other very aged [learned Brāhmaṇas] who may live in the same village.
proṣya ca samāgame || 14 ||
14. If he has been on a journey, [he shall salute the persons mentioned] when he meets them on his return.
This formal salutation is to be performed only when the occasion requires it. The formerly mentioned salutation [Sūtras 12, 13] is to be performed daily. In the next Sūtra follows that by which the fulfilment of a wish may be obtained. — Haradatta. Manu 2:121 Yajñ 1:26
svargam āyuś ca-īpsan || 15 ||
15. [He may also salute the persons mentioned at other times], if he is desirous of heaven and long life.
dakṣiṇam bāhuṃ śrotra samaṃ prasārya brāhmaṇo- ‘abhivādayīta-uraḥ
samaṃ rājanyo madhya samaṃ vaiśyo nīcaiḥ śūdraḥ prañjalim || 16 ||
16. A Brāhmaṇa shall salute holding his hands at his ears, a Kshatriya holding them on a level with the breast, a Vaiśya holding them on a level with the waist, a śūdra holding it low, [and] stretching forward the joined hands.
A Vaiśya shall salute stretching forth his arm on a level with his middle, ie. the stomach; others say, on a level with his thigh; the śūdra stretching it forth low, ie. on a level with his feet.’ — Haradatta.
plāvanaṃ ca nāmno- ‘abhivādana pratyabhivādane ca pūrveṣāṃ varṇānām || 17 ||
17. And when returning the salute of [a man belonging] to the first [three] castes, the [last syllable of the] name [of the person addressed] is produced to the length of three moras. (vide Manu 2:125.)
udite tv āditya ācāryeṇa sametya-upasaṅgrahaṇam || 18 ||
18. But when he meets his teacher after sunrise [coming for his lesson], he shall touch [his feet]. (Manu 2:71)
sadā-eva-abhivādanam || 19 ||
19. On all other occasions he shall salute [him in the manner described above].
upasaṃgrāhya ācārya ity eke || 20 ||
20. But some declare that he ought to touch the [feet of his] teacher [at every occasion instead of saluting him].
dakṣiṇena pāṇinā daksiṇaṃ pādam adhastād abhy-adhimṛśya sa kuṣṭhikam upasaṃgṛhṇīyāt || 21
21. Having massaged the teacher’s right foot with the right hand below and above, one takes hold of it and of the ankle.
ubhābhyām eva-ubhāv abhipīḍayata upasaṃgrāhyāv ity eke || 22 ||
22. Some say, that one must press both feet, each with both hands, and hold them. (Manu 2:72)
sarva ahṇaṃ su yukto’adhyayanād anantaro-‘adhyāye || 23 ||
23. One shall be very attentive the whole day long, never allowing the mind to wander from the lesson during the [time devoted to] studying. (Manu 2:19l)
tathā guru karmasu || 24 ||
24. And [at other times one shall be attentive] to the business of the teacher. One should help the teacher in whatever other business he is engaged in.
manasā ca-anadhyāye || 25 ||
25. And during the time for rest [one shall give] his mind [to doubtful passages of the lesson learnt].
āhūta adhyāyī ca syāt || 26 ||
26. And one shall study after having been called by the teacher [and not request the teacher to begin the lesson]. (Yajñ. 1:27; Manu 2:19l.)
Praśna 1. Paṭala 2. Khaṇḍa 6.
sadā niśāyāṃ guruṃ saṃveśayet tasya pādau prakṣālya saṃvāhya || 1 ||
1. Every day he shall put his teacher to bed after having washed his [teacher’s] feet and after having massaged him. (Manu 2:209.)
anujñāta saṃviśet || 2 ||
2. One shall retire to rest after having received [the teacher’s permission]. (Manu 2:194.)
na ca-enam abhiprasārayīta || 3 ||
3. And one shall not stretch out the feet towards him.
na khaṭvāyāṃ sato-‘bhiprasāraṇam asti-ity eke || 4 ||
4. Some say, that it is not [offensive] to stretch out the feet [towards the teacher], if he be lying on a bed.
‘But, in Apastamba’s opinion, it is offensive even in this case.’ — Haradatta.
na ca-asya sakāśe saṃviṣṭo bhāṣet || 5 ||
5. And one shall not address [the teacher], whilst one is in a reclining position. (Manu 2:195.)
abhibhāṣitas tv āsīnaḥ pratibrūyāt || 6 ||
6. But one may answer [the teacher] sitting [if the teacher himself is sitting or lying down]. (Manu 2:196.)
anūtthāya tiṣṭhantam || 7 ||
7. And if [the teacher] stands, [one shall respond] after having risen also.
gacchantam anugacchet anugam || 8 ||
8. One shall walk behind, if he walks.
dhāvantam anudhāvet || 9 ||
9. One shall run after him, if he runs.
na sa upānah veṣṭitaśirā avahita pāṇir avadhā vā-āsīdet || 10 ||
10. One shall not approach [the teacher] with shoes on, or the head covered, or holding [implements].
adhvā-āpannas tu karma yukto vā-āsīdet || 11 ||
11. But on a journey or occupied in work, one may approach him [with shoes on, with his head covered, or holding implements],
na ced upasīdet || 12 ||
12. Provided one does not sit down quite near [to the teacher].
devam iva-ācāryam upāsīta-avikathayann avimanā vācaṃ śuśrūṣamāṇo- ‘sya || 12 ||
13. One shall approach his guru with the same reverence as a deity, without telling idle stories, attentive and listening eagerly to his words.
anupastha kṛtaḥ || 14 ||
14. [He shall not sit near him] with one leg placed on the other.
anuvāti vītaḥ || 15 ||
15. If [on sitting down] the wind blows from the student towards the guru, he shall change his place. (Manu 2:203)
apratiṣṭabdhaḥ pāṇinā || 16 ||
16. [He shall sit] without supporting himself with his hands [on the ground],
anapaśrito- ‘nyatra || 17 ||
17. Without leaning against something [as a wall or the like].
yajñopavītī dvi vastraḥ || 18 ||
18. If the student wears two garments, he shall wear the upper one after the fashion of the sacred thread at the sacrifices. (Manu 2:63, Taitt Aran. 2:1;3.)
At sacrifices the sacred thread passes over the left shoulder and under the right arm. In other words the garment shall be worn to expose the right shoulder.
adho nivītas tv eka vastraḥ || 19 ||
19. But, if one wears a [lower] garment only, one shall wrap it around the lower part of his body.
abhimukho- ‘nabhimukham || 20 ||
20. One shall face the teacher though the latter does not face him. (Manu 2:197.)
anāsanno- ‘natidūre || 21 ||
21. One shall sit neither too near to, nor too far [from the teacher],
yāvad āsīno bāhubhyām prāpnuyāt || 22 ||
22. [But] at such a distance, that [the teacher] may be able to reach him with his arms [without rising].
aprati vātam || 23 ||
23. [He shall not sit in such a position] that the wind blows from the teacher, towards himself.
See Sūtra 15 and Manu quoted there.
eka adhyāyī dakṣiṇaṃ bāhuṃ praty upasīdet || 24 ||
24. [If there is] only one student, one shall sit at the right hand [of the teacher].
The formality is to prostrate when coming into the presence of the ācārya and then sit to his right.
yathā avakāśaṃ bahavaḥ || 25 ||
25. If there are many, [they may sit] as it may be convenient.
tiṣṭhati ca na-āsīta -anāsana yoga vihite || 26 ||
26. If the master [is not honoured with a seat and] stands, the [student] shall not sit down. When accompanying a teacher on a visit, if a seat is not offered to the teacher, the student should not sit down either.
āsīne ca na saṃviśet || 27 ||
27. [If the teacher is not honoured with a couch] and sits down, the [student] shall not lie down on a couch.
ceṣṭati ca cikīrṣan-tac chakti viṣaye || 28 ||
28. And if the teacher tries [to do something], then [the student] shall offer to do it for him, if it is in his power.
na ca-asya sakāśe- ‘nvak sthāninam upasaṃgṛhṇīyāt || 29 ||
29. And, if his teacher is near, one shall not touch [the feet of] another Guru who is inferior [in dignity];
The term Guru includes a father, maternal uncle, etc. [see above], and these are inferior to the teacher. Manu 2:205.
gotreṇa vā kīrtayet || 30 ||
30. Nor shall one praise [such a person in the teacher’s presence] by [pronouncing the name of] his clan (gotra).
na ca-enaṃ praty uttiṣṭhed anūttiṣṭhed vā || 31 ||
31. Nor shall one rise to meet such an [inferior Guru] or rise after him,
api cet tasya guruḥ syāt || 32 ||
32. Even if he be a Guru of his teacher.
‘The student is not to show the mentioned marks of respect to any of his own inferior Gurus, even if the person is the Guru, eg. the maternal uncle, of his teacher. — Haradatta.
deśāt tv āsanāc ca saṃsarpet || 33 ||
33. But he shall leave his place and his seat, [in order to show him respect.]
nāmnā tad antevāsinaṃ gurum apy ātmana ity eke || 34 ||
34. Some say, that [he may address] a student of his teacher by [pronouncing] his name, if he is also one of his [the student’s] own Gurus.
‘But Apastamba’s own opinion is that he ought not to address by name a [maternal uncle or other] Guru [who visits his teacher].’ — Haradatta.
yasmiṃs tv anācārya saṃbandhād gauravaṃ vṛttis tasminn anvak sthānīye- ‘py ācāryasya || 35
35. But towards such a person who is generally revered for some other reason than being the teacher [eg. for his learning], the [student] should behave as towards his teacher, though he be inferior in dignity to the latter.
bhuktvā ca-asya sakāśe na-anūtthāya-ucchiṣṭaṃ prayacchet || 36 ||
36. After having eaten in his [teacher’s] presence, one shall not give away the remainder of the food without rising.
According to 1;1;3;40 seq., a student shall give what he is unable to eat to a child, or to a servant. If one has eaten in the presence of the teacher, one shall not give the food away without rising for the purpose.
ācāmed vā || 37 ||
37. Nor shall one sip water [after having eaten in the presence of his teacher without rising].
kiṃ karavāṇi-ity āmantryauttiṣṭhet tūṣṇīṃ vā || 38 ||
38. [He shall rise] addressing him [with these words], “What shall I do?”
Praśna 1. Paṭala 2. Khaṇḍa 7.
uttiṣṭhet tūṣṇīṃ vā || 1 ||
1. Or one may rise silently.
na-apaparyāvarteta guroḥ pradakṣiṇī-kṛtya-apeyāt || 2 ||
2. Nor shall one [in going away] walk around the teacher with the left hand turned towards him; one shall go away after having walked around him with his right side turned towards him.
One should always circumambulate a venerable and auspicious object in a clockwise direction.
na prekṣeta nagnāṃ striyam || 3 ||
3. One shall not look at a naked woman. (Manu 4:53; Yajñ. 1:135)
oṣadhi vanaspatīnām ācchidya na-upajighret || 4 ||
4. One shall not cut the [leaves or flowers] of herbs or trees, in order to smell them. (Gopatha-brāhmaṇa 1:2.)
upānahau chatraṃ yānam iti ca varjayet || 5 ||
5. One shall avoid [the use of] shoes, of an umbrella, a vehicle, and the like [luxuries]. (Manu 2;178.)
na smayeta || 6 ||
6. One shall not grin.
Especially in an unrestrained manner and with the mouth open in front of the teacher.
yadi smayeta-apigṛhya smayeta-iti hi brāhmaṇam || 7 ||
7. If one smiles, one shall smile covering [the mouth with his hand]; thus says a Vedic text.
na-upajighret striyaṃ mukhena || 8 ||
8. He shall not touch a woman with his face, in order to inhale the fragrance of her body.
na hṛdayena prārthayet || 9 ||
9. Nor shall one desire her in his heart.
na-akāraṇād upaspṛśet || 10 ||
10. Nor shall he touch [a woman at all] without a particular reason. (Manu 2:179)
A proper reason to touch a woman would be when trying to help her, support her, help her up, steady her from falling etc. Or in the case of a health service provider, for diagnostic or therapeautic purposes.
rajasvalo rakta danta satya vādī syād iti hi brāhmaṇam || 11 ||
11. A Vedic text declares, ‘He shall be covered in dust, have dirty teeth, and speak the truth.’
This sūtra affirms that a student should not pay much attention to his physical appearance but should focus on the cultivation of higher qualities — like speaking the truth – it is said that all the virtues rest upon the principal of truth.
yāṃ vidyāṃ kurute gurau te- ‘py asya-ācāryā ye tasyāṃ guror vaṃśyāḥ || 12 ||
12. Those teachers, who instructed his teacher in that branch of learning which he [the student] studies with him, [are to be considered as] spiritual teachers [by the student].
The term vaṃśyaḥ, ‘ancestor,’ for the teacher’s teacher is explained by the circumstance, that Hindus consider a ‘school,’ consisting of a succession of teachers and students, as a spiritual family, and call it a vidyāvaṃśa, vidyā- parampara. (Manu 2:205.)
yān anyān paśyato- ‘asya-upasaṃgṛhṇīyāt tadā tv ete- upasaṃgrāhyāḥ ||13 ||
13. But if [a teacher], in front of his [student], touches the feet of any other persons, then he [the student also] must touch their feet, [as long as he is] in that [state of student-ship].
‘Another [commentator] says, “He, the student, must touch their feet [at every meeting] from that time [when he first saw his teacher do it].” Because the word “but” is used in the Sūtra, he must do so even after he has returned home [on completion of his studies].’ — Haradatta.
guru samavāye bhikṣāyām utpannāyāṃ yam anubaddhas tad adhīnā bhikṣā || 14 ||
14. If [a student] has more than one teacher, the alms [collected by him] are at the disposal of him to whom he is [currently] bound.
‘More than one teacher,’ ie. several, who have taught him the several Vedas. Each Brahmin generally knowing one Veda only. This passage shows, that the young Brahmins in olden time, just as now, went from one teacher to the other, learning from each what he knew. The rules, which seemingly enjoin a student to stay with one and the same teacher, refer only to the principle, that the student must stay with his teacher, until he has learnt the subject which he began with him.
samāvṛtto mātre dadyāt || 15 ||
15. When [a student] has returned home [from his teacher], he shall give [whatever he may be given as alms] to his mother.
Here the sūtra doesn’t refer to food but rather money received as alms or a donation.
mātā bhartāraṃ gamayet || 16 ||
16. The mother shall give it to her husband;
bhartā gurum || 17 ||
17. [And] the husband to the [student’s] teacher.
Dharma-kṛtyeṣu vā-upayojayet || 18 ||
18. Or he may use it for religious ceremonies.
‘Religious ceremonies’, ie. the wedding and the like. For them he may use it optionally. He, ie. on failure of the teacher; the father, on failure of the father; the mother, on failure of all [the student] himself. — Haradatta.
kṛtvā vidyāṃ yāvatīṃ śaknuyād veda dakṣiṇām āhared dharmato yathā śakti || 19 ||
19. After having studied as many [branches of] sacred learning as he can, he shall procure in a righteous manner the fee for [the teaching of] the Veda [to be given to his teacher], according to his power. (Manu 2:245 & 246; Yajñ. 1:51)
The honorarium due to the teacher is paid only once the graduate has started earning.
viṣama gate tv ācārya ugrataḥ śūdrato vā-āharet || 20 ||
20. But, if the teacher has fallen into distress, he (the student) may take [the fee] from an Ugra or from a śūdra.
‘The word Ugra denotes either the offspring of a Vaiśya and of a śūdra woman, or a twice-born man, who perpetrates dreadful deeds.’ — Haradatta.
The Ugra can also refer to a person who is a butcher or hunter by trade, or works in a undharmic profession. Normaly one would not accept anything from such people but in order to assist his teacher he may accept money from him.
sarvadā śūdrata ugrato vā-ācārya arthasya-āharaṇaṃ dhārmyam ity eke || 21 || (dharmyam )
21. But some declare, that it is lawful at any time to take the money for the teacher from an Ugra or from a śūdra.
datvā ca na-anukathayet || 22 ||
22. And having paid [the fee], one shall not boast of having done so.
kṛtvā ca na-anusmaret || 23 ||
23. And one shall not remember what one may have done [for the teacher].
ātma praśaṃsāṃ para garhām iti ca varjayet || 24 ||
24. One shall avoid self-praise, blaming others, and the like. (Manu 2:179)
preṣitas tad eva pratipadyeta || 25 ||
25. If one is ordered [by the teacher to do so something], one shall do just that.
śāstuś ca-anāgamād vṛttir anyatra || 26 ||
26. On account of incompetence, [one may go] to another teacher [and] study [there].
See above, 1:1:1:13, and note. The purpose of the connection with the teacher is education, if the teacher is incompetant then he should be abandoned.
Here also Haradatta states that the permission to leave the teacher is to be restricted to those who have not solemnly bound themselves to their teacher by undergoing the ceremony of initiation.
anyatra-upasaṃgrahaṇād ucchiṣṭa aśanāc ca-ācāryavad ācārya dāre vṛttiḥ || 27 ||
27. One shall behave towards his teacher’s wife as towards the teacher himself, but shall not touch her feet, nor eat the residue of her food. (Manu 2:208 -212)
tathā samādiṣṭe ‘dhyāpayati || 28 ||
28. So also [shall he behave] towards one who teaches him at [the teacher’s] command,
‘The use of the present tense – “adhyāpayati,” shows that this rule holds good only for the time during which he is taught by such a person.’ — Haradatta.
vṛddhatare ca sa brahmacāriṇi || 29 ||
29. And also to a fellow-student who is superior [in learning and years].
Because [an older fellow-student] is of use to him, according to the verse:—One- fourth [of his learning] a student receives from his teacher, one-fourth he acquires by his own intelligence, one-fourth from his fellow-students, one-fourth he is taught by time. — Haradatta.
ucchiṣṭa aśana varjam ācāryavad ācārya-putre vṛttiḥ || 30 ||
30. He shall behave to his teacher’s son [who is superior to himself in learning or years] as to his teacher, but not eat the residue of his food. (Manu 2:207-209.)
samāvṛttasya-apy etad eva sāmayācārikam || 31 ||
31. Though he may have returned home, the conduct towards his [teacher and the rest] which is prescribed by the rules of conduct settled by the agreement [of those who know the law, must be observed by him to the end].
Praśna 1. Paṭala 2. Khaṇḍa 8.
yathā brahmacāriṇo vṛttam || 1 ||
1. Just as by a student [actually living with his teacher].
Haradatta does not connect this Sūtra with the preceding one. He explains it by itself:—'[We will now declare] how a student [who has left his teacher, but is not married] ought to behave.’
mālya ālipta mukha upalipta keśa śmaśrur upalip akto- ‘bhyakto veṣṭity upaveṣṭitī kāñcuky upānahī pādukī || 2 ||
2. He may wear garlands, anoint his face [with sandal-paste], oil his hair and moustaches, smear his eyelids [with collyrium], and [his body] with oil, wear a turban, a cloth round his loins, a shawl, sandals, and wooden shoes.
udācāreṣu ca-asya-etāni na kuryāt kārayed vā || 3 ||
3. Within the sight of his [teacher or teacher’s relations] he shall do none of those [actions, as putting on a garland], nor cause them to be done.
svairi karmasu ca || 4 ||
4. Nor [shall he wear garlands etc. whilst performing] acts for his own pleasure.
yathā danta prakṣālana utsādana avalekhanāni-iti || 5 ||
5. As, for instance, cleaning his teeth, massaging himself, combing the hair, and the like.
tad dravyāṇāṃ ca na kathayed ātma saṃyogena-ācāryaḥ || 6 ||
6. And the teacher shall not mention the possessions of the [student] with the intention to obtain them.
‘If the teacher comes to the house of his [former] student [who has become a householder], he shall, for instance, not say, “Oh, what a beautiful dish!” in such a manner; that his desire to obtain it becomes apparent.’ — Haradatta.
snātas tu kāle yathāvidhy abhihṛtam āhūto- ‘bhyeto vā na pratisaṃhared ity eke || 7 ||
7. But some declare, that, if a student who has bathed [after completing his studies] is called by his teacher or has gone to see him, he shall not take off that [garland or other ornaments] which he wears according to the law at the time [of that ceremony].
This opinion is contrary to Apastamba’s view given in Sūtras 2 and 3 above.
uccaistarāṃ na-āsīta || 8 ||
8. He shall not sit on a seat higher [than that of his teacher].
tathā bahu pāde || 9 ||
9. Nor on a seat that has more legs [than that of his teacher].
sarvataḥ pratiṣṭhite || 10 ||
10. Nor on a seat that stands more firmly fixed [on the ground than that of his teacher].
‘When he gives to his teacher a wooden seat [with legs], he shall not sit on a cane- seat [without legs], for the latter touches the ground on all sides.’ — Haradatta.
śayyā āsane ca-ācarite na-āviśe || 11 ||
11. Nor shall one sit or lie on a couch or seat which is used [by the teacher]. (Manu 2:119.)
yānam ukto- ‘dhvany anvārohet || 12 ||
12. If he is ordered [by his teacher], he shall on a journey ascend a carriage after him.
This rule is an exception to 1. 2. 7, 5. Manu 2:204.
sabhā nikaṣa kaṭa svastarāṃś ca || 13 ||
13. [At his teacher’s command] he shall also enter an assembly, ascend a roller [which his teacher drags along], sit on a mat of fragrant grass or a couch of straw [together with his teacher].
‘The roller is an implement used by farmers, with which the ploughed land is made
even. If one person ascends it and another drags it along, the ground becomes even. If that is dragged by the teacher, the student shall ascend it at his command. He shall not disobey from fear of the unseemliness of the action.’ — Haradatta.
na-anabhibhāṣito gurum abhibhāṣeta priyād anyat || 14 ||
14. If not addressed by a Guru, he shall not speak to him, except [in order to announce] good news.
vyupatoda vyupajāva vyabhihāsa udāmantraṇa nāmadheya grahaṇa preṣaṇāni-iti guror varjayet || 15 ||
15. He shall avoid touching a Guru [with his finger], whispering [into his ear], laughing [into his face], calling out to him, pronouncing his first name or giving him orders and the like [acts].
(Manu 2:199.) regarding the term Guru, see above, 1. 2. 6, 29.
āpady arthaṃ jñāpayet || 16 ||
16. In time of need he may attract attention [by any of these acts].
saha vasan sāyaṃ prātar anāhūto guruṃ darśana artho gacchet || 17 ||
17. If [a student] resides [in the same village as his teacher after the completion of his studies], he shall go to see him every morning and evening, without being called.
This and the following Sūtras refer to a person who has finished his studentship, while the preceding ones, from Sūtra 8, apply to the time of studentship also.
viproṣya ca tad ahar eva paśyet || 18 ||
18. And if he returns from a journey, he shall [go to] see him on the same day.
ācārya prācārya saṃnipāte prācāryāya-upasaṃgṛhya-upasaṃjighṛkṣed || 19 ||
19. If his teacher and his teacher’s teacher meet, he shall touch the feet of his teacher’s teacher, and then show his desire to do the same to his teacher.
desācāryam, pratiṣedhed itaraḥ || 20 ||
20. The other [the teacher] shall [then] forbid it.
lupyate pūjā ca-asya sakāśe || 21 ||
21. And [other marks of] respect [due to the teacher] are omitted in the presence of the [teacher’s teacher].
If one is in the presence of both his guru and his guru’s guru (parama-guru) then all the protocol of respect should be paid to the parama-guru and not to the guru. Out of courteousy one may “attempt’ to do the same to his own guru but the guru should restrain him.
muhūṃś ca-ācārya kulaṃ darśana artho gacched yathāśakty adhihastyam ādāya-api danta prakṣālanāni-iti || 22 ||
22. And [if he does not live in the same village], he shall go frequently to his teacher’s residence, in order to see him, and bring him some [present], with his own hand, be it even only a stick for cleaning the teeth. Thus [the duties of a student have been explained].
tasmin guror vṛttiḥ || 23 ||
23. [Now] the conduct of a teacher towards his student [will be explained].
putram iva-enam anukāṅkṣan sarva dharmeṣv anapacchādayamānaḥ su- yukto vidyāṃ grāhayet || 24 ||
24. Loving him like his own son, and being attentive, he shall teach him the sacred science, without hiding anything in the whole law.
na ca-enam adhyayana vighnena-ātma artheṣu-uparundhyād anāpatsu || 25 ||
25. And he shall not employ him for his own purposes to the detriment of his studies, except in times of distress.
antevāsy anantevāsī bhavati vinihita ātmā gurāv anaipuṇam āpadyamānaḥ || 26 ||
26. That student who, attending to two [teachers], accuses his [principal and first] teacher of ignorance, remains no [longer] a student.
Another commentator says, “That student who offends his teacher in word, thought, or deed, and directs his mind improperly, ie. does not properly obey, no longer should remain a student.” — Haradatta.
ācāryo- ‘apy anācāryo bhavati śrutāt pariharamāṇaḥ || 27 ||
27. A teacher also, who neglects the instruction [of the student], no [longer] remains a teacher.
aparādheṣu ca-enaṃ satatam upālabheta || 28 ||
28. If the [student] errs, [the teacher] shall always reprove him.
abhitrāsa upavāsa udaka upasparśanam adarśanam iti daṇḍā yathāmātram ā nivṛtteḥ || 29 ||
29. Threatening, fasting, bathing in [cold] water, and banishment from the teacher’s presence are the punishments [which are to be employed], according to the greatness [of the fault], until [the student] stops [offending].
The first sanction should be threatening, if this doesn’t work then the student should be made to fast or bathe in cold water, or if the student is still not corrected then he should be banished from the class for a certain time. [See also Manu 8:299, where corporal punishment is permitted but apparently Āpastamba doesn’t approve of it.]
nivṛttaṃ carita brahmacaryam anyebhyo dharmebhyo- ‘nantaro bhava-ity atisṛjet || 30 ||
30. He shall dismiss [the student], after he has performed the ceremony of the Samāvartana (graduation ceremony) and has finished his studentship, with these words, ‘Apply thyself henceforth to other duties.’
Praśna 1. Paṭala 3. Khaṇḍa 9.
Rules for Vedic Study
śrāvaṇyāṃ paurṇamāsyām adhyāyam upākṛtya māsaṃ pradoṣe na- adhīyīta || 1 ||
1. After having performed the Upākarma for studying the Veda on the full moon of the month Śrāvana [July-August], he shall for one month not study in the evening.
The Upakarma is the ceremony which is performed every year at the beginning of the course of study. It is in fact the solemn opening of the Brahmanic term. Because Apastamba uses the word evening [ie. first part of the night] it is not a fault to study later in the night. — Haradatta. Manu 4:95; Yajñ 1:42. 143;
taiṣyāṃ paurṇamāsyāṃ rohiṇyāṃ vā viramet || 2 ||
2. On the full moon of the month of Pauṣa [December-January], or under the constellation Rohini, one shall leave off studying the Veda.
The term lasts therefore for five months; [ie. latter half of Śrāvana, Bhādrapada, Aśvina, Kārttika, Mārgaśirṣa, and the first half of Pauṣa.] The Rohini day of Pauṣa is meant.
ardhapañcamāṃś caturo māsān ity eke || 3 ||
3. Some declare, [that he shall study] for four months and a half.
According to this latter opinion the Upakarma should be performed on the full moon of Bhādrapada, as has been taught in another work (Manu 4:95): the [time of the] Utsarjana, [the solemn closing of the term] should be advanced; and after the Utsarjana has been performed, one may study the Veda during the bright nights of each month until the full moon of Śrāvana, in order to fix in one’s mind the part learned already and in the dark fortnight of each month one may study the Vedāṅgas, ie. grammar and the rest (Manu 4:98). On the full moon of Śrāvana the
Upakarma should be performed once more, and that part of the Veda should be studied which has not yet been learned. — Haradatta.
nigameṣv adhyayanaṃ varjayet || 4 ||
4. He shall avoid studying the Veda on a high-road. Nigamaḥ, ‘high-roads,’ are squares and the like. — Haradatta.
ānaḍuhena vā śakṛt piṇḍena-upalipte-‘dhīyīta || 5 ||
5. Or he may study it [on a high-road], after having smeared [a space] with cow-dung.
śmaśāne sarvataḥ śamyā prāsāt || 6 ||
6. He shall never study in a cremation-ground nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samya.
The Samya is either the pin in the bullock’s yoke or the round stick, about a foot and a half in length, which is used for the preparation of the Vedi, (Manu 4:116; Yajñ. 1:148.)
grāmeṇa-adhyavasite kṣetreṇa vā na-anadhyāyaḥ || 7 ||
7. If a village has been built over [a cremation-round] or its surface has been cultivated as a field, the recitation of the Veda [in such a place] is not prohibited.
If one has not been informed that it used to be a cremation-ground.
jñāyamāne tu tasminn eva deśe na-adhīyīta || 8 ||
8. But if that place is known to have been [a cremation-ground], he shall not study [there]
‘Nor anywhere near it within the. throw of a Samya.’ This must be understood from Sūtra 6.
śmaśānavac-śūdra patitau || 9 ||
9. A śūdra and an outcast are [included by the term] burial-ground, [and the rule given, Sūtra 6, applies to them]. (Yajñ. 1:148.)
samāna agāra ity eke || 10 ||
10. Some declare, that [one ought to avoid only, to study] in the same house [where they dwell].
śūdrāyāṃ tu prekṣaṇa pratiprekṣaṇayor eva-anadhyāyaḥ || 11 ||
11. But if [a student and] a śūdra woman merely look at each other, the recitation of the Veda must be interrupted,
tathā-anyasyāṃ striyāṃ varṇa vyatikrāntāyāṃ maithune || 12 ||
12. Likewise, if [a student and] a woman, who has had sex with a man of a lower caste, [look at each other].
Brahma adhyeṣyamāṇo malavad vāsasā-icchan saṃbhāṣituṃ brāhmaṇena saṃbhāṣya tayā saṃbhāṣeta | saṃbhāṣya tu brāhmaṇena-eva saṃbhāṣya- adhīyīta | evaṃ tasyāḥ prajā niḥśreyasam || 13 ||
13. If he, who is about to study the Veda, wishes to talk to a menstruating woman, he shall first speak to a Brāhmaṇa and then to her, then again speak to a Brāhmaṇa, and afterwards study. Thereby the children [of that woman] will be blessed.
The last part of the Sūtra may also be interpreted: ‘Thus she will be blessed with children.’ — Haradatta.
antaḥ śavam || 14 ||
14. [He shall not study in a village] in which a corpse lies; (Manu 4:108; Yajñ. 1:148.)
antaś cāṇḍālam || 15 ||
15. Nor where caṇḍālas5 live.
abhinirhṛtānāṃ tu sīmny anadhyāyaḥ || 16 ||
16. He shall not study whilst corpses are being carried to the boundary of the village.
saṃdarśane ca-araṇye || 17 ||
17. Nor in a forest, if [a corpse or caṇḍāla] is within sight.
tad ahar āgateṣu ca grāmaṃ bāhyeṣu || 18 ||
18. And if outcasts have entered the village, he shall not study on that day. Haradatta explains Bāhya, ‘outcasts,’ by ‘robbers, such as Ugras and Niśādas.’
api satsu || 19 ||
19. Nor if worthy men [have come]. (Yajñ. 1:150)
‘Worthy men” are notable personages that should be received and treated with honour.
saṃdhāvanu stanite rātrim || 20 ||
20. If it thunders in the evening, [he shall not study] during the night. (Manu 4:106; Yajñ. 1:145.)
5 The only caste that is said by the most ancient Dharma sūtras to be untouchable by birth is that of caṇḍālas and the word caṇḍāla has a technical meaning in these works as stated above (p.81) under caṇḍāla. Gaut. (IV.15 and 23) says that the caṇḍāla is the offspring of a śūdra from a brāhmaṇa woman and that he is the most reprehensible among the pratilomas.
This rule refers to the rainy season. [For thunder] at other [seasons] he orders below a longer [cessation]. — Haradatta.
svapna paryāntaṃ vidyuti || 21 ||
21. If lightning is seen [in the evening, he shall not study during that night], until he has slept.
upavyuṣaṃ yāvatā vā kṛṣṇāṃ rohiṇīm iti śamyā prāsād vijānīyād etasmin kale vidyotamāne sa pradoṣam ahar anadhyāyaḥ || 22 ||
22. If lightning is seen about the break of dawn, or at the time when he may distinguish at the distance of a Samya-throw, whether [a cow] is black or red, he shall not study during that day, nor in the following evening.
dahre- ‘para-rātre stanayitnunā || 23 ||
23. If it thunders in the second part of the third watch of the night, [he shall not study during the following day or evening].
ūrdhvam ardharātrād ity eke || 24 ||
24. Some [declare, that this rule holds good, if it thunders], after the first half of the night has passed.
gavāṃ ca-avarodhe || 25 ||
25. [Nor shall he study] whilst the cows are prevented from leaving [the village on account of thieves or predators].
vadhyānāṃ ca yāvatā hanyante || 26 ||
26. Nor whilst they [criminals] are being executed.
pṛṣṭha ārūḍhaḥ paśūnāṃ na-adhīyīta || 27 ||
27. He shall not study whilst he rides on beasts [of burden]. (Manu 4:20; Yajñ. 1:151)
ahorātrāv amāvāsyāsu || 28 ||
28. At the new moon, [he shall not study] for two days and two nights. (Manu 4:113; Yajñ. 1:146.)
“For two days,” ie. on the day of the new moon and the preceding one, the fourteenth of the half month.’ — Haradatta.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 3, Khaṇḍa 10.
cāturmāsīṣu ca || 1 ||
1. [Nor shall he study] on the days of the full moons of those months in which the cāturmāsya sacrifice may be performed [nor on the days preceding them].
The three full-moon days are Phālguṇi [February-March], Aśāḍhi [June-July], Kārttika [October-November].
Cāturmāsya is the period of the rainy season lasting for 4 months.
vairamaṇo guruṣv aṣṭākya aupākaraṇa iti try ahāḥ || 2 ||
2. At the time of the Vedotsarga, on the death of Gurus, at the Aṣṭaka- śrāddha, and at the time of the Upākarma, [he shall not study] for three days;
The construction is very irregular, the first noun standing in the nominative and the rest in the locative A similar irregularity occurs below, 1:3:11:31. The Vedotsarga is the ceremony which is performed at the end of the Brahmanic term, in January. ‘In the case of the death of a Guru, the vacation begins with the day on which the death occurs. On the other occasions mentioned he shall not study on the day preceding [the ceremony], on the day [of the ceremony], nor on the day following it.’ — Haradatta. (Manu 4:119; Yajñ. 1:144.) ‘The Gurus’ intended here, are fathers- in-law, uncles, etc.
tathā saṃbandheṣu jñātiṣu || 3 ||
3. Likewise if near relations have died.
‘This rule applies to a student only. It is known from another work that those who have been tainted by impurity [on the death of a relation], must not study whilst the impurity lasts.’ — Haradatta. Yajñ. 1. 144.
mātari pitary ācārya iti dvādaśa ahāḥ || 4 ||
4. [He shall not study] for twelve days, if his mother, father, or teacher have died.
teṣu ca-udaka upasparśanaṃ tāvantaṃ kālam || 5 ||
5. If these [have died], he must [also] bathe for the same number of days.
anubhāvināṃ ca parivāpanam || 6 ||
6. Persons who are younger [than the relation deceased], must shave [their hair and beard].
The word anubhāvinaḥ, is interpreted by Haradatta as ‘persons who are younger than the deceased.’
na samāvṛttā vaperann anyatra vihārād ity eke || 7 ||
7. Some declare, that post-graduate students who have returned home shall never shave, except if engaged in the initiation to a śrauta sacrifice.
Regarding the Diksha ‘initiation,’ see Aitareya Brāhmana 1:1
atha-api brāhmaṇam, rikto vā eṣo- ‘napihito yan muṇḍas tasya-etad apidhānaṃ yac-śikhā-iti || 8 ||
8. Now a Brāhmaṇa also declares, ‘Verily, an empty, uncovered [pot] is he, whose hair is shaved off entirely; the śikha [topknot] is his covering’
Hence it follows that the top-knot should not be shaved off, except in the case mentioned in the following Sūtra.
satreṣu tu vacanād vapanaṃ śikhāyāḥ || 9 ||
9. But at sacrificial sessions the topknot (śikhā) must be shaved off, because it is so enjoined in the Veda.
Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions,’ are sacrifices which last longer than twelve days.
ācārye trīn ahorātrān ity eke || 10 ||
10. Some declare, that, upon the death of the teacher, [the reading should be interrupted] for three days and three nights.
But in his opinion it should be twelve days, as declared above, Sūtra 4. — Haradatta. It appears, therefore, that this Sūtra is to be connected with Sūtra 4.
śrotriya saṃsthāyām aparisaṃvatsarāyām ekām || 11 ||
11. If [he hears of] the death of a learned Brāhmaṇa [śrotriya] before a, full year [since the death] has elapsed, [he shall interrupt his study] for one night [and day].
Because the word “death” is used here, death only is the reason [for stopping the study], in the case of Gurus and the rest [ie. the word ‘died’ must be understood in Sūtra 2 and the following ones — Haradatta
sa brahmacāriṇi-ity eke || 12 ||
12. Some declare, [that the deceased śrotriya must have been] a fellow- student.
śrotriya abhyāgame- ‘dhijigāṃsamāno- ‘dhīyāno vā- anujñāpya- adhīyīta || 13 ||
13. If a learned Brāhmaṇa [śrotriya] has arrived and he is desirous of studying or is actually studying, [or if he is desirous of teaching or is teaching,] he may study,
adhyāpayed vā || 14 ||
or teach after having received permission [to do so from the śrotriya].
guru saṃnidhau ca- adhīhi bho ity uktvā adhīyīta || 15 ||
15. He may likewise study or teach in the presence of his teacher, if [the latter] has addressed him [saying], ‘Ho, study!’ (Manu 2:73)
adhyāpayed vā || 16 ||
16. or, ‘Ho, teach’ !
ubhayata upasaṃgrahaṇam adhijigāṃsamānasya-adhītya ca || 17 ||
17. When a student desires to study or has finished his lesson, he shall at both occasions touch the feet of his teacher. (Manu 2:73)
adhīyāneṣu vā yatra-anyo vyaveyād etam eva śabdam utsṛjya-adhīyīta || 18 ||
18. Or if, whilst they study, another person comes in, he shall continue his recitation, after those words [‘Ho, study!’] have been pronounced [by the newcomer].
Haradatta states that the plural [‘they study’] is useless, the use of the verb in the singular may be excused thereby, that the advice is addressed to each of the persons engaged in study. (Manu 4:122.)
śva gardabha nādāḥ salāvṛky ekaśṛka ulūka śabdāḥ sarve vāditra śabdā rodana gīta sāma śabdāś ca || 19 ||
19. The barking of [many] dogs, the braying of [many] donkeys, the cry of a wolf or of a solitary jackal or of an owl, all sounds of musical instruments, of weeping, and of the Sāmān melodies [are reasons for discontinuing the study of the Veda].
The ekaśrika, ‘solitary jackal,’ is now called Balu or Pheough, and is considered to be the constant companion of a tiger or panther. Its unharmonious cry is, in the present day also, considered to be an evil omen. (Yajñ. 1. 148; Manu 4:108, 115 & 123)
śākhāntare ca sāmnām anadhyāyaḥ || 20 ||
20. If another branch of the Veda [is being recited in the neighbourhood], the Sāmān melodies shall not be studied.
sarveṣu ca śabda karmasu yatra saṃsṛjyeran || 21 ||
21. And whilst other noises [are being heard, the recitation of the Veda shall be discontinued], if they mix [with the voice of the person studying].
chardayitvā svapna antam || 22 ||
22. After having vomited [he shall not study] until he has slept. (Manu 4:121)
Obviously eating food begged from many strange houses had a frequently deleterious
effect upon the poor students!
sarpir vā prāśya || 23 ||
23. Or [he may study] having eaten clarified butter [after the attack of vomiting].
pūtī gandhaḥ || 24 ||
24. A foul smell [is a reason for the discontinuance of study]. (Manu 4:107; Yajñ. 1:150)
śuktaṃ ca- ātma saṃyuktam || 25 ||
25. Heartburn or indigestion, [is a reason for the discontinuance of the recitation, until the heart-burn ceases]. (Manu 4:121)
pradoṣe ca bhuktvā || 26 ||
26 [Nor shall one study] after having eaten in the evening, ‘Therefore he shall dine only after having finished his study.’ — Haradatta.
prodakayoś ca pāṇyoḥ || 27 ||
27. Nor as long as his hands are wet. (Manu 4:121; Yajñ. 1:149.)
preta saṃklṛptaṃ ca-annaṃ bhuktvā sa pradoṣam ahar anadhyāyaḥ || 28 ||
28. [And one shall discontinue studying] for a day and an evening, after having eaten food prepared in honour of a dead person [for whom the Sapiṇḍi-karaṇa has not yet been performed], (Manu 4:112; Yajñ. 1.146)
ā ca vipākāt || 29 ||
29. Or until the food [eaten on that occasion] is digested.
‘If that food has not been digested by the end of that time [ie. in the evening], he shall not study until it has been digested.’ — Haradatta.
aśrāddhena tu paryavadadhyāt || 30 ||
30. But he shall [always] eat in addition [to the meal given in honour of a dead person], food which has not been given at a sacrifice to the Manes.
Because in this Sūtra the expression “food not given at a śrāddha” occurs, some think that the preceding Sūtra refer to “food eaten at a śrāddha.” — Haradatta.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 3. Khaṇḍa 11.
kāṇḍa upākaraṇe ca-amātṛkasya || 1 ||
1. [The recitation of the Veda shall be interrupted for a day and evening if he has eaten], on beginning a fresh Kāṇḍa [of his Veda], food given by a motherless person,
The Black Yajur Veda, to which Apastamba belongs, is divided throughout into books called Kāṇḍas.
kāṇḍasamāpane ca-apitṛkasya || 2 ||
2. And also if he has eaten, on the day of the completion of a Kāṇḍa, food given by a fatherless person.
manuṣya prakṛtīnāṃ ca devānāṃ yajñe bhuktvā-ity eke || 3 ||
3. Some declare, that [the recitation shall be interrupted for the same period of time], if one has eaten at a sacrifice offered in honour of gods who were formerly human.
Haradatta names as such gods, Nandīśvara and Kubera. Other commentators, however, explain manuṣya-Prakṛti by manuṣya-mukha, ‘possessing human faces.’ A similar rule occurs Gautama 16. 34, where a Manuṣya-yajña is mentioned as a cause for discontinuing the recitation of the Veda. In his commentary on Gautama, also, Haradatta is in doubt. He first refers the term to the sacraments like the Sīmantonnayana, and then adds, that some explain it to mean ‘a sacrifice to gods who formerly were men’, but since such gods are few and sacrifices to then even rarer it makes more sense to interpret it as referring to ceremonies which are of a purely human interest such as saraments.
paryuṣitais taṇḍulair āma māṃsena ca na-anadhyāyāḥ || 4 ||
4. Nor is the recitation interrupted, if he has eaten rice received the day before, or raw meat [though these things may have been offered in honour of the dead],
This Sūtra is an exception to 1:3:10:28
tathā-oṣadhi vanaspati mūla phalaiḥ || 5 ||
5. Nor [if he has eaten at a funeral dinner] roots or fruits of herbs and trees.
yat kāṇḍam upākurvīta yasya ca-anuvākyaṃ kurvīta na tat tad ahar adhīyīta || 6 ||
6. When he performs the ceremony for beginning a Kāṇḍa, or when he studies the index of the Anuvākas of a [Kāṇḍa], he shall not study that [Kāṇḍa] on that day [nor in that night].
Haradatta’s commentary on this Sūtra is very meagre and he leaves the word anuvākyam unexplained. I am not certain that my explanation is correct. But it is countenanced by the statements of the Gṛhya sūtras regarding the order of studying.
upākaraṇa samāpanayoś ca pārāyaṇasya tāṃ vidyām || 7 ||
7. And if he performs the ceremonies prescribed on beginning or ending the recitation of one entire Veda, he shall not study that Veda [during that day].
Yajñ. 1. 145. This Sūtra is a jñāpaka or ‘such a one which indicates the existence of a rule not expressly mentioned.’ Above [1:3:9:1] the yearly performance of the Upakarma and Utsarga ceremonies for the beginning and end of the Brahmanic term has been prescribed, In this Sūtra the performance of the Upakarma and Utsarga at the beginning and completion of the Parāyana or the vow to go through a whole Veda is incidentally mentioned. Thence it may be inferred that these ceremonies must be likewise performed on the latter occasions, though no absolute rule to this effect has been given, Such jñāpakas are of frequent occurrence in all Sūtras, and constitute one of the chief difficulties of their interpretation.
vāyur ghoṣavān bhūmau vā tṛṇa saṃvāho varṣati vā yatra dhārāḥ pravahet || 8 ||
8. If the wind roars, or if it whirls up the grass on the ground, or if it drives the rain-drops forward during a rain-shower, [then the recitation shall be interrupted for so long a time as the storm lasts]. (Yajñ. 1:149; Manu 4:102. 122.)
grāma āraṇyayoś ca sandhau || 9 ||
9. [Nor shall he study] on the boundary between a village and forest,
mahāpathe ca || 10 ||
10. Nor on a highway.
viproṣya ca samadhyayanaṃ tad ahaḥ || 11 ||
11. If [some of his] fellow-students are on a journey, he shall not study during that day, [the passage] which they learn together.
Others explain the Sūtra thus; “If he meets fellow-students after they have come home from a journey, he shall not study with them on that day.”
svairi karmasu ca || 12 ||
12. And whilst performing recreational acts.
yathā pāda-prakṣālana utsādanā anulepanāṇi-iti || 13 ||
13. Such as washing his feet, massaging or anointing himself,
tāvantaṃ kālaṃ na- adhīyīta – adhyāpayed vā || 14 ||
14. He shall neither study nor teach, as long as he is thus occupied.
sandhyoḥ || 15 ||
15. [He shall not study or teach] in the twilight, (Yajñ. 1:145; Manu 4:113)
tathā vṛkṣam ārūḍhaḥ || 16 ||
16. Nor whilst sitting on a tree, (Yajñ. 1.151; Manu 4:120.)
apsu ca- avagāḍhaḥ || 17 ||
17. Nor whilst immersed in water,
naktaṃ ca- apāvṛte || 18 ||
18. Nor at night with open doors,
divā ca- apihite || 19 ||
19. Nor in the day-time with shut doors.
avihitam anuvāka adhyayanam āṣāḍha vāsantikayoḥ || 20 ||
20. During the spring festival and the festival [of Indra], in the month of Aṣāḍha [June-July], the study of an Anuvāka is forbidden.
According to Haradatta, Apastamba uses the word Anuvāka in order to indicate that smaller portions of the Veda may be studied. Others think, that by Anuvāka, the Samhita and the Brāhmaṇa are meant, and that the study of the Aṅgas is permitted. The Vasantotsava, or spring-festival, which, according to the Dramas, was, in olden times, kept all over India, falls, according to Haradatta, on the 13th of the first half of Caitra, about the beginning of April.
nitya praśnasya ca-avidhinā || 21 ||
21. [The recitation] of the daily portion of the Veda [at the Brahma-yajña is likewise forbidden if done] in a manner differing from the rule [of the Veda].
Hence, if one has forgotten it and eaten one’s breakfast, a penance, not the Brahma- yajña, must be performed. — Haradatta.
tasya vidhiḥ || 22 ||
22. [Now follows] the rule [for the daily recitation] of that [Brahma-yajña].
akṛta prātarāśa udaka antaṃ gatvā prayataḥ śucau deśe- ‘dhīyīta yathā adhyāyam utsṛjan vācā || 23 ||
23. Before taking his morning-meal, he shall go to the water-side, and having purified himself, he shall recite aloud [a portion of the Veda] in a pure place, leaving out according to [the order of the] texts [what he has read the day before].
See Taittiriya Araṇyaka 2:2:1 and 2; Aśv. Gri. Sūtra. 3:2:12. In our days this rule is usually not observed. Brāhmaṇas mostly recite at the daily Brahma-yajña, a ‘Veda-offering,’ the first verse, which symbolically comprises the whole Veda. A few learned Brahmans, still recite the whole of their śākha every year according to this rule of Apastamba.
manasā ca-anadhyāye || 24 ||
24. If a break in study is enjoined [for the day, he shall recite the daily portion] mentally.
vidyuti ca-abhyagrāyāṃ stanayitnāv aprāyatye preta anne nīhāre ca mānasaṃ paricakṣate || 25 ||
25. If lightning flashes continuously, or, thunder rolls continually, if a man has neglected to purify himself, if he has partaken of a meal in honour of a dead person, or if frost lies on the ground, [in these cases] they forbid the mental recitation [of the daily portion of the Veda]. (Yajñ. 1:149; Manu 4:106, 120, 127; Taitt. Ar. 2:15:1)
śrāddha bhojana eva-eke || 26 ||
26. Some forbid it only in case one has eaten a funeral meal. (Manu 4:109, 116.)
vidyut stanayitnur vṛṣṭiś ca-apartau yatra saṃnipateyus tryaham anadhyāyaḥ || 27 ||
27. Where lightning, thunder, and rain happen together out of season, the recitation shall be interrupted for three days. (Manu 4, 103 and 104.)
yāvad bhūmir vyudakā-ity eke || 28 ||
28. Some [declare, that the recitation shall stop] until the ground is dry.
ekena dvābhyāṃ vā-eteṣām ā kālam || 29 ||
29. If one or two [of the phenomena mentioned in Sūtra 27 appear, the recitation shall be interrupted] from that hour until the same hour next day.
sūryā candramasor grahaṇe bhūmi cale- ‘pasvāna ulkāyām agnyutpāte ca sarvāsāṃ vidyānāṃ sārva kālikam ā kālam || 30 ||
30. In the case of an eclipse of the sun or of the moon, of an earthquake, of a whirlwind, of the fall of a meteor, or of a fire [in the village], at whatever time these events happen, the recitation of all the sacred sciences [Vedas and Aṅgas] must be interrupted from that hour until the same hour next day. (Yajñ. 1:145; Manu 4, 105, 118.)
abhraṃ ca-apartau sūryā candramasoḥ pariveṣa indradhanuḥ pratisūrya matsyaś ca vāte pūtī gandhenīhāre ca sarveṣv eteṣu tāvantaṃ kālam || 31 ||
31. If a cloud appears out of season, if the sun or the moon is surrounded by a halo, if a rainbow, a parhelion or a comet appears, if a [high] wind [blows], a foul smell [is observed], or frost [lies on the ground, at all these occasions [the recitation of all the sacred sciences must be interrupted during the duration [of these phenomena]. (Manu 4, 104 and see above.)
muhūrtaṃ virate vāte || 32 ||
32. After the wind has ceased, [the interruption of the recitation continues] for one muhurta (48 minutes).
salāvṛkyām ekasṛka iti svapna paryāntam || 33 ||
33. If [the howl of] a wolf or of a solitary jackal [has been heard, he shall stop the reading] until he has slept.
naktaṃ ca-araṇye- ‘nagnāv ahiraṇye vā || 34 ||
34. At night [he shall not study] in a forest, where there is no fire nor gold.
ananūktaṃ ca-apartau chandaso na- adhīyīta || 35 ||
35. Out of term he shall not study any part of the Veda which he has not learnt before.
pradoṣe ca || 36 ||
36. Nor [shall he study during term some new part of the Veda] in the evening.
Other commentators interpret the Sūtra in a different sense. They take it to mean:—‘And during the night [from the twelfth to the thirteenth of each half of the month, he shall not study at all, be it in or out of term].’
sārvakālikam āmnātam || 37 ||
37. That which has been studied before, must never be studied [during the vacation or in the evening].
‘What has been studied before, must not be studied [again] at any time in the vacation nor in the evening.’ — Haradatta
yathā uktam anyad ataḥ pariṣatsu || 38 ||
38. Further particulars [regarding the interruption of the Veda-study may be learnt] from the [teaching and works of other] Vedic schools.
Haradatta thinks that by ‘Pariṣad’ Manu’s and other Dharma śāstras are meant. This explanation is, however not exact. Pariṣad, ‘assemblage,’ means, in the language of the śāstras, either a Paṅkti, an assemblage of learned Brahmans called together to decide some knotty point of law, or a Brahminical school, in which one studies a particular redaction of the Veda. The latter meaning is that applicable to this Sūtra. By ‘Pariṣada’ are here intended the Vedic schools, and their writings and teaching. Gautama also says, 16:49, Pratividyām yan smaranti smaranti, [he shall observe the stoppages of the Veda-study] which they teach in [the writings belonging to] each of the Vedas.’
Praśna 1. Paṭala 4. Khaṇḍa 12.
tapaḥ svādhyāya iti brāhmaṇam || 1 ||
1. A Brāhmaṇa declares, ‘The daily recitation [of the Veda] is Tapas’
It procures as much reward as penance. — Haradatta. Manu 2:166; The phrase occurs frequently in the Brāhmaṇas, e g. Taitt. Ar. 2:14:3
tatra śrūyate | sa yadi tiṣṭhann āsīnaḥ śayāno vā svādhyāyam adhīte tapa eva tat tapyate tapo hi svādhyāya iti || 2 ||
2. In the same [sacred text] it is also declared, ‘Whether he recites the daily portion of the Veda standing, or sitting, or lying down, he performs austerity thereby; for the daily recitation is austerity.’
Regarding the proper position at the ‘Veda-offering,’ or daily recitation, see above, 1:3:11:23 and Taitt. Ar. 2:11:3. Passages similar to the first part of the sentence quoted in this sūtra occur Taitt. Ar. 2:12:3, and 15:3. It ought to be observed, that the Taitt. Ar. in both places has the word ‘vrajan,’ which is also read in the P. and P. U. MSS. The second part is taken apparently from the same work, 2:14, 2.
atha-api vājasaneyi brāhmaṇam |
brahma yajño ha vā eṣa yat svādhyāyas tasya-ete vaṣaṭ kāra yat stanayati yad vidyotate yad avasphūrjati yad vāto vāyati |
tasmāt stanayati vidyotamāne- ‘vasphūrjati vāte vā vāyaty adhīyīta-eva vaṣaṭ kārāṇām acchambaṭkārāya-iti || 3 ||
3. Now the Vājasaneyi Brāhmana declares also, ‘The daily recitation is a sacrifice at which the Veda is offered. When it thunders, when lightning flashes or thunderbolts fall, and when the wind blows violently, these sounds take the place of the exclamations Vaṣaṭ [Vauṣaṭ and Svāhā]. Therefor he shall recite the Veda whilst it thunders, whilst lightning flashes and thunderbolts fall, and whilst the wind blows violently, lest the Vaṣaṭ [should be heard] in vain.’
See Śatapatha Brāhmana 11:5, 6, 8, where a passage very similar to that quoted by Apastamba occurs. Vaṣaṭ and the other exclamations, which are pronounced by the Hotri priest, serve as signals for the Adhvaryu to throw the oblations into the fire.
tasya śākhā antare vākya samāptiḥ || 4 ||
4. The conclusion of the passage from that [Vājasaneyi Brāhmana is found] in another śākha [of the Veda].
atha yadi vātovā vāyāt stanayed vā vidyoteta vā- avasphūrjed vā-ekāṃ vā-ṛcam ekaṃ vā yajur ekaṃ vā sāma- abhivyāhared bhūr bhuvaḥ suvaḥ
satyaṃ tapaḥ śraddhāyāṃ juhomi-iti vā-etat | teno ha-eva-asya-etad ahaḥ svādhyāya upātto bhavati || 5 ||
5. “Now, if the wind blows, or if it thunders, or if lightning flashes, or thunderbolts fall, then he shall recite one Rik verse [in case he studies the Rig Veda], or one Yajus [in case he studies the Yajur Veda], or one Sāmān [in case he studies the Sama Veda], or [without having regard to his particular Veda, the following Yajus], “Bhuḥ Bhuvaḥ, Suvaḥ, in faith I offer true devotion.” Then, indeed, his daily recitation is accomplished thereby for that day.
‘Some suppose that the words Bhuḥ Bhuvaḥ and Suvaḥ etc. [are to be used only] if one studies the Brāhmaṇa portion of the ‘Veda, not everywhere.’ — Haradatta.
evaṃ satyārya samayena- avipratiṣiddham || 6 ||
6. If that is done, [if the passage of the Vājasaneyi Brāhmana is combined with that quoted in Sūtras, the former stands] not in contradiction with the decision of the āryas.
Haradatta explains Kṣatriyas by visiṣṭah, ‘excellent ones,’ i. e. persons who know the law, and he gives Manu as an instance.
adhyāya anadhyāyaṃ hy upadiśanti | tad anarthakaṃ syād vājasaneyi brāhmaṇaṃ ced avekṣeta || 7 ||
7. For they [who know the law] teach both the continuance and the interruption [of the daily recitation of the Veda]. That would be meaningless, if one paid attention to the [passage of the] Vājasaneyi Brāhmaṇa [alone].
ārya samayo hy agṛhyamāna kāraṇaḥ || 8 ||
8. For no [worldly] motive for the decision of those āryas is perceptible; [and hence it must have a religious motive and be founded on a passage of the Veda].
See above, 1. 1, 4, 9 and 10, and notes.
vidyāṃ praty anadhyāyaḥ śrūyate na karma yoge mantrāṇām || 9 ||
9. [The proper interpretation therefore is, that] the prohibition to study [given above and by the āryas generally] refers only to the repetition of the sacred texts in order to learn them, not to their application at sacrifices.
brāhmaṇa uktā vidhayas teṣām utsannāḥ pāṭhāḥ prayogād anumīyante || 10 ||
10. [But if you ask, why the decision of the āryas presupposes the existence of a Vedic passage, then I answer]:—All precepts were [originally] taught
in the Brāhmaṇas, [but] these texts have been lost. Their [former existence] may, however, be inferred from usage.
How then is their existence known? ‘They are inferred from usage.’ “Usage” means the teaching of the law-books and the practice. From that it is inferred that Manu and other [authors of law-books] knew such texts of the Brāhmaṇas. For how could otherwise [Rishis like Manu] teach in their works or practise [such customs] for which no authority is now found? And certainly they were intimately connected with the revealed texts [ie. saw them]. — Haradatta.
yatra tu prīti upalabdhitaḥ pravṛttir na tatra śāstram asti || 11 ||
11. But it is not [permissible to infer the former existence of a [Vedic] passage in cases where pleasure is obtained [by following a rule of the Smṛti or a custom].
Compare above, 1:1:4:8- 10
tad anuvartamāno narakāya rādhyati || 12 ||
12. He who follows such [usages] becomes fit for hell.
atha brāhmaṇa uktā vidhayaḥ || 13 ||
13. Now follow [some rites and] rules that have been declared in the Brāhmaṇas.
The consequence of the introduction of these rules into a Smṛti work is, that their omission must be explained by a Smarta penance and not by a śrauta one.
teṣāṃ mahā yajñā mahā sattrāṇi-iti saṃstutiḥ || 14 ||
14. By way of praise they are called ‘great sacrifices’ or ‘great sacrificial sessions.’
Because they are called ‘great sacrifices,’ by way of laudation only, the particular laws binding on performers of real Soma-sacrifices cannot be transferred to the performers of these ceremonies. regarding the term ‘great sacrifices,’ see also Taitt. Ar. 2:2:10, I seq., and Śatapatha Brāhmana 11:5:6, 1.
ahar ahar bhūta balir manuṣyebhyo yathā śakti dānam || 15 ||
15. [These rites include]:—The daily Bali offering to the [seven classes of] beings; the [daily] gift of [food] to humans according to one’s power;
Praśna 1. Paṭala 4. Khaṇḍa 13
devebhyaḥ svāhā kāra ā kāṣṭhāt , pitṛbhyaḥ svadhā kāra ā-uda pātrāt svādhyāya iti || 1 ||
1. The oblation to the gods accompanied by the exclamation Svāhā which may consist even of a piece of wood only; the offering to the Manes accompanied by the exclamation Svadhā, which may consist even of a vessel with water only; the daily recitation.
Taitt. Ar. 2:10, 2 and 3, and Śatapatha Br loc. cit. 2. Haradatta observes, that some consider the Deva-yajña, mentioned in the Sūtra, to be different from the Vaiśvadeva, but that he holds it to be the same. Further he mentions, that some prescribe this Vaiśvadeva to be performed even if one has nothing to eat.
The pañca-mahā yajñas are the daily duties to be performed by the householder for the rest of his life. They are the requiting of the spiritual debts (ṛṇas) occurred through taking birth on this planet:—
1. Pitṛ ṛṇa — pitṛ yajña = debt to the parents and ancestors, requited through honouring parents and performing their cremation and the memorial rites for them and the ancestors after death.
2. Deva-ṛṇa — deva-yajña = debt to the gods requited by performing the homa and other periodic ceremonies in their honour.
3. Ṛṣī-ṛṇa — brahma-yajña = debt to the sages requited through study and teaching.
4. Manuṣya-ṛṇa — manuṣya-yajña = debt to society requited through feeding of strangers and caring for their needs.
5. Bhūta-ṛṇa — bhūta-yajña = debt to the environment and other creatures by ensuring their food supply.
pūjā varṇa jyāyasāṃ kāryā || 2 ||
2. Respect must be shown to those who are superior by caste.
‘Namely, by allowing them to walk in front on the road and by giving them perfumed garlands and the like at festive occasions.’ — Haradatta.
vṛddhatarāṇāṃ ca || 3 ||
3. And also to [persons of the same caste who are] venerable [on account of learning, virtue, and the like].
hṛṣṭo darpati dṛpto dharmam atikrāmati dharma atikrame khalu punar narakaḥ || 4 ||
4. A person elated [with success] becomes proud, a proud person transgresses the law, but through the transgression of the law hell indeed [becomes his portion].
na samāvṛtte samādeśo vidyate || 5 ||
5. There is no provision for orders to be given [by the ācārya] to a graduate student.
Haradatta gives as an example the order to fetch water, and adds that a voluntary act on a former student’s part ought not to be forbidden. In other words once a student has graduated the teacher has no authority to issue orders to him — he is completely independent but may if he wishes he may perform voluntary acts to please the teacher.
oṃ kāraḥ svarga dvāraṃ tasmād brahma- adhyeṣyamāṇa etad ādi pratipadyeta || 6 ||
6. The syllable ‘om’ is the door of heaven. Therefore he who is about to study the Veda, shall begin [his lesson] by [pronouncing] it. (Compare also Taitt. Ar. 1:2:4 and Manu 2:74.)
vikathāṃ ca-anyāṃ kṛtvā-evaṃ laukikyā vācā vyāvartate brahma || 7 ||
7. If he has spoken anything else [than what refers to the lesson, he shall resume his reading by repeating the word ‘Om’]. Thus the Veda is separated from profane speech.
yajñeṣu ca-etad ādayaḥ prasavāḥ || 8 ||
8. And at sacrifices the orders [given to the priests] are headed by this word.
loke ca bhūti karmasv etad ādīny eva vākyāni syur yathā puṇya ahaṃ svasti ṛddhim iti || 9
9. And in common life, at the occasion of ceremonies performed for the sake of welfare, the sentences shall be headed by this word, as, for instance, ‘[om] an auspicious day,’ ‘[Om] welfare,’ [Om] prosperity.’
The example given in the Sūtra is that of the Puṇyāha-vācana, which precedes every Gṛhya ceremony, and at which the sacrificer requests a number of invited Brāhmaṇas to wish him success. The complete sentences are, The sacrificer:— Om karmaṇaḥ puṇyāham bhavanto bruvantviti, ‘Om, wish that the day may be auspicious for the performance of the ceremony.’ The Brāhmaṇas:—Om puṇyāham karmaṇa iti, Om, may the day be auspicious for the ceremony.’ In the same manner the Brāhmaṇas afterwards wish ‘welfare,’ svasti, ‘prosperity,’ vriddhi ‘advancement’ to the sacrificer.
na-asamayena kṛcchraṃ kurvīta triḥśrāvaṇaṃ triḥsahavacanam iti parihāpya || 10 ||
10. Without a vow of obedience [a student] shall not study [nor a teacher teach] a difficult [new book] with the exception of [the texts called] Tri- śrāvana and Tri-sahavakana. (Manu 2:112)
avicikitsā yāvad brahma nigantavyam iti hārītaḥ || 11 ||
11. Hārita declares, that the [whole] Veda must be studied under a vow of obedience until there is no doubt [regarding it in the mind of the student].
The meaning of Hārita is, that the vow of obedience is required for the Triḥ- sravana and Triḥ-sahavācana, which Apastamba exempted in the preceding Sūtra. It follows from this rule that the Aṅgas or works explanatory of the Veda need not be studied under a vow of obedience.
na bahir vede gatir vidyate || 12 ||
12. No obedience is due [to the teacher for teaching] works which do not belong to the Veda.
samādiṣṭam adhyāpayantaṃ yāvad adhyayanam upasaṃgṛhṇīyāt || 13 ||
13. [A student] shall touch the feet of a person, who teaches him at the request of his [regular teacher], as long as the instruction lasts.
This rule is a supplement to 1. 2. 7, 29.
nityam arhantam ity eke || 14 ||
14. Some [declare, that he shall do so] always, [if the substitute is] a worthy person.
‘A worthy person,’ ie. on account of his learning or character. — Haradatta.
na gatir vidyate || 15 ||
15. But obedience [as towards the teacher] is not required [to be shown towards such a person].
vṛddhānāṃ tu || 16 ||
16. And [students] older [than their teacher need not do him obedience].
‘According to some, this rule refers only to the time after the instruction has been completed; according to others, to the time of studentship.’ — Haradatta. But see Manu 2:151 seq.
brahmaṇi mitho viniyoge na gatir vidyate || 17 ||
17. If [two persons] each teach each other mutually [different redactions of] the Veda, obedience [towards each other] is not ordained.
brahma vardhata ity upadiśanti || 18 ||
18. [For] the [wise] say, ‘The Veda-knowledge [of both of them] grows.’
niveśe vṛtte saṃvatsare saṃvatsare dvau dvau māsau samāhita ācārya kule vased bhūyaḥ śrutam icchann iti śvetaketuḥ || 19 ||
19. Śvetaketu declares:— ‘He who desires to study more, after having settled [as a householder], shall dwell two months of every year in the house of his teacher.’
etena hy ahaṃ yogena bhūyaḥ pūrvasmāt kālāt-śrutam akurvi-iti || 20 ||
20. [And he adds], ‘For by this means I studied a larger part of the Veda than before, [during my studentship.]’
tat-śāstrair vipratiṣiddham || 21 ||
21. That is forbidden by the Shastras.
niveśe hi vṛtte naiyamikāni śrūyante || 22 ||
22. For after the student has settled as a householder, he is ordered by the Veda, to perform the daily rites.
The housholder has duties towards his family and society and thus should not be staying away from his family for 2 whole months in order to continue his studies.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 4. Khaṇḍa 14.
agnihotram atithayaḥ || 1 ||
1. [That is to say] the Agnihotra and hospitality,
The Agnihotra, i.e. certain daily oblations of clarified butter. Atithayaḥ is the daily feeding of strangers and travellers who happen to pass through the village.
yac ca-anyad evaṃ yuktam || 2 ||
2. And whatever else of this kind [is ordained].
adhyayana arthena yaṃ codayen na ca-enaṃ pratyācakṣīta || 3 ||
3. One whom [a student] asks for instruction, shall certainly not refuse it; (Manu 2:109-115.)
na ca-asmin doṣaṃ paśyet || 4 ||
4. Provided he does not see in him a fault, [which disqualifies him from being taught].
Rules for Saluting
yad ṛcchāyām asaṃvṛttau gatir eva tasmin || 5 ||
5. If by chance [through the student’s stupidity the teaching] is not completed, obedience towards the [teacher is the student’s only refuge]. (Manu 2:218.)
mātari pitary ācāryavat-śuśrūṣā || 6 ||
6. Towards a mother [grandmother and great-grandmother] and a father [grandfather and great-grandfather] the same obedience must be shown as towards a teacher. (Manu 2:228, 235.)
samāvṛttena sarve gurava upasaṅgrāhyāḥ || 7 ||
7. The feet of all Gurus must be touched [every day] by a student who has graduated.
The word Gurus, ‘venerable persons,’ includes besides the teacher and persons mentioned in the preceding Sūtra, an elder brother, a maternal uncle, and all others who are one’s betters or elders. See above, 1. 2. 6, 29-35
proṣya ca samāgame || 8 ||
8. And also on meeting them, after returning from a journey.
That is to say, whether he himself or the venerable persons undertook the journey. — Haradatta.
bhrātṛṣu bhaginīṣu ca yathā pūrvam upasaṅgrahaṇam || 9 ||
9. The feet of [elder] brothers and sisters must be touched, according to the order of their seniority. (Manu 2:133.)
nityā ca pūjā yathā upadeśam || 10 ||
10. And respect [must] always [be shown to one’s elders and betters], according to the injunction [given above and according to the order of their seniority].
See above, 1. 4, 13, 2.
ṛtvik śvaśura pitṛvya mātulān avara vayasaḥ pratyutthāya- abhivadet || 11 ||
11. He shall salute an officiating priest, a father-in-law, a father’s brother, and a mother’s brother, [though they may be] younger than he himself, and [when saluting] rise to meet them. (Manu 2:130.)
The term used for “salutation” is abhivādanam — which is a formal salution in which one introduces oneself, mentioning one’s clan, Vedic school and the branch of Vedic studies that one has completed.
tūṣṇīṃ vā- upasaṅgṛhṇīyāt || 12 ||
12. Or he may silently touch their feet.
The commentator adds that the mode of salutation must depend on their learning and virtue.
daśa varṣaṃ paura sakhyaṃ pañca varṣaṃ tu cāraṇam | tri varṣa pūrvaḥ śrotriyaḥ abhivādanam arhati || 13 ||
13. A friendship lasting for ten years with fellow citizens [is a reason for giving a salutation, and so is] a friendship, contracted at school, which has lasted for five years. But a learned Brāhmaṇa [known] for less than three years, must be saluted. (Manu 11:134.)
jñāyamāne vayo viśeṣe vṛddhatarāya- abhivādyam || 14 ||
14. If the age [of several persons whom one meets] is exactly known, one must salute the eldest [first].
viṣama gatāya-agurave na- abhivādyam || 15 ||
15. One need not formally salute a person, who is not a Guru, and who stands in a lower or higher place than oneself.
anvāruhya vā-abhivādayīta || 16 ||
16. Or he may descend or ascend [to the place where such a person stands] and salute him.
This Sūtra, like the preceding, refers to those who are not ‘Gurus.’
sarvatra tu pratyutthāya-abhivādanam || 17 ||
17. But every one [Gurus and others] he shall salute, after having risen [from his seat]. (Manu 2:120.)
aprayatena na- abhivādyam || 18 ||
18. If he is impure, he shall not greet [anybody];
‘Impure,’ ie. unfit for associating with others on account of the death of relations or through other causes, see below, 1. 5, 15, 7 seq.
tathā-aprayatāya || 19 ||
19. [Nor shall he greet] a person who is impure.
aprayataś ca na pratyabhivadet || 20 ||
20. Nor shall he, being impure, return a salutation.
pati vayasaḥ striyaḥ || 21 ||
21. Married women [must be saluted] according to the [respective] ages of their husbands.
na sa upānah veṣṭita śirā avahita pāṇir vā- abhivādayīta || 22 ||
22. One shall not salute with shoes on, or head covered, or hands full.
sarva nāmnā striyo rājanya vaiśyau ca na nāmnā || 23 ||
23. In saluting women, a Kshatriya or a Vaiśya one shall use a pronoun, not his name.
He shall say, ‘I salute you,’ not ‘I so-and-so salute you.’ Manu 2:123.
mātaram ācārya dāraṃ ca-ity eke || 24 ||
24. Some [declare, that one shall salute in this manner even] one’s mother and the wife of the teacher.
Apastamba, of course, holds the contrary opinion. Manu 2:216.
daśa varṣaś ca brāhmaṇaḥ śata varṣaś ca kṣatriyaḥ |
pitā putrau sma tau viddhi tayos tu brāhmaṇaḥ pita || 25 ||
25. Know that a Brāhmaṇa of ten years and a Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son. But between those two the Brāhmaṇa is the father. (Manu 2:135.)
This verse, which is found with slight variations in most Smṛtis, contains, according to Haradatta, an instruction given by a teacher to his student.
kuśalam avara vayasaṃ vayasyaṃ vā pṛcchet || 26 ||
26. A younger person or one of equal age he shall ask, about his well-being [employing the word kuśala]. (Manu 2:127.)
Of course, in case the person addressed is a Brāhmaṇa. Kulluka quotes under this verse the above and the following, Sūtras. But his quotation has only a faint resemblance to our text.
anāmayaṃ kṣatriyam || 27 ||
27. [He shall ask under the same conditions] a Kshatriya, about his health [employing the word anāmaya].
anaṣṭaṃ vaiśyam || 28 ||
28. A Vaiśya if he has lost anything [employing the word anaṣṭa].
That is to say in these terms ‘I hope that you have not lost any cattle or property!’ — Haradatta
ārogyaṃ śūdram || 29 ||
29. A śūdra, about his health [employing the word ārogya].
na-asaṃbhāṣya śrotriyaṃ vyativrajet || 30 ||
30. He shall not pass a learned Brāhmaṇa without addressing him;
araṇye ca striyam || 31 ||
31. Nor an [unaccompanied] woman in a forest [or any other lonely place].
He shall address a woman in order to reassure her, and do it in these terms:— ‘Mother, or sister, what can I do for you? Don’t be afraid!’ etc. — Haradatta.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 5. Khaṇḍa 15.
Ācamanam — sipping of water for purification.
At the commencement of every sacred rite or after certain activities one is required to sip water 3 times from the palm of one’s right hand while reciting certain mantras determined by one’s lineage. Srivaishnavas and Smarta recite:— om acyutāya namaḥ, oṃ anantāya namaḥ, oṃ govindāya namaḥ. This is followed by aṅga sparśa — touching various parts of the body while reciting the names of Vishnu.
upāsane gurūṇāṃ vṛddhānām atithīnāṃ home japya karmaṇi bhojana ācamane svādhyāye ca yajñopavītī syāt || 1 ||
1. When he shows his respect to Gurus or aged persons or guests, when he offers a burnt-oblation [or other sacrifice], when he does japa at dinner, when sipping water and during the [daily] recitation of the Veda, his garment [or his sacrificial thread] shall pass over his left shoulder and under his right arm. (Taitt. Ar. 2:1:2 seq.; Manu 4, 58.)
bhūmi gatāsv apsv ācamya prayato bhavati || 2 ||
2. By sipping [pure] water, that has been collected on the ground, he becomes pure.
Pure water is that which a cow will drink. Yajñ. 1. 192; Manu 5:128.
yaṃ vā prayata ācāmayet || 3 ||
3. For he, whom a pure person causes to sip water, [becomes also pure].
The ceremony of ‘sipping water’ may be performed in two ways; either the ‘person sipping’ may take the water out of a river, pond, etc., or he may get the water poured into his hand by another person. But, according to Apastamba, he must not take a pot or gourd in his left hand and pour the water into his right, as some Smṛtis allow. The reason for this rule is, that Apastamba considers it essential that both hands should be used in conveying the water to the mouth; see also above, 1. 1. 4, 21. This agrees with the custom now followed, which is to bend the right hand into the form of a cow’s ear, and to touch the right wrist with the left hand while drinking.
na varṣa dhārāsv ācāmet || 4 ||
4. He shall not sip rain.
Some think, that this Sūtra is intended to forbid also the drinking of rain-water. Other commentators declare that, according to this Sūtra, it is allowed to use for ‘sipping’ drops of water which fall from a vessel suspended by ropes because the Sūtra emphatically excludes “rain-drops” only. — Haradatta.
tathā pradara udake || 5 ||
5. [He shall not sip water] from a [natural] cleft in the ground.
taptābhiś ca-akāraṇāt || 6 ||
6. He shall not sip water heated [at the fire] except for a particular reason [as sickness]. (Manu 2:61.)
Because the term ‘heated by fire’ is used, there is no objection to water heated by the rays of the sun. In the same manner the use of “hot” water only is usually forbidden in the Smṛtis. — Haradatta.
rikta pāṇir vayasa udyamya-apa upaspṛśet || 7 ||
7. He who raises his empty hands [in order to scare] birds, [becomes impure and] shall wash [his hands].
Because the phrase ‘with empty hands’ is used, he commits no fault if he raises his hand, holding a stick or a clod. Some declare, that the term ‘touching water’ [rendered by ‘washing’] means “sipping water.”- Haradatta.
śakti viṣaye na muhūrtam apy aprayataḥ syāt || 8 ||
8. If he can [find water to sip] he shall not remain impure [even] for a muhurta.
A muhurta is a period of 24 minutes.
nagno vā || 9 ||
9. Nor [shall one remain] naked [for a muhurta if it can be helped].
na-apsu sataḥ prayamaṇam vidyate || 10 ||
10. Purification [by sipping water] shall not take place whilst he is [standing] in the water.
uttīrya tv ācāmet || 11 ||
11. Also, when he has crossed a river, he shall purify himself by sipping water.
Haradatta considers that Apastamba holds ‘crossing a river’ to cause impurity. The natural and probably the right interpretation, however, is that rejected by Haradatta, ‘But he shall sip water after having come out [of the river or tank].’
na- aprokṣitam indhanam agnāv ādadhyāt || 12 ||
12. He shall not place fuel on the fire, without having sprinkled it [with water].
“On the fire used for Vedic or Smarta sacrifices or for household purposes.” . . . Some declare, that [the fuel need not be sprinkled with water] if used for the kitchen fire.’ — Haradatta.
mūḍha svastare ca- asaṃspṛśann anyān aprayatān prayato manyeta || 13 ||
13. [If he is seated in company with] other unclean persons on a seat consisting of a confused heap of straw, and does not touch them, he may consider himself pure.
tathā tṛṇa kāṣṭheṣu nikhāteṣu || 14 ||
14. [The same rule applies, if he is seated] on grass or wood fixed in the ground.
Haradatta’s commentary is of little use, and I am not quite certain that my translation is correct. Manu 5:118.
prokṣya vāsa upayojayet || 15 ||
15. One shall put on a garment, [even if it is clean] only after having sprinkled it with water.
śūna upahataḥ sa celo- ‘vagāheta || 16 ||
16. If one has been touched by a dog, one shall bathe, with the clothes on;
prakṣālya vā taṃ deśam agninā saṃspṛśya punaḥ prakṣālya pādau ca- ācamya prayato bhavati || 17 ||
17. Or he becomes pure, after having washed that part [of his body] and having touched it with fire and again washed it, as well as his feet, and having sipped water.
This second proceeding is adopted in case the dog has touched the hands or the lower parts of the body, as may be learnt by the comparison of a verse of Manu.
agniṃ na-aprayata āsīdet || 18 ||
18. Unpurified, one shall not approach fire, [so near that the heat can be felt]. (Manu 4.142; Yajñ. 1.155)
iṣu mātrād ity eke || 19 ||
19. Some declare, [that one shall not approach nearer] than the length of an arrow.
na ca-enam upadhamet || 20 ||
20. Nor shall one blow on fire [to extinguish it]. (Manu 4, 53.)
Haradatta mentions other explanations of this Sūtra. Some say, that the śrauta fire may be kindled by blowing, because that is ordained particularly in the Vājasaneyaka, but that the domestic fire is not to be treated so. Others again consider the rule absolute, and say, that a hollow reed or bellows must be used for kindling the fire, lest drops of saliva should fall upon it.
khaṭvāyāṃ ca na-upadadhyāt || 21 ||
21. Nor shall one place fire under one’s bedstead. (Manu 4, 54.)
prabhūta edha udake grāme yatra-ātma adhīnaṃ prayamaṇaṃ tatra vāso dhārmyo brāhmaṇasya || 22 ||
22. It is lawful for a Brahmaṇa to dwell in a village, where there is plenty of fuel and water, [and] where he may perform the rites of purification by himself.
The last condition mentioned in the Sūtra indicates, that the place must have a river or tank, not wells only, as the purification by sipping water (ācamanam) cannot be performed without help, with water from wells.
mūtraṃ kṛtvā purīṣaṃ vā mūtra purīṣa lepān anna lepān ucchiṣṭa lepān retasaś ca ye lepās tān prakṣālya pādau ca- ācamya prayato bhavati ||23||
23. When one has washed away the stains of urine and faeces after voiding urine or faeces, the stains of food [after dinner], the stains of the food eaten the day before [from his vessels], and the stains of semen, and has also washed the feet and afterwards has sipped water, one becomes pure. (Manu 5:138.)
Praśna 1. Paṭala 5. Khaṇḍa 16.
tiṣṭhann ācāmet prahvo vā || 1 ||
1. He shall not drink water standing or bent forwards.
Haradatta takes acam here to mean ‘to drink water,’ and thinks that it is forbidden to do this standing or in a bent position. Others refer the prohibition to ‘sipping water for the sake of purification,’ and translate, He shall not sip water standing or in a bent position [except in case of necessity],’ ie. if the bank of the river is so high that he cannot reach the water sitting down and in this case he shall enter it up to his thighs or up to his navel.
āsīnas trir ācāmed-dhṛdayaṅgamābhir adbhiḥ || 2 ||
2. Sitting he shall sip water [for purification] thrice, the water penetrating to his heart. (Manu 2:60 and 62; 5:139; and Yajñ. 1. 20 and 27)
Haradatta observes, that the further particulars regarding purification by sipping water must be supplied from other Smṛtis. The rule quoted by him is as follows:— ’The performer should be sitting in a pure place, not on a seat, except when sipping water after dinner, and should sip thrice from his hand, water which is free from bubbles and foam, and which he has attentively regarded, in such a quantity as would cover a Māśa bean. The water sipped by a Brahman should reach his heart, that sipped by a Kshatriya the throat, and that sipped by a Vaiśya the palate. A śūdra sips once as much as to wet his tongue.’
trir oṣṭhau parimṛjet || 3 ||
3. He shall wipe his lips three times.
dvir ity eke || 4 ||
4. Some [declare, that he shall do so] twice.
sakṛd upaspṛśet || 5 ||
5. He shall then touch [his lips] once [with the three middle fingers].
dvir ity eke || 6 ||
6. Some [declare, that he shall do so] twice.
dakṣiṇena pāṇinā savyaṃ prokṣya pādau śiraś ca-indriyāṇy upaspṛśec cakṣuṣī nāsike śrotre ca || 7 ||
7. Having sprinkled water on his left hand with his right, he shall touch both his feet, and his head and [the following three] organs, the eyes, the nose, and the ears.
The eyes are to be touched with the thumb and the fourth finger, either at once, or one after the other, the nostrils with the thumb and the second finger, the ears with the thumb and the small finger.
atha-apa upaspṛśet || 8 ||
8. Then he shall wash [his hands].
Rules for Eating
bhokṣyamāṇas tu prayato- ‘pi dvir ācāmed dviḥ parimṛjet sakṛd upaspṛśet || 9 ||
9. But if one is going to eat, one shall, though pure, twice sip water, twice wipe [the mouth], and once touch [the lips]. (Manu 5:138.)
śyāva anta paryantāv oṣṭhāv upaspṛśya- ācāmet || 10 ||
10. One shall rub the gums and the inner part of the lips [with the finger or with a twig] and then sip water.
na śmaśrubhir ucchiṣṭo bhavaty antar āsye sadbhir yāvan na hastena- upaspṛśati || 11 ||
11. He does not become impure by the hair [of his moustach] getting into his mouth, as long as he does not touch them with his hand. (Manu 5:141.)
Haradatta observes that this Sūtra shows, that every other foreign substance brought with the food into the mouth, makes the food ‘leavings’ and the eater impure.
ya āsyād bindavaḥ patanta upalabhyante teṣv ācamanaṃ vihitam || 12 ||
12. If [in talking], drops [of saliva] are perceived to fall from his month, then he shall sip water.
Manu 5:141 declares sipping to be unnecessary in this case.
ye bhūmau na teṣv ācāmed ity eke || 13 ||
13. Some declare, that if [the saliva falls] on the ground, he need not sip water.
svapne kṣavathauśṛṅkhāṇikā aśrv ālambhe lohitasya keśānām agner gavāṃ brāhmaṇasya striyāś ca-ālambhe mahāpathaṃ ca gatvā-amedhyaṃ ca- upaspṛśya- aprayataṃ ca manuṣyaṃ nīvīṃ ca paridhāya-apa upaspṛśet || 14 ||
14. On touching during sleep or while sneezing the effluvia of the nose or of the eyes, on touching blood, hair, fire, cattle, a Brāhmaṇa, or a woman, and after having walked on the high road, and after having touched an impure [thing or person], and after having put on his lower garment, he shall either bathe or sip or merely touch water [until he considers himself clean]. (Manu 5:145.)
ārdraṃ vā śakṛd oṣadhīr bhūmiṃ vā || 15 ||
15. [Or he may touch] moist cow-dung, wet herbs, or moist earth.
hiṃsā arthena-asinā māṃsaṃ chinnam abhojyam || 16 ||
16. He shall not eat meat which has been cut with a sword [or knife] used for killing.
The knife used for killing the animal should not be used also in it’s preparation.
dadbhir apūpasya na- apacchindyāt || 17 ||
17. One shall not bite off — with the teeth [pieces from] cakes [roots or fruits].
The polite way of eating would be to break or cut off bite size pieces.
yasya kule mriyeta na tatra-anirdaśe bhoktavyam || 18 ||
18. One shall not eat in the house of a [relation within six degrees] where a person has died, before the ten days [of impurity] have elapsed. (Manu 4.217)
The term “ten days” is used in order to indicate the time of impurity generally. In some cases, as that of a Kshatriya, this lasts longer. In other cases, where the impurity lasts thirty-six hours only, [the abstention from dining in such houses is shorter.)’ — Haradatta.
tathā-anutthitāyāṃ sūtikāyām || 19 ||
19. [Nor shall one eat in a house where a woman having given birth has not [yet] come out [of the lying-in chamber], (Manu 4.217)
A woman after giving birth is impure, and must not be touched during the first ten days after her confinement. During this time, she exclusively occupies the Sūtika- gṛha or lying-in chamber.
antaḥ śave ca || 20 ||
20. [Nor in a house] where a corpse lies.
Haradatta remarks that in the case of the death of a person who is not a relation, it is customary to place at the distance of ‘one hundred bows’ a lamp and water- vessel, and to eat [beyond that distance].
aprayato- ‘pahatam annam aprayataṃ na tv abhojyam || 21 ||
21. Food touched by a [Brāhmaṇa or other high-caste person] who is impure, becomes impure, but not unfit for eating.
Food which is simply impure, may be purified by putting it on the fire, sprinkling it with water, touching it with ashes or earth, and praising it.’ — Haradatta.
aprayatena tu śūdreṇa-upahṛtam abhojyam || 22 ||
22. But what has been brought [be it touched or not] by an impure śūdra, must not be eaten.
Others say, that the food becomes unfit for eating, only, if in bringing it, the śūdra has touched it. — Haradatta.
yasmiṃś ca-anne keśaḥ syāt || 23 ||
23. Nor that food in which there is a hair, (Manu 4, 207; Yajñ. 1;167.)
‘But this rule holds good only if the hair had been cooked with the food. If a hair falls into it at dinner, then it is to be purified by an addition of clarified butter, and may be eaten.’ — Haradatta.
anyad vā-amedhyam || 24 ||
24. Or any other unclean substance.
Haradatta quotes a passage from Baudhāyana, which enumerates as ‘unclean things’ here intended, ‘hair, worms or beetles, nail-parings, excrements of rats.’ The rule must be understood as the preceding, ie. in case these things have been cooked with the food.
amedhyair avamṛṣṭam || 25 ||
25. [Nor must that food be eaten] which has been touched with an unclean substance [a substance which can not be offered in a yajña].
kīṭo vā-amedhya sevī || 26 ||
26. Nor [that in which] an insect living on impure substances [is found], (Manu 4, 207; Yajñ. 1.167, 168.)
This Sūtra must be read with Sūtra 23 above.
mūṣakalāṅgaṃ vā || 27 ||
27. Nor [that in which] excrements or limbs of a mouse [are found],
padā vā- upahatam || 28 ||
28. Nor that which has been touched by the foot [even of a pure person],
sicā vā || 29 ||
29. Nor what has been [touched] with the hem of a garment,
śunā vā-apapātreṇa vā dṛṣṭam || 30 ||
30. Nor that which has been looked at by a dog or an Apapātra, (Manu 4, 208; Yajñ. 1. 167.)
Apapātras are persons whom one must not allow to eat from one’s dishes, eg. Caṇḍālas, Patitas, a menstruating woman or during the ten days of impurity after confinement. See also above, 1:1:3:25
sicā vā- upahṛtam || 31 ||
31. Nor what has been brought in the hem of a garment, [even though the garment may be clean],
dāsyā vā naktam āhṛtam || 32 ||
32. Nor what has been brought at night by a female servant.
Haradatta thinks, that as the Sūtra has the feminine gender, dāsī, it does not matter if a male servant brings the food. But others forbid also this.
bhuñjānaṃ vā || 33 ||
33. While eating………
Praśna 1. Paṭala 5. Khaṇḍa 17.
yatra śūdra upaspṛśet || 1 ||
1. If during his meal, a śūdra touches him, [then he shall leave off eating].
Some say, that this Sūtra indicates that the touch of a śūdra does not defile at any other time but at dinner, whilst others hold that a śūdra’s touch defiles always, and that the Sūtra is intended to indicate an excess of impurity, if it happens at dinnertime.’ — Haradatta.
anarhadbhir vā samāna paṅktau || 2 ||
2. Nor shall he eat sitting in the same row with unworthy people.
‘Unworthy people are those who are neither of good family, nor possess learning and virtue.’ — Haradatta.
bhuñjāneṣu va yatra- anūtthāya-ucchiṣṭaṃ prayacched ācāmed vā || 3 ||
3. Nor shall he eat [sitting in the same row with persons] amongst whom one, whilst they eat, rises and gives his leavings to his students or sips water; (Manu 4.212.)
According to Haradatta a person who misbehaves thus, is called ‘a dinner-thorn.’ This point of etiquette is strictly observed in our days also.
kutsayitvā vā yatra-annaṃ dadyuḥ || 4 ||
4. Nor [shall he eat] where they give him food, reviling him. (Manu 4.212; Yajñ. L.167)
manuṣyair avaghrātam anyair vā-amedhyaiḥ || 5 ||
5. Nor [shall he eat] what has been smelt at by others or other impure [beings, as cats].
As the text has avaghrāta, “smelt at,” it does not matter if they smell the food from a distance — Haradatta.
na nāvi bhuñjīta || 6 ||
6. He shall not eat in a ship.
tathā prāsāde || 7 ||
7. Nor on a wooden platform.
kṛta bhūmau tu bhuñjīta || 8 ||
8. One may eat sitting on ground which has been purified [by the application of cow-dung and the like].
anāprīte mṛn maye bhoktavyam || 9 ||
9. [If he eats] out of an earthen vessel, he shall eat out of one that has not been used [for cooking].
āprītaṃ ced abhidagdhe || 10 ||
10. [If he can get] a used vessel [only, he shall eat from it], after having heated it thoroughly.
parimṛṣṭaṃ lauhaṃ prayatam || 11 ||
11. A vessel made of metal becomes pure by being scoured with ashes and the like. (Manu 5:114.)
It must be understood from other Smṛtis, that brass is to be cleaned with ashes, copper with acids, silver with cow-dung, and gold with water.’ — Haradatta.
nirlikhitaṃ dāru mayam || 12 ||
12. A wooden vessel becomes pure by being scraped. (Manu 5:115.)
yathā āgamaṃ yajñe || 13 ||
13. At a sacrifice [the vessels must be cleaned] according to the precepts of the Veda.
na- apaṇīyam annam aśnīyāt || 14 ||
14. He shall not eat food which has been bought or obtained ready prepared in the market.
tathā rasānām amāṃsa madhu lavaṇāni-iti parihāpya || 15 ||
15. Nor [shall he eat] flavoured food [bought in the market] excepting raw meat, honey, and salt.
taila sarpiṣī tu- upayojayed udake- ‘avadhāya || 16 ||
16. Oil and clarified butter [bought in the market] he may use, after having sprinkled them with water.
Having sprinkled them with water and purified them by boiling; or, according to others, mixing them with so much water as will not spoil them — Haradatta.
kṛta annaṃ paryuṣitam akhādya apeya anādyam || 17 ||
17. Prepared food which has stood for a night, must neither be eaten nor drunk, (Manu 4:211; Yajñ. 1.167)
The Sanskrit has two terms for ‘eating;’ the first ‘khād’ applies to hard substances, the second ‘ad’ to soft substances’
This rule is obviously applicable in a hot climate when fridges are unavailable.
śuktaṃ ca || 18 ||
18. Nor [should prepared food] that has turned sour [be used in any way]. (Manu 4, 211; 5:9; Yajñ. 1. 167.)
phāṇita pṛthuka taṇḍula karambharuja saktu śāka māṃsa piṣṭa kṣīra vikāra oṣadhi vanaspati mūla phala varjam || 19 ||
19. [The preceding two rules do] not [hold good in regard to] the juice of sugar-cane, roasted rice grains, porridge prepared with whey, roasted barley, gruel, vegetables, meat, flour, milk and preparations from it, roots and fruits of herbs and trees. (Manu 5:10, 24 and 25.)
śuktaṃ ca-apara yogam || 20 ||
20. [Substances which have turned] sour without being mixed with anything else [are to be avoided].
According to Haradatta, Apastamba returns once more to the question about sour food, in order to teach that dishes prepared with curds and other sour substances may be eaten.
sarvaṃ madyam apeyam || 21 ||
21. All intoxicating drinks are forbidden.
tathā-elakaṃ payaḥ || 22 ||
22. Likewise sheep’s milk, (Manu 5:8; Yajñ. 1. 170.)
uṣṭrī kṣīra mṛgī kṣīra sandhinī kṣīra yamasū kṣīrāṇi-iti || 23 ||
23. Likewise the milk of camels, of does, of animals that give milk while big with young, of those that bear twins, and of [one-hoofed animals], (Manu 5:8, 9; Yajñ 1:170.)
‘Sandhinī’, translated by “females that give milk while big with young,” means, according to others, “female animals that give milk once a day.”‘ — Haradatta.
dhenoś ca-anirdaśāyāḥ || 24 ||
24. Likewise the milk of a cow [buffalo-cow or she-goat] during the [first] ten days [after their giving birth to young ones], (Manu 5:8.)
tathā kīlāla oṣadhīnāṃ ca || 25 ||
25. Likewise [food mixed] with herbs which serve for preparing intoxicating liquors,
karañja palaṇḍu parārīkāḥ || 26 ||
26. [Likewise] red garlic, onions, and leeks, (Manu 5:5; Yajñ I.176)
yac ca-anyat paricakṣate || 27 ||
27. Likewise anything else which [those who are learned in the law] forbid.
Haradatta observes that Apastamba, finding the list of forbidden vegetables too long, refers his students to the advice of the (worthy people) Siṣṭas. The force of this Sūtra is exactly the same as that of 1. 3, 11, 38.
tyāktva bhojyam iti hi brāhmaṇam || 28 ||
28. Mushrooms ought not to be eaten; that has been declared in a Brāhmaṇa Text; (Yajñ. 1:171)
ekakhura uṣṭra gavaya grāmasūkara śarabha gavām || 29 ||
29. [Nor the meat] of one-hoofed animals, of camels, of the Gayal [wild cow], of village pigs, of Sarabhas, and of cattle.
One-hoofed animals are horses, donkeys and mules. The camel, Gayal, and Sarabha are mentioned as ‘forbidden animals,’ Satapatha Br. 1. 2. 1, 8; Aitareya Br. 2:1:8; see also Manu 5:11:18 Yajñ 1:172. 176
dhenu anaḍuhor bhakṣyam || 30 ||
30. [But the meat] of milch-cows and oxen may be eaten.
medhyam ānaḍuham iti vājasaneyakam || 31 ||
31. The Vājasaneyaka declares ‘bull’s flesh is fit for offerings.’
kukkuṭo vikirāṇām || 32 ||
32. Amongst birds that scratch with their feet for food, the [tame] cock [must not be eaten]. (Yajñ. 1.176.)
plavaḥ pratudām || 33 ||
33. Amongst birds that feed thrusting forward their beak, the [heron, called] Plava [or Sakaṭabila, must not be eaten]. (Manu 5:12; Yajñ. 1:172.)
kravya adaḥ || 34 ||
34. Carnivorous [birds are forbidden], (Manu 5:12 Yajñ. 1:172)
haṃsa bhāsa cakravāka suparṇāś ca || 35 ||
35. Likewise the swan, the Bhāsa, the Brāhmaṇī duck, and the falcon. [Yajñ. 1:172.)
kruñca krauñca vārdhrāṇasa lakṣṃana varjam || 36 ||
36. Common cranes and Sāras-cranes [are not to be eaten] with the exception of the leather-nosed Lakṣmaṇa. (Manu 5:12; Yajñ. 1:72.)
Other commentators take the whole Sūtra as one compound, and explain it as an exception to Sūtra 34. In that case the translation runs thus:—[‘Carnivorous birds are forbidden] except the Kruñca, Krauñca, Vārdhrāṇasa, and Lakṣmaṇa. — Haradatta. This translation is objectionable, because both the Kruñcas, now called Kulam or kūñc, and the Krauñca, the red-crested crane, now called Saras [Cyrus], feed on grain. Kruñcakrauñcau is a Vedic dual.
pañca nakhānāṃ godhā kacchapa śvāviṭ śalyaka khaṇga śaśa pūtikhaṣa varjam ||37||
37. Five-toed animals [ought not to be eaten] with the exception of the iguana, the tortoise, the porcupine, the hedgehog, the rhinoceros, the hare, and the Pūtikhaśa.
Manu 5:18; Yajñ. 1. 17 7. Pūtikhaśa is, according to Haradatta, an animal resembling a hare, and found in the Himālayas.
abhakṣyaś ceṭo matsyānām || 38 ||
38. Amongst fishes, the ceta ought not to be eaten,
sarpa śīrṣī mṛduraḥ kravya ado ye ca-anye vikṛtā yathā manuṣya śirasaḥ || 39 ||
39. Nor the snake-headed fish, nor the alligator, nor those which live on flesh only, nor those which are misshaped [like] mermen.
Haradatta closes this chapter on flesh-eating by quoting Manu 5:56, which declares flesh-eating, drinking spirituous liquor, and promiscuous intercourse to be allowable, but the abstinence there from are of greater merit. He states that the whole chapter must be understood in this sense.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 6. Khaṇḍa 18.
madhv āmaṃ mārgaṃ māṃsaṃ bhūmir mūla phalāni rakṣā gavyūtir niveśanaṃ yugya ghāsaś ca-ugrataḥ pratigṛhyāṇi || 1 ||
1. Honey, uncooked [grain], venison, land, roots, fruits, [a promise of] safety, a pasture for cattle, a house, and fodder for a draught-ox may be accepted [even] from an Ugra. (Manu 4, 247)
Ugra denotes either a bad twice-born man or the offspring of a Vaiśya and of a śūdra-woman. Other persons of a similar character must be understood to be included by the term.’ — Haradatta.
etāny api na-anantevāsy āhṛtāni-iti hārītaḥ || 2 ||
2. Hārita declares, that even these [presents] are to be accepted only if they have been obtained by a student.
āmaṃ vā gṛhṇīran || 3 ||
3. Or they [Brāhmaṇa householders] may accept [from an Ugra] uncooked or [a little] unflavoured boiled food.
kṛta annasya vā vi rasasya || 4 ||
4. [Of such food] they shall not take a great quantity [but only so much as suffices to support life].
Also this rule seems to belong to Hārita, on account of its close connection with the preceding two.
na su bhikṣāḥ syuḥ || 5 ||
5. If [in times of distress] he is unable to keep himself, he may eat [food obtained from anybody],
svayam apy avṛttau suvarṇaṃ dattvā paśuṃ vā bhuñjīta || 6 ||
6. After having touched it [once] with gold,
na-atyantam anvavasyet || 7 ||
7. Or [having touched it with] fire.
vṛttiṃ prāpya viramet || 8 ||
8. He shall not be too eager after [such a way of living]. He shall leave it when he has obtained a [lawful] livelihood.
Haradatta quotes, in support of the last Sūtras, a passage of the Cāṇḍogya Upanishad, 1.10. 1, and one from the Rig Veda, 8.13, according to which it would be lawful to eat even impure food, as a dog’s entrails, under such circumstances. Other commentators explain this and the preceding three Sūtras differently. According to them the translation would run thus:—’If he himself does not find any livelihood [in times of distress, he may dwell even with low-caste people who give him something to eat, and] he may eat [food given by them] paying for it with [some small gift in] gold or with animals.’ This second explanation is perhaps preferable.
trayāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ kṣatriya prabhṛtīnāṃ samāvṛttena na bhoktavyam || 9 ||
9. [A student of the Brahmin caste] who has returned home shall not eat [in the house] of people belonging to the three tribes, beginning with the Kshatriya [i.e. of Kshatriyas, Vaiśyas, and śūdras]. (Manu 4:218, 219, and 223)
prakṛtyā brāhmaṇasya bhoktavyaṃ kāraṇād abhojyam || 10 ||
10. He may [usually] eat [the food] of a Brāhmaṇa on account of [the giver’s] character [as a Brāhmaṇa]. It must be avoided for particular reasons only.
yatra-aprāyaścittaṃ karma- āsevate prāyaścittavati || 11 ||
11. He shall not eat in a house where [the host] performs a rite which is not a rite of penance, whilst he ought to perform a penance.
If a Brāhmaṇa who has been ordered to perform a penance, performs a Vaiśvadeva or other rite without heeding the order of his spiritual teacher, then a student who has returned home ought not to eat in his house, until the enjoined penance has been performed.’ — Haradatta.
carita nirveṣasya bhoktavyam || 12 ||
12. But when the penance has been performed, he may eat [in that house].
The use of the part. perf. pass. “performed” indicates that he must not eat there, whilst the penance is being performed.’ — Haradatta.
sarva varṇānāṃ svadharme vartamānānāṃ bhoktavyaṃ śūdra varjam ity
eke || 13 ||
13. According to some [food offered by people] of any caste, who follow the laws prescribed for them, except that of śūdras, may be eaten.
tasya-api dharma upanatasya || 14 ||
14. [In times of distress] even the food of a śūdra, who lives under one’s protection for the sake of Dharma, [may be eaten]. (Yajñ. 1.166.)
suvarṇam datvā paśuṃ vā bhuñjīta na-atyantam anvavasyed vṛttiṃ prāpya viramet || 15
15. He may eat it, after having touched it [once! with gold or with fire. He shall not be too eager after [such a way of living]. He shall leave it when he obtains a [lawful] livelihood. (Manu 4, 223)
saṅgha annam abhojyam || 16 ||
16. food from a multitude of givers must not be eaten, (Manu 4:209)
If many people have contributed food (pot-luck) one should avoid eating because one cannot be sure how the food was prepared.
parikruṣṭaṃ ca || 17 ||
17. Nor food offered by a general invitation [to all comers]. (Manu 4;209; Yajñ. I;168.)
sarveṣāṃ ca śilpa ājīvānām || 18 ||
18. food offered by an artisan must not be eaten, (Manu 4;210, 215; Yajñ. 1. 162-164.)
ye ca śastram ājīvanti || 19 ||
19. Nor [that of men] who live by the use of arms [with the exception of Kshatriyas], (Yajñ. 1. 164.)
ye ca-ādhim || 20 ||
20. Nor [that of those] who live by letting lodgings or land.
bhiṣak || 21 ||
21. A [professional] physician [is a person whose food must not be eaten]. (Manu 4, 212; Yajñ. 1. 162.)
vārdhuṣikaḥ || 22 ||
22. [Also] a usurer, (Manu 4.210; Yajñ. 1.161.)
dīkṣito- ‘akrīta rājakaḥ || 23 ||
23. [Also] a Brāhmaṇa who has performed the Dikṣaniyeṣṭi [or initiatory ceremony of the Soma sacrifice] before he has bought the king [Soma].
‘That is to say, one who has begun, but not finished a Soma-sacrifice.’ — Haradatta. Manu 4, 210, and Gopatha Brāhmaṇa 3, 19.
agnīṣomīya saṃsthāyām eva || 24 ||
24. [The food given by a person who has performed the Dīkṣaṇīyeṣṭi may be eaten], when the victim sacred to Agni and Soma has been slain.
hutāyāṃ vā vapāyāṃ dīkṣitasya bhoktavyam || 25 ||
25. Or after that the omentum of the victim [sacred to Agni and Soma] has been offered. (Aitareya Brāhmaṇa 2:1:9)
yajña arthe vā nirdiṣṭe śeṣād bhuñjīrann iti hi brāhmaṇam || 26 ||
26. For a Brāhmaṇa declares, ‘Or they may eat of the remainder of the animal, after having set apart a portion for the offering.’
klībaḥ || 27 ||
27. A non-reproductive male [is a person whose food must not be eaten], (Manu 4, 211; Yajñ 1:161.)
rājñāṃ praiṣa karaḥ || 28 ||
28. [Likewise] the [professional] messenger employed by a king [or others],
The village or town messengers are always men of the lowest castes, such as the Mahars of Maharaṣṭhra.
ahaviryājī || 29 ||
29. [Likewise a Brāhmaṇa] who offers substances that are not fit for a sacrifice,
For example, he who offers human blood in a magic rite.’ — Haradatta.
cārī || 30 ||
30. [Likewise] a spy,
Haradatta explains cārī, translated by ‘spy,’ to mean ‘a secret adherent of the śakta sect’ [gūḍhacari śaktaḥ]. The existence of this sect in early times has not hitherto been proved.
avidhinā ca pravrajitaḥ || 31 ||
31. [Also] a person who has become an ascetic without [being authorised thereto by] the rules [of the law],
Haradatta gives the śakyas or Bauddhas as an instance. But it is doubtful, whether Apastamba meant to refer to them, though it seems probable that heretics are intended.
yaś ca-agnīn apāsyati || 32 ||
32. [Also] he who forsakes the sacred fires [without performing the sacrifice necessary on that occasion]. (Yajñ. 1:160)
yaś ca sarvān varjayate sarvānnī ca śrotriyo nirākṛtir vṛṣalī patiḥ || 33 ||
33. Likewise a learned Brāhmaṇa who avoids everybody, or eats the food of anybody, or neglects the [daily] recitation of the Veda, [and] he whose [only living] wife is of the śūdra caste.
Who avoids everybody, ie. who neither invites nor dines with anybody Haradatta.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 6. Khaṇḍa 19.
matta unmatto baddho- ‘aṇikaḥ pratyupaviṣṭo yaś ca pratyupaveśayate tāvantaṃ kālam || 1 ||
1. A drunkard, a madman, a prisoner, he who learns the Veda from his son, a creditor who sits with his debtor [hindering the fulfilment of his duties], a debtor who thus sits [with his creditor, are persons whose food must not be eaten] as long as they are thus engaged or in that state. (Manu 4:207; Yajñ 1:161, 162)
Another commentator explains aṇika, translated above ‘he who learns the Veda from his son,’ by ‘a money-lender,’ and combines pratyupaviṣṭaḥ with this word, ie. a money-lender who sits with his debtor hindering him from fulfilling his duties.’ This manner of forcing a debtor to pay, which is also called ācarita [see Manu 8:49], is, though illegal, resorted to sometimes even now.
ka aśya annaḥ || 2 ||
2. Who [then] are those whose food may be eaten ?
The object of this Sūtra is to introduce the great variety of opinions quoted below.’ — Haradatta.
ya īpsed iti kaṇvaḥ || 3 ||
3. Kanva declares, that it is he who wishes to give.
puṇya iti kautsaḥ || 4 ||
4. Kautsa declares, that it is he who is virtuous.
‘virtuous’ means not only ‘following his lawful occupations,’ but particularly ‘practising austerities, reciting prayers, and offering burnt-oblations.’ — Haradatta.
yaḥ kaś cid dadyād iti vārṣyāyaṇiḥ || 5 ||
5. Vārśyāyani declares, that it is every giver [of food].
yadi ha rajaḥ sthāvaraṃ puruṣe bhoktavyam atha cet-calaṃ dānena nirdoṣo bhavati || 6
6. For if [it is said that] guilt remains with the sinner [who committed a crime, then food given by him] may be eaten [because the blame cannot leave the sinner]. But if [it be said that] blame can leave [the sinner at any time, then food given by the sinner still may be eaten because] he becomes pure by the gift [which he makes].
śuddhā bhikṣā bhoktavyā-eka kuṇikau kāṇva kutsau tathā puṣkarasādiḥ || 7 ||
7. Offered food (alms) which is pure may be eaten, according to Eka, Kuṇika, Kanva, Kutsa, and Puśkarasādi.
sarvatopetaṃ vārṣyāyaṇīyam || 8 ||
8. Vārśyāyaṇi’s opinion is, that [food] given unasked [may be accepted] from anybody.
puṇyasya- īpsato bhoktavyam || 9 ||
9. [Food offered] willingly by a holy man may be eaten.
puṇyasya-apy anīpsato na bhoktavyam || 10 ||
10. Food given unwillingly by a holy man ought not to be eaten.
Another commentator explains this Sūtra thus:—’He need not eat the food offered by a righteous man, if he himself does not wish to do so.’ — Haradatta.
yataḥ kutaś ca- abhyudyataṃ bhoktavyam || 11 ||
11. Food offered unasked by any person whatsoever may be eaten,
In other words — if food is offered spontaneously by a person, whatever it may be one, may eat it.
na-ananiyoga pūrvam iti hārītaḥ || 12 ||
12. But not if it be given after an express previous announcement; thus says Hārita
atha purāṇe ślokāv udāharanti || 13 ||
udyatām āhṛtāṃ bhikṣāṃ purastād apraveditām | bhojyāṃ mene prajāpatir api duṣkṛta kāriṇaḥ ||
na tasya pitaro- ‘aśnanti daśa varṣāṇi pañca ca |
na ca havyaṃ vahaty agnir yas tām abhy adhimanyata iti ||
13. Now they quote also in a Purana the following two verses:—
The Lord of creatures has declared, that food offered unasked and brought by the giver himself, may be eaten, though [the giver be] a sinner, provided the gift has not been announced beforehand. The Manes of the ancestors of that man who spurns such food, do not eat [his oblations] for fifteen years, nor does the fire carry his offerings [to the gods].’ (Manu 4:248 and 249)
cikitsakasya mṛgayoḥ śalya kṛntasya pāśinaḥ |
kulaṭāyāḥ ṣaṇḍhakasya ca teṣām annam anādyam || 14 || (ṣaṇḍakasya )
14. [Another verse from a Purana declares]:—
‘The food given by a physician, a hunter, a surgeon, a fowler, an unfaithful wife, or a non-reproductive person (ṣaṇḍa) must not be eaten.’ (Manu 4:211, 212.)
atha-apy udāharanti || 15 ||
annāde bhrūṇahā mārṣṭi anenā abhiśaṃsati | stenaḥ pramukto rājani yācann anṛta saṃkara iti |
15. Now [in confirmation of this] they quote [the following verse]:—
‘The murderer of a Brāhmaṇa learned in the Veda heaps his guilt on his guest, an innocent man on his calumniator, a thief set at liberty on the king, and the petitioner on him who makes false promises.’
Regarding the liberation of the thief see Apastamba 1;9, 25, 4. A similar verse occurs Manu 8:317, which has caused the confusion observable in many MSS.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 7. Khaṇḍa 20.
na-imaṃ laukikam arthaṃ puraskṛtya dharmāṃś caret || 1 ||
1. One shall not fulfil the sacred duties merely in order to acquire material gains [such as fame, gain, and honour].
niṣphalā hy abhyudaye bhavanti || 2 ||
2. For when they ought to be rewarding, [duties thus fulfilled] become fruitless.
tad yathā-amre phala arthe nirmite chāyā gandha ity anūtpadyete | evaṃ dharmaṃ caryamāṇam arthā anūtpadyante || 3 || (nimitte )
3. [Material benefits] are produced as accessories [to the fulfilment of the law], just as in the case of a mango tree, which is planted in order to obtain fruit, shade and fragrance [are the accessory advantages].
na-u ced anūtpadyante na dharma hānir bhavati || 4 ||
4. But even if there are no such [material gains, then at least] the sacred duties have been fulfilled.
anasūyur duṣpralambhaḥ syāt kuhaka śaṭha nāstika bālavādeṣu || 5 ||
5. One should not become irritated at, nor be deceived by the speeches of hypocrites, of rogues, of atheists and of fools.
na dharma adharmau carata āvaṃ sva iti | na deva gandharvā na pitara ity ācakṣate- ‘ayaṃ dharmo- ‘ayam adharma iti || 6 ||
6. for Virtue and Sin do not go about and say, ‘Here we are’; nor do gods, Gāndharvas, or Ancestors say [to people], ‘This is Dharma, that is Adharma.’
yattv āryāḥ kriyamāṇaṃ praśaṃsanti sa dharmo yad garhante so- ‘adharmaḥ || 7 ||
7. But that is Dharma, the practice of which wise men of the three twice- born castes praise; what they blame, is Adharma.
The Sūtra is intended to show how the law should be ascertained in difficult cases. Haradatta quotes here the passage of Yajñ. 1. 9, on Pariṣads, and states that the plural āryāḥ shows that three or four must be employed to arrive at a decision. See also Manu 12:108 seq.
sarvajanapadeṣv ekānta samāhitam āryāṇām vṛttaṃ samyag vinītānāṃ vṛddhānām ātmavatām alolupānām adāmbhikānāṃ vṛtta sādṛśyaṃ bhajeta || 8 ||
8. One shall regulate the course of action according to the conduct, which in all countries is unanimously approved by those of the three twice-born castes, who have been well-educated, who are mature, self-controlled, free from greed and hypocrisy. (Manu 1:6.)
evam ubhau lokāv abhijayati || 9 ||
9. Acting thus one will gain both worlds.
avihitā brāhmaṇasya vaṇijyā || 10 ||
10. Trade is not lawful for a Brāhmaṇa.
āpadi vyavahareta paṇyānām apaṇyāni vyudasyan || 11 ||
11. In times of distress he may trade in lawful merchandise, avoiding the following [kinds], that are forbidden:— (Manu 4:6, 10:82, Yajñ. 3:35)
This Sūtra, which specifies only one part of a Vaiśya’s occupations as permissible for Brāhmaṇas in distress, implies, according to Haradatta, that his other occupations also, as well as those of a Kshatriya, are permissible.
manuṣyān rasān rāgān gandhān annaṃ carma gavāṃ vaśāṃ śleṣma udake tokmakiṇve pippali marīce dhānyaṃ māṃsam āyudhaṃ sukṛta āśāṃ ca || 12 ||
12. [Particularly] slavery, condiments and liquids, dyes, perfumes, food, skins, heifers, substances used for gluing [such as lac], water, young cornstalks, substances from which alcohol may be extracted, red and black pepper, corn, meat products, weapons, and the hope of rewards for meritorious deeds. (Manu 10:86-89; Yajñ. 3:36-39)
‘the hope of rewards for meritorious deeds’ — this refers to the trading in ‘indulgences’ — i.e. receiving money for chanting mantras, taking ceremonial baths and doing pious deeds for others — in these cases the merit is said to be transferred to the sponsor.
tila taṇḍulāṃs tv eva dhānyasya viśeṣeṇa na vikrīṇīyāt || 13 ||
13. Among [the various kinds of] grain one shall especially not sell sesame or rice [except he have grown them himself].
The exception stated above, is given by Haradatta on the authority of Manu 10;90; Yajñ. 3:39.
avihitaś ca-eteṣāṃ mitho vinimayaḥ || 14 ||
14. The exchange of the one of these [above mentioned goods] for the other is likewise unlawful.
annena ca-annasya manuṣyāṇāṃ ca manusyai rasānāṃ ca rasair gandhānāṃ ca gandhair vidyayā ca vidyānām || 15 ||
15. But food [may be exchanged] for food, and slaves for slaves, and condiments for condiments, and perfumes for perfumes, and learning for learning.
A brāhmaṇa may thus earn a commission obtained through fascilitating an exchange of the stock mentioned.
From the permission to exchange learning for learning, it may be known that it is not lawful to sell it — i.e. teach for a wage.’ — Haradatta. (Manu 10:94)
akrīta paṇyair vyavahareta || 16 ||
16. Let him trade with lawful merchandise which he has not bought.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 7. Khaṇḍa 21.
muñja balbajair mūla phalaiḥ || 1 ||
1. With Muñja-grass, Balbaja-grass [and articles made of them], roots, and fruits,
tṛṇa kāṣṭhair a vikṛtaiḥ || 2 ||
2. And with [other kinds of] grass and wood which have not been worked up [into objects of use].
Since it is known that Muñja and Balbaja are kinds of grass, it may be inferred from their being especially mentioned [in Sūtra I] that objects made of them [may be also sold]’ — Haradatta.
na-atyantam anvavasyet || 3 ||
3. One shall not be too eager [after such a livelihood].
vṛttiṃ prāpya viramet || 4 ||
4. If one obtains [another lawful] livelihood, one shall leave off [trading]. (Yajñ 3:35)
na patitaiḥ saṃvyavahāro vidyate || 5 ||
5. Social interaction with fallen people is not ordained. (Manu 11:180.)
tathā-apapātraiḥ || 6 ||
6. Nor with Apapātras.
Regarding the definition of the word Apapātra, see above, 1:5:16:29
atha patanīyāni || 7 ||
7. Now [follows the enumeration of] the actions which cause loss of caste [Pataniya].
steyam ābhiśastyaṃ puruṣa vadho brahma ujjhaṃ garbha śātanam mātuḥ pitur iti yoni saṃbandhe saha-apatye strī gamanaṃ surā pānam asaṃyoga saṃyogaḥ || 8 ||
8. [These are] (a) stealing [gold], (b) crimes whereby one becomes an Abhiśasta, (c) homicide, (d) neglect of the Vedas, (e) causing abortion, (f) incestuous connection with maternal or paternal uncles or aunts, (g) and with the offspring of such persons (cousins), (h) alcoholism, and (i) socializing with persons the interaction with whom is forbidden.
The crimes by which a person becomes Abhiśasta are enumerated below, 1:9:24:6 seq. where an explanation of the term will be given.
gurvī sakhiṃ guru sakhiṃ ca gatvā-anyāṃś ca para talpān || 9 ||
9. That man falls who has sex with a female friend of a female Guru, or with a female friend of a male Guru, or with any married woman.
Regarding the ‘male Gurus ‘ see above. By ‘female Gurus’ their wives are meant.
na-aguru talpe patati-ity eke || 10 ||
10. Some [teachers declare], that he does not fall by having sex with any other married female except his teacher’s wife.
ie. He need not perform so heavy a penance if the sex is consensual.
adharmāṇāṃ tu satatam ācāraḥ || 11 ||
11. Constant commission of [other] sins [besides those enumerated above] also causes a man to lose his caste.
atha-aśuci karāṇi || 12 ||
12. Now follows [the enumeration of] the acts which make people impure [Aśucikara].
śūdra gamanam ārya strīṇām || 13 ||
13. [These are] āryan women having sex with śūdras,
pratiṣiddhānāṃ māṃsa bhakṣaṇam || 14 ||
14. Eating the meat of forbidden [creatures],
śuno manuṣyasya ca kukkuṭa sūkarāṇāṃ grāmyāṇāṃ kravyādasām || 15 ||
15. for example:— a dog, a human, village cocks or pigs or carnivorous animals,
manuṣyāṇāṃ mūtra purīṣa prāśanam || 16 ||
16. Eating the excrements of humans,
śūdra ucchiṣṭam apapātra āgamanañca āryāṇām || 17 ||
17. Eating what is left by a śūdra, āryans having sex with Apapātra women.
etāny api patanīyāni-ity eke || 18 ||
18. Some declare, that these acts [causing impurity] also cause a man to lose his caste.
ato- ‘anyāni doṣavanty aśuci karāṇi bhavanti || 19 ||
19. Other acts besides those [enumerated] are causes of impurity.
doṣaṃ buddhvā na pūrvaḥ parebhyaḥ patitasya samākhyāne syād varjayet tv enaṃ dharmeṣu || 20 ||
20. He who learns [that a man has] committed a transgression, shall not be the first to make it known to others; but he shall avoid the [sinner], when performing religious ceremonies.
That is to say, he is not to invite the culprit to feasts given during religious ceremonies.’ — Haradatta.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 8. Khaṇḍa 22.
Knowledge of the Self
adhyātmikān yogān anutiṣṭhen nyāya saṃhitān anaiścārikān || 1 ||
1. One shall strive by all means to acquire [the knowledge of] the Ātman, which results in the [destruction of the passions, and] which prevent the wandering [of the mind from its ideal, and fix it on the contemplation of the Atman].
The knowledge of the Vedānta and the means which prepare one for the knowledge of the Atman, the ‘Self, the universal Self,’ are taught in this Paṭala before the penances, because they are most efficacious for the removal of all negativity. The means are absence of anger etc., which are enumerated 220.127.116.11.
ātma lābhān na paraṃ vidyate || 2 ||
2. There is no higher [objective] than the attainment of [the knowledge of the] Atman.
Haradatta gives in his commentary a lengthy discussion on the Atman, which corresponds nearly to śaṅkara’s Introduction to and Commentary on the first Sūtra of Bādarāyaṇa.
tatra-ātma lābhīyān-ślokān udāhariṣyāmaḥ || 3 ||
3. We shall quote the [Vedic] verses which refer to the attainment of [the knowledge of] the Atman.
According to Haradatta, the following verses are taken from an Upanishad.
pūḥ prāṇinaḥ sarva eva guhā śayasya | ahanyamānasya vikalmaṣasya | acalaṃ cala niketaṃ ye- ‘anutiṣṭhanti te- ‘amṛtāḥ || 4 ||
4. All living creatures are the abode of Him who lies enveloped in matter, Who is immortal and Who is taintless. Those become immortal who worship Him who is immovable and lives in a movable dwelling.
The taintless one etc. is the Paramātman. The taints are merit and demerit which,
residing in the Manas, the internal organ of perception, are only falsely attributed to the Atman. To become immortal means ‘to obtain final liberation.’
yad idam id iha-id iha loke viṣayam ucyate | vidhūya kavir etad
anutiṣṭhed guhā śayam || 5 ||
5. Renouncing all material objects [of the senses] a wise person shall strive after the [knowledge of the] Atman.
ātmann eva-aham alabdhvā-etad dhitaṃ sevasva na-ahitam | atha-anyeṣu pratīcchāmi sādhuṣṭhānam anapekṣayā | mahāntaṃ tejasas- kāyaṃ sarvatra nihitaṃ prabhum || 6 ||
6. “O student, I, who had not recognised in my own self the great self- luminous, universal, [absolutely] free Atman, which must be realised directly without the mediation of anything else, desired [to find] it in others [the senses]. [But now as I have obtained the true knowledge, I do so no more.] Therefore, follow also this good road that leads to welfare [liberation], and not the one that leads into suffering [new births]”.
The verse is addressed by a teacher to his student according to Haradatta, but his interpretation is open to many doubts.
sarva bhūteṣu yo nityo vipaścid amṛto dhruvaḥ |anaṅgo- ‘aśabdo- ‘aśarīro- ‘asparśaś ca mahān-śuciḥ | sa sarvaṃ paramā kāṣṭhā sa vaiṣuvataṃ||7||
7. It is That which is the eternal essence in all creatures, whose essence is wisdom, immortal, unchangeable, devoid of parts, of expression, of the [subtle] body, [even] of touch, exceedingly pure; That is the totality of Being, That is the highest goal; [he dwells in the middle of the body like] the Viśuvat day [which is in the middle of a Sattra-sacrifice]; That indeed, is [accessible to all] like a town intersected by many streets.
The Sūtra contains a further description of the Paramātman.
taṃ yo- ‘anutiṣṭhet sarvatra prādhvaṃ ca-asya sadā- ācaret | durdarśaṃ nipuṇaṃ yukto yaḥ paśyet sa modeta viṣṭape || 8 ||
8. He who meditates on That, and everywhere and always lives according to Dharma and who, full of devotion, sees That which is difficult to be seen and subtle, will rejoice in [his] ‘heaven’.
Haradatta explains the word viṣṭap, ‘heaven,’ by ‘pain freed greatness,’ apparently misled by a bad etymology. The heaven of the Atman is, of course, mokṣa — liberation, that state where the individual Self becomes merged in the Brahman or Paramātman, which is pure essence, consciousness and joy.