The Ethics of Narada is contained in chapters 11 to 15 of Skandha VII of the Bhagavata Purana. This is in the nature of a dialogue between Narada and Yudhishthira, elaborated by Sri Suka.
Sri Suka said:
1. Having heard the narrative so highly praised in the assemblies of the righteous and devotees of the Lord like Prahlada (the ruler of Daityas), the leader of the illustrious devotees of the Lord, whose mind was absorbed in the meditation of God Visnu, Yudhishthira was filled with delight. He again made a further query of Narada, the son of the self-created god Brahma.
2. I am anxious to hear from you, O Omniscient Sage, the eternal law, the righteous course of conduct prescribed for men enjoining the duties to be performed by persons belonging to different classes of society (varna) and stages in life (asrama) the observance of which (dharma) leads one to attain knowledge and devotion.
3. Your worshipful self is the son of no other than the highest deity, Brahma, the lord of all created beings. Of all his sons, you have been the most beloved one by virtue of your asceticism, yogic powers and meditation of the Lord, O Brahmana!
4. Merciful, pious, tranquil brahmanas like you devoted exclusively to Narayana know the highest secret of dharma but not others.
5. Saluting the venerable eternal God Narayana, the source of dharma, I shall explain to you the eternal law as I heard it from (His) Narayanaís lips.
6. He incarnated along with his part-manifestation Nara, as the son of Dharma and Murti, the daughter of Daksha. He still continues to perform penance for the welfare of the people, at the hermitage at Badarika.
7. For, Lord Hari, the embodiment of the Veda, is the source of dharma; smrtis are codified by those who knew Him. And it is by abiding by that dharma that oneís soul gets pleased, O King!
8 ñ 12. Truthfulness, mercy, asceticism, purity, endurance, power of discrimination between right and wrong, control of mind and the senses, non-violence, celibacy, charity, the study of the Veda or repetition internally of prayers to God, straight-forwardness, contentment, service unto those who regard all beings as equals, gradual withdrawal from worldly activities, observance of the futility of human actions, refraining from useless talk, investigation of the nature of the soul (and its distinctness from the body), equitable distribution of food, eatables, etc among creatures according to their worth (and needs), to look upon all living creatures, especially human beings, as oneís own self and as the deity, hearing the holy name (or stories) of the Lord, chanting His name, contemplation on, worship of, bowing to and rendering service to God, service to fellow human beings, behaving as His friend and dedication of oneself to
13. He is called a dvija or twice-born whose (sixteen) purifying rites (accompanied by recitation of mantras) have been preformed without any break in succession, and whom Brahma has so designated. Performance of sacrifices, study of scriptures and charity are prescribed for all the twice-born varnas (brahmana, kshatriya and vaisya) who are of pure birth and conduct. It is for these that duties incumbent on different stages in life (asrama) are prescribed.
14. Scriptural study and others (such as teaching, performance of sacrifice, charity and acceptance of gifts), six (in all), are prescribed for the brahmanas. Non-acceptance of gifts is laid down for the other varna (kshatriya). The means of livelihood of a king, who protects his subjects, is derived from taxes levied on his subjects, with the exception of brahmanas (who are exempt from taxation).
15. The vaisya is to maintain himself by agriculture (cattle-breeding) and trade, and should follow the brahmanas. A sudra is to render service to the twice-born varnas, whose means of livelihood constitutes his means of subsistence (on service).
16. The means of livelihood of brahmanas is four-fold, namely, various occupations such as agriculture, cattle breeding, acceptance of articles modestly (without asking any one for anything), begging for grain from door to door like yayavaras (vagrant mendicants) and gleaning grains of corn from the leftover of the threshing floor in the field (sila) or of the market place (uncha), in the ascending order of preference.
17. With the exception of kshatriyas, no person born in a lower varna should adopt the vocation ordained for the higher varna under normal circumstances, that is, when not threatened with serious danger. The kshatriyas can adopt brahmanical means of livelihood, except that of accepting charitable gifts. In times of danger, anybody (belonging to any varna) may resort to any profession (prescribed for any varna).
18. A person may sustain his life by following the vocations or professions (technically) known as rta, amrta, mrta, pramrta or satyanrta, but should never lead a dogís life (svavrtti) (even) for preserving oneís life.
19 ñ 20. The gleaning of corn from the leftovers of field or of the marketplace is called rta; whatever is given to one unsolicited is known as amrta; mrta is daily begging, and pramrta means cultivation; trading is satyanrta (a mixture of truth and falsehood), while rendering service to the low-born is sva-vrtti. A brahmana and a kshatriya should always shun that ëdog mode of lifeí which is detested by all; for a brahmana is an embodiment of the Veda and a kshatriya (the ruler) is the personification of all deities.
21. Control over mind and senses, asceticism, purity, contentment, forbearance and forgiveness, straightforwardness. Knowledge, compassion, fervent devotion to Lord Visnu and truthfulness are the characteristics of a brahmana.
22. Valour, prowess, fortitude, adventurous spirit, liberality, self-control, forgiveness, devotion to brahmanas, majestic graciousness and defence of the weak constitute the characteristics of a kshatriya.
23. Devotion unto gods, teachers and Lord Visnu, maintenance (and achievement) of three objectives in life (dharma, artha and kama), faith in sastras, constant effort (in making money) and skill in transactions form the characteristics of a vaisya.
24 Submissiveness, purity, faithful (un-treacherous) service of the master, performance of the five daily sacrifices by bowing down only (without uttering the mantras), abstention from thieving, truthfulness, and protection of the cattle and the brahmanas are the characteristics of a sudra.
25. The duties of a woman who looks upon her husband as a (veritable) god are rendering service to her husband, compliance to his wishes, friendliness to his relatives and ever-observance of the same vows as those of her husband.
26 ñ 27. A pious woman should keep the house clean by sweeping and plastering (with cow-dung), and decorating it with auspicious coloured diagrams and pictures on the floor. She should adorn her person with ornaments and clean clothes, and always keep the utensils etc in the house clean and polished. She should, at every time, abide by the desires, great or small, of her husband with modesty, self-control and address him lovingly in true yet pleasant words.
28. Contented (with what she has), not covetous, diligent, knowing what is dharma (righteousness), sweet yet true in speech, careful, pious and affectionate, she should serve her husband who is not fallen.
A person is considered fallen if he commits the sin of murder of a brahmana, drinking liquor, theft, adultery with his preceptorís wife or fellowship with a criminal of any of the above crimes.
29. A woman who, as goddess Lakshmi would do unto Lord Hari, serves her husband with a single-minded devotion, regarding him as Lord Visnu, would, like Lakshmi in the company of Lord Visnu, rejoice hereafter in the region of Hari (Vaikuntha) along with her husband, who (through her devotion) will have attained the resemblance of Hari (in form).
30. The means of livelihood of mixed varnas such as the antyajas (the low-born ones), antevasiyas (communities living at the farther end of a village such as chandala, matanga, pukkasa) are the hereditary callings followed by their respective families, provided it is not robbery and any sinful vocation.
A marriage between a woman of higher varna and a man of lower varna is called pratiloma. The progeny of such marriages are known as constituting the low-born (antyaja) varnas. These varnas are said to constitute washer-men, leather-workers, rope-dancers (natas), basket-makers (burudas), fisher-men, etc.
31. In every age, the dharma (the course of duties ñ the ethics) of the people is generally determined by their innate nature (according as they are predominantly of sattva, rajas or tamas characteristics). Sages, the Vedic seers, have regarded dharma as that course of conduct which is conducive to happiness (of persons with such natures) both here and hereafter.
32. He, who follows a vocation determined as suitable to his special nature (as determined by his varna) and does his duty, and goes on relinquishing that type of work gradually, attains to the state of the attribute-less Atman.
33. A field which is constantly sown with seeds automatically becomes unfertile. It is unsuitable for sowing seeds again, and if seed be sown, it perishes.
34. Similarly the mind, the seat of desires, becomes satiated and disgusted by overindulgence in pleasures.
35. If what has been described as the characteristic of a particular varna in the society be found in any person belonging to a different varna, then the latter should be distinctly designated as coming under that varna.
1. A brahmacharin should dwell in the house of his preceptor. He should be self-controlled and comply with what is agreeable to the preceptor. He should behave humbly like a servant, and entertain very strong affection to his teacher.
2. In the morning and in the evening, he should wait upon the preceptor and worship to Fire-god, the Sun-god and other prominent deities. Observing perfect silence at both the twilights (and in the mid-day), he should repeat the Gayatri mantra with concentrated mind (while performing sandhya).
3. If (and when) called by his preceptor, he should study the Veda (at his feet) with perfect concentration and in a disciplined manner. He should bow down to his feet with his head, both at the beginning and the completion of the lesson.
4. With his hair braided, he should wear a mekhala (a girdle of munja grass), the deer-skin, (two pieces of) cloth and the sacred thread (yajnopavita), and carry with him a staff and a kamandalu (water-pot or gourd) and a handful of darbha grass as prescribed (in the sastras).
5. He should beg alms both in the morning and in the evening, and offer it to his teacher. If permitted, he should partake of the food, if not (as a test or a punishment, or as occasionally required on days of observing fast) he should fast.
6. He should be of good character, moderate in eating, alert and prompt (in work), of reverential faith in sastras and self-controlled. It is only when absolutely necessary and to that extent only (getting alms) he should deal with women, or with those who are influenced (that is, enslaved) by women.
7 A person other than a householder, who has taken the great vow of celibacy, should avoid talking to young women. For, the senses are (by nature) so powerful and violent that they carry away the mind of even a recluse (yati, who is expected to be perfectly self-controlled).
8. A youthful brahmacharin (student) should not allow any personal service such as combing his hair, massaging, bathing and anointing his person done by any woman from his preceptorís family, especially if she is young.
9. For, verily a young woman is (like) fire and a man is like a pot containing clarified butter. One should even avoid (the company of) oneís daughter in a secluded place and, at other times, one should remain with her so long as the work or duty demands it (even in public places).
10. So long as, by self-realization, one has not firmly determined that oneís body, the senses, the universe, etc are illusory, and the jiva has not attained perfect mastery over oneself by identifying oneself with the Supreme Lord, the notion of duality (between a man and a woman) will continue to persist (provoking, thereby, the desire to enjoy) through false attribution of gunas.
11. All the above instructions are laid down for the householder and, more so, for the sanyasin (a recluse). A householder who is expected to be with his wife may optionally stay with his preceptor.
12. Those who have taken the vow of brahmacharya (celibacy) should avoid the use of collyrium, unguents, massage of the body, dealings with women, painting or viewing pictures of women, meat, spirituous liquor (in the case of those who are permitted to drink, honey in the case of brahmanas), garlands, sandal pigment and ornaments.
13. In this way, having stayed in the preceptorís house, a dvija (a twice-born) should study and understand, to the best of his ability and to the extent of his requirements, the meaning of the three Vedas (Rig Veda, Sama Veda and Yajur Veda), along with their (six) auxiliaries and the Upanisads (Vedanta philosophical treatises).
The auxiliaries (Vedangas) are six. They are phonetics (siksha), the science of proper articulation and pronunciation; application (kalpa), ritual or ceremonial; grammar (vyakarana); etymology (nirukta), explanation of difficult Vedic words; prosody (chandas); and astrology (jyotisa).
14. Having presented, if at all he could afford to do so, what was desired by his preceptor (as ëfee for the courseí) and having obtained his permission, he (the student) should enter the householderís life, retire to the forest (for performing penance, etc), renounce the world to wander as a yati (recluse) or stay with his preceptor (as a lifelong brahmacharin).
15. He should look upon (conceive) Lord Visnu as if He had entered into the fire, the preceptor, himself and the elements together with all the creatures sheltered in Him, for, He is their Inner Controller.
16. A person belonging to the order of brahmacharya or vanaprastha (a forest dweller), a sanyasin (a recluse) or a householder who contemplates thus (the omnipresence of the Lord) and follows the course of duties ordained for his particular asrama (stage of life) realizes what is required to be known, and attains to the Supreme Brahman.
17. I shall now explain to you the code of conduct approved by the sages and prescribed for vanaprasthas (forest dwellers) by observing which a sage easily attains Maharloka, the heaven of sages.
18. A forest-dweller should not eat the product of cultivation (rice, wheat) or anything (like fruits, roots, etc) which, though not a product of tillage, ripens before time. He should not partake of food cooked on fire. He should subsist on what is ripe on its own, or cooked by rays of the Sun.
19. He should prepare an oblation of rice, barley and pulse boiled for presentation to the gods and the manes, purodasa of corn and collect wild growth (nivara) of a permanent nature. When he procures new and fresh eatables, he should reject the old ones (stored by him).
Purodasa is boiled rice rounded into a cake and usually divided into parts which are kept in separate receptacles for offering to different deities.
20. It is just for the preservation of the (sacred) fire that he should take shelter in a house, cottage or a cave in mountains. He himself should bear exposure to snow, wind, fire, rain and heat of the sun.
21 ñ 22. The forest dweller with matted hair (on the head) should wear the hair on his body, moustache, beard (without shaving), and nails and dirt (not properly washed). He should take with him kamandalu (a pot of water), deer-skin, staff, bark-garments and utensils of fire worship. The sage should thus wander in the forest for twelve, eight, four, two or one year, to that length of time in which the mind gets transcended through the austerities.
23. lf (after the period of stay in the forest) he finds that, owing to ill-health (disease) or old age, he is incapable of pursuing his course of duties (as a forest dweller) or prosecuting his contemplation on the Divine, he should adopt the vow of fasting, etc. (lf he is so intent, he should become a sanyasin ñ a recluse).
24. (Before beginning the fast) he should withdraw and deposit the sacred fires (ahavaniya and others) within his self. He should renounce the notions of ëIí and ëMineí, and should merge the constituents of his body in their own causes (the sky, the air, the fire, the water and the earth).
25. A self-controlled man should merge the cavities in his body (eyes, ears, nostrils) into the sky (the element ñ the mahabhuta called akasa), his exhalations (vital-breaths) into the air, the temperature of his body into the fire, (fluids like) blood, phlegm and pus into the water and the rest (hard substances like bones, muscles etc) into the earth, thus assigning them each to its respective origin.
26. He should consign his speech along with the organ of speech to the Fire, his hands and their power to Indra, his feet along with (the power of) locomotion to Visnu, the organ of re-generation (along with its power) to Prajapati (deity presiding over procreation).
27. (He should merge) the organ of excretion and its power in Mrtyu (the god of death); his sense of audition along with (its object) sound into (deities presiding over) cardinal points; and his tactual organ along with its tactility in the atman or wind-god).
28. O King! He should deposit his eyes (eye-sight), and the colours and forms (the objects of the eye) with the Sun-god, the tongue and its objects of taste such as sweet, bitter, etc in water (or god Varuna), and the olfactory sense along with its objects that are of various smells, in the earth.
29. He should merge his mind along with its desires and objects in the Moon-god, the intelligence and the objects to be grasped by it in the highest god Brahma. He should consign actions with self-consciousness to god Rudra through whose instrumentality the activities actuated by the notions of ëI-nessí and ëMine-nessí proceed. He should merge his chitta (reason, heart) along with sattva in Kshetrajna (Hiranya-garbha) and vaikarika ahamkara along with gunas in the Supreme Brahman.
30. He should then dissolve the earth into water, absorb water into fire, fire into the air and the air into the ether. The ether (akasa) is to be merged into the principle called ego (aham), and that into Mahat (the principle of cosmic intelligence), and that into the un-manifest Prakrti and that un-manifest Pradhana into Paramatman (the Supreme Soul).
31. Having thus realized the Soul as identical with Paramatman, Indestructible Consciousness, and becoming free from the notion of duality, he should cease to function like fire that consumes its own source (fuel).
1. If a person is thus capable and fit (physically and mentally), he should take to the life of a vagrant recluse. Owning nothing else but his body, he should observe the rule of staying only one night in a village and thus wander over the earth, being totally free of desire.
2. If at all he is to wear a piece of cloth, it should be a strip of cloth just sufficient to cover his private parts. Unless there is some serious danger, he should not take anything which has been renounced, except the staff and other emblems (kamandalu – water-pot) characteristic of a sanyasin.
3. Delighted in his own self and seeking no shelter, he should wander all alone as a mendicant subsisting on alms. He should be friendly to all beings, serene and devoted exclusively to Narayana.
4. He should visualize this universe in the immutable Atman (Self) which is beyond (and distinct from) cause and effect, and should perceive the Self as the Supreme Brahman present everywhere in the universe, (a product) of causes and consequences.
5. During the mediate state between sleep and wakefulness, he should concentrate on the soul within, and should try to perceive the true nature of the Self. He should look upon bondage and emancipation as merely illusory and not real.
6. He should welcome neither death that is inevitable, nor life that is transitory. But he should simply wait for the Time which brings about the birth and death of beings.
7. He should not be attached to sastras dealing with topics other than Atman. Nor should he try to maintain himself by following any profession (like astrology or medicine). He should avoid all forms of disputation. He should not persistently adhere to any point of view.
8. He should not attract students. Nor should he study numerous books (lest they should cause confusion or distraction). He should not undertake the exposition of some sacred text (other than related to Vedanta). Nor should he take up the establishment of any institution or monastery.
9. The duties so prescribed for the order of recluses (sanyasins) are not meant for securing religious merit to the noble-souled ones (paramahamsas) who are of serene and equable mind (The duties are to be observed till the recluse realizes the highest wisdom). Thereafter, he may continue to practise the duties, or discard them.
10. One whose external signs of being a recluse are not evident but continues oneís purpose (meditation on the Self) may, though learned, show himself (behave externally like) a mad person or an ignorant child; though highly intelligent and wise, he appears to be dumb in the eyes of the public.
11. On this issue, an old historical (mythological) account has been traditionally handed down as an illustration. It is the conversation between Prahlada and the sage Dattatreya observing the ajagara mode of life.
Dattatreya is the Lord incarnated as Datta, the son of Atri and Anasuya, who taught spiritual lore to the king Alarka and Prahlada.
The ajagara mode of life is that of a python which is supposed to swallow whatever comes its way, without making any move on its path.
12 ñ 13. While Prahlada, the beloved (devotee) of the Lord, accompanied by a few ministers, was travelling through various worlds with a view to acquainting himself with the true nature of the people, he happened to see, on the top of the Sahyadri (western ghats), on the bank of the Kaveri, some person lying on bare ground, his pure effulgence concealed under a coat of dust covering all parts of his body.
14. By his actions, appearance or words, people could not recognize him who or what he was and what he was not, as to his varna or asrama.
15. Having bowed to the sage by touching his feet with his head and having worshipped him with due formalities, the Asura, (himself) a prominent votary of the Lord, was curious to know (the truth about) him (the sage) and asked him the following question.
16. ëYou have a robust body like an industrious person who enjoys a luxurious life. Wealth accrues to persons who are industrious, and comforts and luxuries can be afforded by people of wealth. Indeed, only the bodies of those who are given to luxurious life become corpulent, and not otherwise.
17. Lying supine without doing any work as you do, O Brahmana, you obviously possess no wealth which is the source of enjoyment (luxurious life). If you think proper (to disclose), please tell us how your body is corpulent despite your non-indulgence in luxuries and lack of comforts.
18. Learned, capable, clever, possessing wonderfully sweet power of speech and of equable temper as you are, how is it that you lie down (doing nothing) simply looking on, while all other people are exerting themselves.
19. Being thus questioned by Prahlada, the king of daityas, the great Sage, magnetized by the nectar-like words of the king, smilingly spoke to him.
The Brahmana said:
20. O the Foremost of asuras! Your honour is esteemed by all great and learned people. By your spiritual insight, you certainly know this, that is, the consequences of activity for (obtaining) worldly objects, and of renouncing them.
21. Owing to your absolute and pure devotion, the glorious Lord Narayana always abides in your heart. He dispels your ignorance as the sun disperses darkness.
22. We, however, shall (try to) answer your questions according to what I have traditionally learnt (about them). For, you deserve respect from those who desire to purify their hearts.
23. Being (induced) to do various acts by powerful desire which is never satiated by enjoyment of suitable objects, and thus become the source of the stream of births (and death), I have been forced to take birth in various species.
24. While wandering (through various types of existence) by the force of karma, and through sheer Providence, I have been brought to the human form of existence which is a gate-way to heaven or final emancipation.
25. Having observed the frustrations and failures of married couples while performing actions for securing happiness and avoiding pain in this life as well, I retired from worldly-activities.
26. Happiness is the essential nature of the soul. It is manifested after withdrawal and cessation of all activities. Having perceived that enjoyment and experience are fanciful creations of the mind, I lie down (enjoying whatever comes my way ordained by the Divine).
27. Having forgotten that this blissful nature is inherent in oneís self, a man is verily enmeshed into samsara which is terrible (owing to birth, death and other miseries) and yet strange (as it consists of birth in celestial, subhuman, human and other-species).
28. He, who (being ignorant of his innate blissful state) thinks of finding his object (happiness) elsewhere (outside his self), is like an ignorant person who, with a desire to get water (to quench his thirst), leaves water (near him, but) runs after the mirage.
29. The body and the sense-organs are controlled by destiny. All the actions and efforts of a person without luck, repeatedly done through their instrumentality, for securing his happiness and removing his miseries become fruitless.
30. (Granting that a manís efforts are successful) what pleasures can be derived, from the hard-earned wealth and desired objects obtained with great difficulty, by a mortal (obsessed with the fear of death) and plagued by three types of miseries such as bodily ailments and others?
31. I perceive the agonies and tensions of wealthy and covetous persons who have no control over themselves, and who have lost their sleep, out of fear, as they are suspicious of everybody on all sides.
32. I observe that those who are anxious about their life and wealth entertain fear from kings, robbers, enemies, their kinsmen, birds and beasts, beggars, Time and themselves, at every moment.
33. (Therefore) a wise man should give up longings for life and property which are the source of sorrow, infatuation, fear, anger, attachment, despondency, over-exertions and such other (troubles).
34. In this world, the bee and the big python are our best teachers. By following their example, we attain renunciation and contentment.
35. I have learnt renunciation of all worldly objects from the bee, the gatherer of honey, for any person may kill the master and usurp the hard-earned money like honey, after killing the bees.
36. Free of all desires and with mind contented, I accept whatever is brought to me by Providence. Otherwise, I lie inactive like a big serpent for many days, depending on my innate power.
37. Sometimes I eat scant food; sometimes I enjoy a heavy meal, irrespective of the deliciousness or otherwise of the food; sometimes I partake of highly rich dishes, and sometimes worthless food.
38. At some places, I eat food that is offered to me with respect, and sometimes with irreverence. Sometimes, I do justice to food after eating; sometimes, I eat food by day or by night as is offered to me by chance.
39. Ever contented in mind, I enjoy whatever is ordained by fate; and I wear linen garments or silks or deerskin or rags or any other (fabric) that is offered to me.
40. Sometimes, I sleep on the bare ground; sometimes, on grass, a heap of leaves, a slab of stone or in ashes; sometimes, I lie inside a mansion on a rich bed over a precious bedstead as desired by God.
41. Sometimes, I take bath with my body anointed with fragrant pigments. I put on rich garments and wear garlands and ornaments. Sometimes, I ride in a chariot, on an elephant or on a horse; and sometimes, I wander stark-naked like an evil spirit, O King!
42. I do not revile or praise people who are of diverse nature. I pray for their welfare, and bless them for their union with the Almighty Lord Visnu.
43. One should oblate (merge) oneís notion of diversity in the mental faculty that perceives such differences, that mental faculty into mind which mistakes the unreal for the real, the mind into the sattvic ahamkara and that ahamkara through Mahat in Maya regularly.
44. The sage who perceives the Reality should merge that Maya into the realization of his soul. Devoid of all desires, he should establish himself in Self-realization, and cease all activities.
45. In this way, I have described to you my way of life which is closely guarded as a secret, though it is far different from the canons of conduct stated in the sastras (for the benefit of common people). (I have thus frankly explained to you) as you are the beloved of God.
46. Having heard the code of conduct of the highest order of recluses, the lord of asuras (Prahlada) worshipped him respectfully. Being pleased in mind, he bade goodbye, and returned home.
1. O celestial Sage! Please explain to me that course of conduct by which a householder like me whose mind is clouded with attachment to house and property will attain to the above state of emancipation (moksha) without difficulty.
1 ñ A. Even though you know it, you have asked this question for the good of the world, O King! I shall explain to you how the duties of a householder lead one to the state of ëno-actioní (attainment of Jnana-yoga).
2. Staying in the household and performing duties (such as sandhya, worship and five maha-yajnas) laid down for a householder as direct offering to Lord Vasudeva (without expecting any return), one should wait upon great sages to know the Truth.
3. Devoutly listening to the nectar-like stories of the Incarnations of Visnu during leisure after performance of duties, one should constantly be associated with (that is, surrounded by) persons who are tranquil by nature.
4. Through companionship with saintly people, one should gradually release oneself from attachment to oneself, oneís wife, oneís sons, etc who are in the process of being separated from one, and should rise above them like a person awakened from a dream (does in the case of objects seen in the dream).
5. A wise man should be disinterested in and dispassionate to his body and house, but should attend to them to the extent to which they are indispensable. Simulating attachment to them, a man should transcend his status as an ordinary human being and be a recluse, or (carry out his duties in life).
6. Free of attachment to himself and his property, he should acquiesce in what his kinsmen, parents, sons, brothers and other well-wishers propose and desire.
7. A wise man should carry out his duties while enjoying what he gets from the heaven (crops due to rain-fall), from mines (gold, precious stones, etc) and what he gets accidentally by wind-fall, as all wealth is created by Lord Visnu (and is obtained through his grace).
8. Embodied beings can lay claim to that much wealth as is just necessary for filling their bellies. He who lays claim to more than what is necessary is a thief, and deserves punishment.
9. One should look upon beasts, camels, donkeys, monkeys, rats, serpents, birds and flies like oneís own sons (and hence these should not be driven out of the house or fields if they enter and begin to eat), for there is very little difference between them and oneís sons.
10. Even though a man is a householder, he should not put in extraordinary effort for getting the three purusharthas (artha, kama and dharma). He should enjoy what is afforded to him by Providence.
11. He should duly share his objects of enjoyment with all, down to dogs, sinners and people belonging to the lowest strata of the society (that is, who dwell at the end of a village). He should allow his wife, whom he ardently claims his own, to receive guests (unmindful of his inconvenience).
12. He, who can forego his claim on his wife for whose sake he should lay down his life or would kill his father or preceptor (if he suspects of any illegal or extra-marital relationship with her), has conquered (secured the grace of) the unconquerable Lord Visnu.
13. How despicable is the body that is convertible into worms (if buried), excretion (if eaten up by carnivorous animals) or ashes (if cremated)! Equally despicable is (the body of) wife which contributes to its erotic pleasures! How great is the Soul which pervades the whole of the space!
14. A wise person should make a living by eating the left-over food after offering oblations to the deities in five maha-yajnas, while relinquishing the notion of his claim to what remains as surplus. That way, he attains to the station of a paramahamsa.
15. A man should worship the Antaryamin (the Inner Controller) daily by sharing what he has obtained in his own vocation with gods, sages, human beings, other living beings, the Pitris and himself.
16. If he possesses all the required materials as well as the requisite qualifications for performing sacrifices, he should worship the Lord as laid down in the Srauta and Kalpa sutras.
17. But verily, this venerable Lord, the Enjoyer of sacrifice is not propitiated to that extent by oblation offered through the (sacrificial) fire, as through (the morsels of food offered to Him) through the mouths of brahmanas, O King!
18. One should, therefore, worship this Inner Controller (God) through the brahmanas, gods presiding over the five maha-yajnas as also through mortals like human beings and other creatures, by offering them objects of enjoyment, according to their respective order, after (feeding) the brahmanas.
19. If sufficiently rich, a twice-born person (brahmana, kshatriya or vaisya) should perform, according to his means, the sraddha, that is, the mahalaya in honour of his (departed) parents as well as their kinsmen and others, in the dark half of Bhadrapada.
20 ñ 23. He should (also) perform their sraddha at the time of the summer and the winter solstices (ayanas); the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (visuva); during the division of time called vyatipata; on the day when a tithi, that is, the lunar day begins and ends between two sun-rises known as dinaksaya; during the lunar and solar eclipses; on the twelfth lunar day when the constellations known as sravana, dhanishta and sata-taraka are on the ascendance; on the third day in the bright half of vaisakha; on the ninth lunar day in the bright half of karttika; on the eighth day in the dark half of the months of margasira, pausa, magha and phalguna; on the seventh day in the bright half of the month of magha; on the full-moon day when the constellation magha is ascended; on days when the constellations associated with the names of other (lunar) months are ascended on a full-moon day; on that day when the moon rises one digit less than the full; on any twelfth lunar day when the constellations anuradha, sravana, uttarashadha, uttarabhadrapada and uttaraphalguni are ascendant; on the eleventh lunar day (of any month) associated with (any of) these three constellations; (and lastly) on any day when the constellation under which a person was born or the constellation called sravana is ascendant.
24. These are very auspicious times for men conducive to their attainment of prosperity. On these days, a person should, by every means, try to perform pious acts to the best of his abilities. Thus his merits become most effectual and contribute to his longevity.
25. On these days, performance of ablutions, uttering prayers or mantras, oblations to fire, observance of sacred vows, worship of gods and brahmanas, and gifts donated in the names of manes, gods, men and living creatures bear ever-lasting benefit.
26. O King! Sraddhas should be performed when it is the time of the purificatory rites, observed in the behalf of himself, his wife or children; as well as at the time of the cremation of a dead body or on the death anniversary of a person; and at the time of any other function like marriage.
27. Now I shall narrate to you the (holy) places which enhance religious merits and other good. That is the most sacred place where a worthy and virtuous recipient is found.
28. For, he (such worthy recipient) is the very image of the Almighty Lord in who abides the whole creation, mobile and immobile. That is the hallowed place where brahmanas characterized by penance, knowledge and kindness dwell.
29. All the places where the image of Hari or Saligrama is found (or wherever the worship of Lord Hari is done) are the abodes of blessings; and so are the regions through which rivers like the Ganga and others, celebrated in puranas, flow.
30. (The regions where) lakes like pushkara and others are situated; and places inhabited by venerable sages, and places known as Kurukshetra, Gaya, Prayaga, the hermitage of Pulaha known as Salagrama Kshetra.
31. Forests like Naimisa, Kanyateertha, the holy bridge built by Rama at Rameswara, Prabhasa, Dwaraka, Varanasi, Mathura, the lake Pampa and Bindusara where stood the hermitage of Kardama, the father of Kapila;
32. The Hermitage of Narayana (Badarikasrama), the Alakananda, Chitrakuta where stood the hermitage of Rama and Sita and such other places; all principal mountain ranges such as Mahendra (Eastern-ghats), Malaya (Western-ghats) and others, O King!
33. These are the most-sacred places where the idols of Hari are installed. He, who is desirous of blessings, should constantly sojourn at these places. Righteous duties performed here yield fruits thousand-times more than what accrues at other places.
34. The foremost judges of worthy recipients, and wise people have decided that, in this world, Hari and Lord Hari alone is the only worthy recipient. O Lord of the earth! Everything mobile and immobile is constituted of Him.
35. Accordingly, O King, even though gods, sages, worthy persons such as the sons of Brahma and others were present at your Rajasuya sacrifice, Lord Krisna was conclusively selected as deserving the first place for adoration at the sacrifice, owing to His worthiness.
36. The great tree in the form of the universe (Brahmanda) is crowded with multitudes of the Jiva and is without limit. But Acyuta being the root of that tree, His worship brings gratification to all the Jiva and to oneís own soul.
37. The dwellings (bodies) in the form of human beings, sub-human species, sages and gods have been created by Him. He dwells in these bodies in the form of Jiva, and hence He is called Purusa (the Dweller of habitations or Inner Controller).
38. In these bodies, the Lord is present (manifests Himself) in different degrees (of intelligence, wisdom, etc). Hence, even though every man is a worthy recipient, he is proportionately so according to the manifestation of the Self (spiritual wisdom, penance, etc) in him.
39. O King! Wise sages have taken into account the mutual hatred and disregard among men in the Treta and other ages, and have, therefore, instituted Hariís idols for worship, and other religious duties.
40. Some persons with perfect devotion in the worship of Hari propitiate Him thereby; but, to some, the worship of Hari, even though performed, is not fruitful as they hate the Lord in the form of His creation.
41. O Lord of kings! Even amongst men, a brahmana is regarded as the really worthy recipient as he bears in him the body of Hari, the Veda, along with the virtues of penance, learning and contentment.
42. O King! The brahmanas, who purify the three worlds by the dust of their feet, form really the Supreme Deity, Lord Krisna, who is the Soul of the universe.
1. Some brahmanas (householders) are devoted to rituals prescribed for their particular asrama; some (forest-dwellers) are bent on performing austere penance; some others (brahmacharins) to the study of the Veda; some to the teaching and exposition of the Veda; some to spiritual enlightenment (as in the case of sanyasins); and some to perfection in yoga.
2. A person desirous of attaining eternally lasting merit should offer the gifts of food, etc intended for manes (the Pitrs) and those meant for gods, to persons who are solely devoted to spiritual knowledge and, in their absence, to others according to their merit.
3. One should feed two brahmanas in rites connected with gods; three for ceremonies (sraddha) intended for (the Pitrs), or may feed one only in each. Even though a person is very affluent, one should not invite a large number (of guests).
4. If invitations are extended on a large scale, and food, etc is distributed among relatives, conditions regarding proper place, time, piety, devotion, proper materials, worthy recipients, etc are not properly observed.
5. At the appropriate time and place, if food, worthy of offer to sages, is first offered to Hari and then given, following the formalities and with devotion, to a worthy recipient, it yields the desired benefit and everlasting merit.
6. While distributing food to gods, sages, the Pitrs, beings and oneís relatives, one should look upon these all as identical with the Supreme Person.
7. A person who knows the essence of dharma should not give (serve) flesh (non-vegetarian food), nor should eat it, at the time of sraddha, for there is no real gratification in the slaughter of animals, for there is supreme satisfaction with the type of food worthy of offer to sages.
8. For those persons who desire to follow the right course of conduct, there is no supreme dharma other than abstinence from violence to living beings caused by thought, word and deed.
9. Some persons who are well-versed in sacrificial lore and who have spiritual wisdom, become free of desire, and offer the ritualistic sacrifices (in the form of external actions) into the fire of self-control kindled by spiritual knowledge.
10. Living beings (animals, etc) become apprehensive on seeing a person who performs sacrifices with gross materials. (They say), ëthis cruel man, not grasping the spirit of the rules prescribed for yajnas, and thirsting after my life (flesh), will surely kill meí.
11. Therefore, a person knowing the real path of righteousness should be satisfied with the hermitís way of life providentially obtained by him, and should every day carry out the prescribed daily and occasional duties.
12. A man versed in righteousness should steer clear of the five forms (branches) of adharma (impiety), namely, vidharma, paradharma, abhasa, upama and chala regarding them all as adharma (impiety).
13. Vidharma (black-magic of Tantra) is that which, though practised as dharma, obstructs real dharma. Paradharma is the course of conduct ordained for another varna or asrama. Upadharma is heresy opposing the Veda. Upama is hypocrisy. Chala is distortion of the text, but showing apparent conformity to the letter of the scriptures, or quibbling.
14. The course of conduct different from the duties (prescribed in the Veda for different varnas in society and asramas in life) but adopted according to oneís fancy (the avadhuta mode of life) is called abhasa. Who would regard abhasa (dharma), which is agreeable to oneís innate disposition, as not conducive to oneís (inner) peace and prosperity?
15. An indigent person should not try to earn money either for the sake of charitable donations or for the maintenance of his life. The effortless state of one who ceases from activities becomes oneís means of subsistence, as in the case of the (proverbial) python.
16. How can the happiness enjoyed by a self-contented person, cherishing no desires and delighted in his own self, be obtained by a person who, actuated by passion and covetousness, runs in all directions in quest of wealth?
17. All directions are full of happiness to a man who is ever contented in his mind, just as the feet protected by shoes have complete safety against gravels, thorns and others.
18. With what will not a self-contented man pull on, say even with water? Owing to beggarly yearning for the pleasures of sex and tongue, a man behaves like a dog.
19. The spiritual power, learning, (the power accrued from) penance and glory of a brahmana leak away (are exhausted) because of discontent, and his spiritual knowledge gets dissipated.
20. A person may cease to feel the sexual urge owing to intensity of hunger and thirst (as these are more powerful); and he may see the end of anger when its fruit (revenge) is achieved. But he never sees the end of avarice even after conquering all the quarters and enjoying the sovereignty of the world.
21. There are a number of learned scholars of extensive knowledge capable of dispelling the doubts of others and leaders of assemblies, who have fallen because of discontent.
22. One should overcome passion by foregoing love for it; anger by eschewing desire; greed by looking upon wealth and worldly things as evil; and fear by perception of truth (about the objects of fear).
23. (One should conquer) grief and delusion, by realizing the distinction between the self (atman) and the not-self (anatman); hypocrisy, by association with the great; interruption to yoga (mental concentration), by observing silence; and violence to other beings, by bodily inactivity (to secure merit).
24. One should overcome troubles caused by other beings, by cherishing compassion (towards the trouble-makers); and those caused by destiny or gods, by equipoise and concentration of the mind; the ailments of the body, by the force of yoga (pranayama and other yogic expedients); and sleep, by recourse to sattvic food.
25. One should vanquish rajas and tamas by sattva, and sattva by complete withdrawal of attachment (and activity for it). One can easily overcome all the above-mentioned, through intense devotion to the spiritual preceptor.
26. The spiritual preceptor is verily the Venerable Lord Himself who imparts to the seeker the light of knowledge. But the spiritual knowledge or learning of a person, who entertains the perverted notion that his preceptor is an ordinary mortal, is as useless as the bath of an elephant (which besmears itself with dust immediately after the bath).
27. For, the spiritual preceptor, whom people regard as merely a human being, is the Almighty God, the Supreme Ruler both of Prakrti and Purusa, and His feet are sought after by masters of yoga.
28. All the precepts ordained (for performance of sacrifices, etc) are intended for restraint of six passions (desire, anger and others, or alternatively the five senses and the mind). If they do not lead to the accomplishment of yoga (dhyana, dharana and samadhi), all the above is only a source of sheer (fruitless) labour.
29. Just as the rewards and benefits of agriculture and other pursuits do not bear the fruits of yoga (final emancipation from samsara), the performance of sacrifices and undertakings for public welfare (construction of tanks, etc) will only lead to evil results in the case of a person whose mind is attached to external objects (of worldly nature).
30. He who has resolved to subjugate his mind should dissociate himself from all attachments and belongings; he should become a recluse and live alone in a secluded place, eating moderately whatever he gets as alms.
31. One should arrange oneís seat in a clean hallowed level place, and sit erect, in a stable and comfortable posture, repeating silently the sacred syllable Aum, O King!
32. With oneís gaze fixed on the tip of oneís nose, one should control oneís breath (prana and apana ñ inhalation and exhalation) by inhaling, suspending and exhaling oneís breath till oneís mind gives up desires.
33. A wise man should retrieve his ever-roving mind, smitten with desires, from whatever external object it goes onto, and confine it into his heart.
34. A recluse who strives to exercise such control, day and night, finds, in a short period, that his mind attains quiescence like fire for lack of fuel.
35. When the mind, not agitated by desires and passions, and with its activities calmed down, is touched by the ecstasy of realization of the Brahman, it never responds to external objects in samsara.
36. If a recluse who has earlier renounced his house which is a nursery of dharma, artha and kama (three objects of human life) again takes to the householderís life and enjoys them, the shameless fellow (is like a man who) is swallowing up his vomited food.
37. If those, who have regarded their own body as distinct from soul, mortal and reducible to excrement (if the body is eaten up by a carnivorous animal), worms (if interred in a grave) and ashes (if cremated on a pyre), highly extol it as if it were the Atman, such persons are the vilest ones.
38 ñ 39. Avoidance of religious rites and duties in the case of a grhastha (householder), non-observance (of the vow of celibacy, studies, etc) in the case of a brahmacharin, residence in an inhabited locality in the case of an ascetic performing penance, and lack of self-control in the case of a recluse (sanyasin) are all the accursed banes of their respective asramas, as such practices certainly reduce their asramas to mockery. Out of compassion, one should neglect such people who are deluded by the illusive power (Maya) of the Almighty God.
40. If a person realizes his self as the Supreme Brahman, all the traces of attachment are shaken off his mind by that spiritual knowledge. (It is not known) with what ulterior motive or for who does this addict to worldly pleasures nourish his body
41. The wise say that this body is a chariot, the senses are the horses, mind, the controller of senses, is the reins, the objects of senses are the paths, intellect (reasoning faculty) is the charioteer, and the heart is the all-embracing cordage created by God.
42. The ten vital breaths form the axis, dharma and adharma its two wheels, the soul that identifies itself with the body due to ego (ahamkara) is the owner (occupant) of the chariot. They say that the sacred syllable AUM is the bow; the pure self is the arrow, and Paramatman (the Supreme Self) is the target.
The ten vital breaths are said to be prana, apana, samana, vyana, udana, naga, kurma, krkala, devadatta and dhananjaya.
43 ñ 44. Love, hatred, greed, sorrow, infatuation, fear, pride, haughtiness, disgrace, jealousy, deceitfulness, violence, envy, passion, negligence, hunger, sleep, etc are the enemies to be vanquished. These are born of rajas and tamas, and rarely of sattva.
45. While one continues to hold the chariot in the form of human body with all its constituent parts (the sense organs) under oneís control, one, deriving oneís strength from Lord Visnu, and wielding the sword of spiritual knowledge sharpened through the service of the highly exalted souls, should put an end to all the (aforesaid) enemies. Enjoying to oneís utmost satisfaction the highest bliss of the Self, one should attain (perfect) tranquility, and cast off this (human body).
46. Otherwise, these wicked horses in the form of senses, and the (feeble) charioteer take the careless and unwary occupant astray to the path of pravrtti and land him among a band of robbers, that is, objects of sense-enjoyment. Those robbers hurl him along with the horses and the charioteer in the deep well of blinding darkness, in the form of samsara, beset with the terrible fear of death.
47. Acts prescribed in the Veda are of two kinds, pravrtta (leading to enjoyment of worldly life) and nivrtta (leading to spiritual life). By performance of pravrtta karma, a person is born again in samsara, while by nivrtta karma, he attains to immortality (moksha).
48 ñ 49. Ritual (like syena-yaga) to destroy the enemies, sacrifices involving slaughter of animals, agnihotra (maintenance of daily domestic sacrificial worship), darsa (sacrifice to be performed on the New-moon day), chaturmasya (a sacrifice to be performed at the beginning of a four-monthly division of the year), animal-sacrifice, soma-sacrifice, visvadeva (oblations to the Visvadevas offered before taking meals) and baliharana (symbolic offer of food to demi-gods, house-hold divinities, men and other creatures) are known as sacrificial (ista) acts; while construction of temples, gardens, tanks or wells, and booths supplying water to men and animals form (what are known as) purta acts. Both of these (ista and purta) acts are included under pravrtta karma.
50 ñ 51. (The gradual ascension of the departed soul is marked by he subtle modifications of materials of his astral body linga sarira which is supposed to be escorted by the deities presiding over), the smoke, the night, the dark half of the month, the dakshinayana (representing the sunís apparent movement to the south of the equator), and the orb of the moon. (After enjoying the fruits of its action, the path of descent of the Jiva is through) the New-moon day, plants and creepers, food grains and the semen. This is the path of the Pitris which leads to birth again. Having gone through these stages, one by one, the Jiva is born again and again in this world.
52. A twice-born person (a brahmana, kshatriya or vaisya), who is consecrated with the sixteen purificatory rites from garbhadana to the funeral obsequies, oblates all his activities as sacrifice into his five cognitive senses kindled by the light of spiritual wisdom.
53. He offers (merges) the senses into the mind, the mind born of vaikalika (sattvic) ahamkara into the speech, the speech into the body of articulate sounds and that collection of sounds into pranava AUM. He should merge that pranava into bindu, bindu into nada, nada into prana (vital breath) and prana in the Supreme Brahman.
54 ñ 55. Treading the path wherein the progress is watched by deities presiding over fire, the sun, the day time, the evening, the bright fort-night, the full-moon day, uttarayana (the period during which the sun appears to move in the north of the equator), Brahma (Brahmaís region marks the highest point in the ascent of the departed soul), visva (when the soul identifies itself with the gross matter), taijasa (where-in the soul merges the gross into the subtle upadhi), prajna (where the soul is merged into the karana upadhi) and turiya (where the self is mere witness to all the states), he becomes Pure Self (liberated). This path is known as the path of gods (deva-yana). Going through these stages in that order, this propitiator of the (Supreme) Self, being established into the Supreme Self, attains to perfect tranquility and never returns (to samsara).
56. He, who distinctly and correctly understands these paths of the Pitrs and gods as stated in the Veda and the sastras, does not get deluded (and does not fall to a lower stage in life), even though he still abides in this (physical) body.
57. For, the knower of the path is factually aware of whatever exists before the creation and after the extinction of the body. He himself is whatever is outside the body (external world to be enjoyed) and inside the body (the enjoyer of the world), what is high and low, knowledge and the object of knowledge, the world and the object denoted by it, darkness as well as light.
58. Just as a reflection, though logically disproved in everyway, is supposed to be something real, so objects which are cognized by senses are imagined to be really existent. But their objective reality is difficult to be proved.
59. (Here the unreality of the body is logically proved). This ëshadowí (psycho-physical organism called body which is regarded as a combination of five elements such as the earth and others) is nothing of (unrelated to) the earth and other elements; for it is neither a collection or a mixture, nor a compound or modification. It is neither of them separately or conjointly. Hence, it is unreal.
60. (He now shows that the constituents making up the body are unreal). The ingredients or ëthe rootsí of the body, that is, the five gross elements being themselves composed of components cannot exist apart from their subtle forms (tanmatras) which form their components; and when the whole that is combination of the constituents proves to be unreal, the parts (constituents) ipso- facto cease to be real.
61. Objection: In case the existence of an individual avayavin is denied, the identity of the same individual at different stages in life or periods of time cannot be recognized.
When the Supreme Brahman is One and Immutable, it is through similarities between the successive appearances that the mistake in identification will take place under the influence of avidya. The force of injunctions and prohibitions of the sastras is similar to the distinction between wakefulness and sleep, both perceived during the dream-stage.
62. A contemplative sage who, through the realization of the self, comprehends the unity of bhava (thought), kriya (action) and dravya (materials) of the atman, and shakes off the three states of wakefulness, dream and deep sleep.
63. Bhava-advaita (non-duality of thought) is the comprehension of the essential one-ness of cause and effect like that of thread and cloth (woven out of thread), their difference being unreal.
64. O Yudhishthira! The resignation of all acts performed to the instrumentality of thought, words and deeds directly to the Supreme Brahman is the kriya-adyata (non-duality of action).
65. The dravya-advaita (non-duality of substances) is the realization of artha and kama (wealth and enjoyment) of oneís own self, oneís wife, children as well as other embodied beings.
66. Except in the case of calamity (that is, normally), one should perform oneís duties with materials the acquisition of which is permitted by whatever means, from whatever source and at whatever time and place.
67. O King! He who abides by these and other duties prescribed for him in the Veda and is deeply devoted to Lord Krisna attains to the realm of the Lord, even though he is staying home.
68. O King of kings! Just as you (and your brothers) tided over a series of insurmountable difficulties by the grace of the Lord, and have performed sacrifices after conquering the guardian-elephants of all quarters, so you may cross over the samsara through the grace of Lord Krisna, the saviour of all.
69. In the previous mahakalpa, I was born as a gandharva named Upabarhana and was highly respected among the gandharvas.
70. Being an amiable person with beautiful appearance, comeliness, sweet in speech and fragrance, I was a favourite with women. I was always intoxicated and extremely lascivious.
71. Once upon a time, in a sacrifice performed by gods, gandharvas (celestial musicians) and apsaras (heavenly damsels) were invited by the Prajapatis (lords of creations) to chant verses in praise of Lord Hari.
72. Coming to know of that invitation, I, in the company of women, went there (drunk) singing (profane songs). Being informed of my contemptuous conduct, the creators of the universe cursed me with their ascetic powers thus: ëBereft of your glory, you shall be born instantly a sudra, as you have behaved disrespectfullyí.
73. At first, I was born of a female servant. Even in that birth, through my reverential service to and in association with the sages who had realized the Brahman, I became the son of Brahma.
74. The righteous course of conduct prescribed for householders and which is capable of destroying sins has been described to you in detail. Following this course, a householder easily attains to the goal of a sanyasin (liberation).
75. In this world, you are certainly highly fortunate inasmuch as the sages who sanctify the world come to your house where the Supreme Brahman disguised in human form resides.
76. This (Lord Krisna) is verily the Supreme Brahman, the embodiment of the realization of the ecstatic bliss of eternal emancipation which is sought after by great sages. This venerable Lord is your beloved friend, maternal cousin, your most adorable preceptor, your (very) soul and the executor of your commands.
77. May this Lord of Satvatas (Lord Krisna) be propitious to us! Lord Krisna, whose essential form (nature) could not adequately be (comprehended and) described with their intellectual faculties even by great gods like Siva, Brahma and others, is worshipped by us in silence, devotion and tranquility.
Sri Suka said:
78. Hearing the above discourse of the divine sage Narada, the foremost one of Bharatas (Yudhishthira) was highly delighted and, overwhelmed with devotional love, worshipped Krisna.
79. The sage, who was duly worshipped, took leave of Krisna and Yudhishthira. Yudhishthira was highly amazed to learn that Krisna was the Supreme Brahman.
80. Thus the genealogy of the different dynasties of the daughters of Daksha has been severally described to you, and gods, asuras, human beings and other creation, mobile and immobile, in the world are included in these (dynasties).