Praśna 1. Paṭala 8. Khaṇḍa 23.
ātman paśyan sarva bhūtāni na muhyec cintayan kaviḥ | ātmānaṃ ca- eva sarvatra yaḥ paśyet sa vai brahmā nāka pṛṣṭhe virājati || 1 ||
1. That Brāhmaṇa, who is wise and sees the Atman in all creatures, who pondering [thereon] does not become confused, and who recognises the Atman in every thing, shines, indeed in heaven.
Shines in heaven —i.e. becomes a beacon of light to others.
nipuṇo-‘aṇīyān bisorṇāyā yaḥ sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhati | varṣīyāṃś ca pṛthivyā dhruvaḥ sarvam ārabhya tiṣṭhati | sa indriyair jagato- ‘asya jñānād anyo- ‘ananyasya jñeyāt parameṣṭhī vibhājaḥ | tasmāt kāyāḥ prabhavanti sarve sa mūlaṃ śāśvatikaḥ sa nityaḥ || 2
2. That which is consciousness itself and subtler than the thread of the lotus-fibre, pervades the universe, and which, unchangeable and larger than the earth, contains the entire universe; That which is different from the worldly knowledge, obtained by the senses and identical with its objects, possesses the highest [form consisting of absolute knowledge]. From That, which divides Itself, spring all [created] forms. That is the primary cause, That is eternal, That is unchangeable.
This Sūtra again contains a description of the Paramātman.
Character Faults and their avoidance
doṣāṇāṃ tu vinirghāto yoga mūla iha jīvite |
nirhṛtya bhūta dāhīyān kṣemaṃ gacchati paṇḍitaḥ || 3 ||
3. But the eradication of the faults (doṣa) is brought about in this life by the means [called Yoga]. A wise person who has eradicated the [faults] which destroy the creatures, obtains liberation.
atha bhūta dāhīyān doṣān udāhariṣyāmaḥ || 4 ||
4. Now we will enumerate the faults which tend to destroy the creatures.
krodho harṣo roṣo lobho moho dambho droho mṛṣodyam atyāśa parīvāda avasūyā kāma manyū anātmyam ayogas teṣāṃ yoga mūlo nirghātaḥ || 5 ||
5. [These are] anger, exultation, anger, covetousness, delusion, maliciousness, hypocrisy, lying, gluttony, calumny, envy, selfish desire, secret hatred, neglect to keep the senses in subjection, neglect to concentrate the mind. The eradication of these [faults] takes place through the means of [liberation called] Yoga.
akrodho- ‘aharṣo- ‘aroṣo- ‘alobho- ‘amoho- ‘adambho- ‘adrohaḥ satya vacanam anatyāśo- ‘apaiśunam anasūyā saṃvibhāgas tyāga ārjavaṃ mārdavaṃ śamo damaḥ sarva bhūtair avirodho yoga āryam ānṛśaṃsaṃ tuṣṭir iti sarva āśramāṇāṃ samaya padāni tāny anutiṣṭhan vidhinā sārvagāmī bhavati || 6 ||
6. Freedom from anger, from exultation, from anger, from stinginess, from delusion, from hypocrisy [and] hostility; truthfulness, moderation in eating, silencing slander, freedom from envy, self-denying generosity, avoiding the acceptance of gifts, straightforwardness, affability, tranquility, self- discipline, peace with all created beings, concentration [of the mind on the contemplation of the Atman], chilvalry, absence of maliciousness and contentment; — these [good qualities] have been settled by the agreement [of the wise] for all [the four] orders; one who, according to the precepts of the sacred law, practises these, participates the universal Being.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 24.
Fines, Compensation & Penances
kṣatriyaṃ hatvā gavāṃ sahasraṃ vairayātana arthaṃ dadyāt || 1 ||
1. He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows [as a fine] for the expiation of his sin. (Manu 11:128; Yajñ. 3:266)
Others explain the phrase vairayātanārtham ‘for the expiation of his sin,’ thus:— He, who is slain by anybody, becomes, in dying, an enemy of his slayer [and thinks], “O that I might slay him in another life,” for the removal of this enmity!’ — Haradatta. Another commentator translates vairayātanārtham,’ in order to remove the enmity.’ This fine is similar to the law permitting compensation for murder which was in force in ancient Greece and among the Teutonic nations. With the explanation adopted by Haradatta, it is impossible to find a reasonable interpretation for prāyascittārthaṃ, Sūtra 4. Haradatta, seduced by the parallel passage of Manu, takes it to be identical with vairayātanārtham.
An alternative translation of our Sūtra thus:—’He who has killed a Kṣatriya shall give a thousand cows [to the relations of the murdered man] in order to remove the enmity.’
According to Baudhāyana 18.104.22.168 the cows are to be given to the king. Others say they should be given to the brāhmaṇas.
śataṃ vaiśye || 2 ||
2. [He shall give] a hundred cows for a Vaiśya, (Manu 11:130; Yajñ.
daśa śūdre || 3 ||
3. Ten for a śūdra, (Manu 11:131; Yajñ. 3:267)
ṛṣabhaś ca-atra-adhikaḥ sarvatra prāyaścitta arthaḥ || 4 ||
4. And in every one [of these cases] one bull [must be given] in excess [of the number of cows] for the sake of expiation.
strīṣu ca-eteṣām evam || 5 ||
5. And if women of the [three castes mentioned have been slain] the same [compensation must be paid].
Here Āpastamba proposes a hierarchy of social value for the payment of compensation. The women of all social categories are equal in value to the men. Kṣatriyas are the rulers, administrators and defenders of the society and are thus considered to be the most valuable. The Sudras, being the majority and the unskilled labour force are considered the most expendable. Even in modern society such a hierarchy of value is recognized — the sons of the poorer and less educated classes being sent to war as ‘cannon fodder’. The sons of the rich are more likely to get off a crime for which a poorer person would be jailed for.
pūrvayor varṇayor veda adhyāyaṃ hatvā savana gataṃ vā- abhiśastaḥ || 6 ||
6. He who has slain a person belonging to the two [first-mentioned castes] who has studied the Veda, or had been initiated for the performance of a Soma-sacrifice, becomes an Abhiśasta.
Manu 11:87. Abhiśasta means literally ‘accused, accursed,’ and corresponds in Apastamba’s terminology to the mahāpātakin of Manu and Yajñavālkya, instead of which latter word Manu uses it occasionally eg. 2;185. Killing a person who was a repository of Vedic knowledge was the equavalent of destroying a library.
brāhmaṇa mātram ca || 7 ||
7. And [he is called an Abhiśasta] who has slain a man belonging merely to the Brāhmaṇa caste [though he has not studied the Veda or been initiated for a Soma-sacrifice],
garbhaṃ ca tasya- avijñātam || 8 ||
8. Likewise he who has caused an abortion of a [Brāhmaṇa, even though its gender be] undistinguishable.
ātreyīṃ ca striyam || 9 ||
9. Or a menstruating woman [of the Brāhmaṇa caste].
Others interpret ātreyī not as menstruating but as “belonging to the clan of Atri.” — Haradatta. But this makes no sense as there is nothing in particular which distinguishes women of one clan from another.
tasya nirveṣaḥ || 10 ||
10. [Now follows] the penance for him [who is an Abhiśasta]. araṇye kuṭiṃ kṛtvā vāg yataḥ śavaśira dhvajo- ‘ardhaśāṇī pakṣam
adhonābhy uparijānu- ācchādya || 11 ||
11. He [himself] shall erect a hut in the forest, observe a vow of silence, carry [a staff on which] the skull [of the person slain] is placed like a flag, and cover the space from his navel to his knees with a quarter of a piece of hempen cloth.
Others say that he may carry any skull. This Sūtra is to he construed with Sūtra 14, sūtras 12 and 13 being inserted parenthetically. — Haradatta. Manu 11:72-78; Yajñ. 3:243.
tasya panthā antarā vartmanī || 12 ||
12. The path for him when he goes to a village, is the space between the tracks [of the wheels of the carts].
dṛṣṭvā ca-anyam utkrāmet || 13 ||
13. And if he sees another [ārya], he shall step out of the road [to the distance of two yards].
khaṇḍena lohitakena śarāveṇa grāme pratiṣṭheta || 14 ||
14. He shall go to the village, carrying a broken bowl, of metal of an inferior quality.
ko- ‘ abhiśastāya bhikṣām iti sapta agārāṇi caret || 15 ||
15. He may go to seven houses only, [crying] Who will give alms to an Abhiśasta ?
sā vṛttiḥ || 16 ||
16. That is [the way in which he must gain] his livelihood.
alabdhā-upavāsaḥ || 17 ||
17. If he does not obtain anything [at the seven houses], he must fast.
gāś ca rakṣet || 18 ||
18. And [whilst performing this penance] he must tend cows.
tāsāṃ niṣkramaṇa praveśane dvitīyo grāme- ‘arthaḥ || 19 ||
19. When the cows leave and enter the village, that is the second occasion [on which he may enter] the village.
dvādaśa varṣāṇi caritvā siddhaḥ sadbhiḥ saṃprayogaḥ || 20 ||
20. After having performed [this penance] for twelve years, [he must perform] the ceremony known [by custom and usage], through which he is re-admitted into the society of the good.
‘ie. after having performed the penance, he shall take grass and offer it to a cow . If the cow approaches and confidingly eats, then one should know that he has performed the penance properly, not otherwise.’ — Haradatta. Manu 11:195 and 196.
The usual ceremony for readmittance to caste is the “udaka śāntiḥ” ceremony.
āji pathe vā kuṭim kṛtvā brāhmaṇa gavya upajigīṣaṃāṇo vaset triḥ pratirāddho- ‘apajitya vā muktaḥ || 21 ||
21. Or [after having performed the twelve years’ penance], he may build a hut on the path of robbers, and live there, trying to recover from them the [stolen] cows of Brāhmaṇas. He is free [from his sin], when thrice he has been defeated by them, or when he has vanquished them. (Manu 11:81.)
Thus Haradatta, better, ‘when thrice he has fought with them.
āśvamedhikaṃ vā-avabhṛtham avetya mucyate || 22 ||
22. Or he is freed [from his sin], if [after the twelve years’ penance] he bathes [with the priests] at the end of a horse-sacrifice. (Manu 11:83)
dharma artha saṃnipāte- ‘artha grāhiṇa etad eva || 23 ||
23. This very same [penance is ordained] for him who, when his duty (dharma) and economic interest (artha) come into conflict, chooses the gain.
Or the Sūtra may have reference to unrighteous gain acquired by false testimony and the like.’ — Haradatta.
guruṃ hatvā śrotriyaṃ vā karma samāptam etena-eva vidhinā-uttamād ucchvāsāc caret || 24
24. If he has slain a Guru or a Brāhmaṇa, who has studied the Veda and finished the ceremonies of a Soma-sacrifice, he shall live according to this very same rule until his last breath.
Guru means ‘the father and the rest.” — Haradatta.
na-asya-asmiṃl loke pratyāpattir vidyate kalmaṣaṃ tu nirhaṇyate || 25 ||
25. He cannot be purified in this life. But his sin is removed [after death]. His sin is removed after death — the meaning is that his sons or other [relations] may perform the funeral ceremonies and the other propitiation ceremonies. But others think that the first part of the Sūtra forbids this, and that the meaning of pratyāpattiḥ [can be purified] is “connection by being received as a son or other relation.” — Haradatta.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 25.
Guru-talpagāmī sa vṛṣaṇaṃ śiśnaṃ parivāsya-añjalāv ādhāya dakṣiṇāṃ diśam anāvṛttiṃ vrajet || 1 ||
1. He who has had sex with a Guru’s wife shall cut off his penis together with the testicles, hold them in his joined hands and walk towards the south without stopping, until he falls down dead.
Haradatta’s explanation of a ‘Guru’s wife’ by ‘mother’ rests on a comparison of similar passages from other Smṛtis, where a different ‘penance’ is prescribed for incestuous intercourse with other near relations. (Manu 11:105 Yajñ. 3:259.)
jvalitāṃ vā sūrmiṃ pariṣvajya samāpnuyāt || 2 ||
2. Or he may die embracing a heated metal image of a woman. (Manu 11:104; Yajñ. 3:259.)
surā āpo- ‘agni sparśā surāṃ pibet || 3 ||
3. A [regular] drinker of alcohol shall drink exceedingly hot liquor so that he dies. (Manu 11:91:92; Yajñ. 3:253.)
stenaḥ prakīrṇa keśo- ‘aṃse musalam ādāya rājānaṃ gatvā karma- ācakṣīta | tena-enaṃ hanyād vadhe mokṣaḥ || 4 ||
4. A stealer [of gold] shall go to the king with flying hair, carrying a club on his shoulder, and tell him his deed. He [the king] shall give him a blow with that [club]. If the thief dies, his sin is expiated.
ie. who has stolen the gold of a Brāhmaṇa. Manu 8:314, 316; 11:99-101; Yajñ. 3:257
anujñāte- ‘anujñātāram enaḥ || 5 ||
5. If he is forgiven [by the king], the guilt falls upon him who forgives him, (Manu 8:317.)
agniṃ vā praviśet tīkṣṇaṃ vā tapa āyacchet || 6 ||
6. Or he may throw himself into a fire, or perform repeatedly severe austerities, (Manu 11:102.)
bhakta apacayena vā-ātmānaṃ samāpnuyāt || 7 ||
7. Or he may kill himself by diminishing daily his portion of food,
kṛcchra saṃvatsaraṃ vā caret || 8 ||
8. Or he may perform Kṛcchra penances [uninterruptedly] for one year.
According to Haradatta this Sūtra refers to all kinds of sins, and it must be understood that the kṛcchra penances must be heavy for great crimes, and lighter for smaller faults; see also below, 1. 9, 27, 7 and 8.
atha-apy udāharanti || 9 ||
9. Now they quote also [the following verse]: Haradatta states that the verse is taken from a Purana.
steyaṃ kṛtvā surāṃ pītvā guru dāraṃ ca gatvā brahmahatyām akṛtvā caturtha kālā mita bhojanāḥ syur apo- ‘abhyaveyuḥ savana anukalpam | sthāna āsanābhyāṃ viharanta ete tribhir varṣair apa pāpaṃ nundate steyaṃ || 10 ||
10. Those who have committed a theft [of gold], become alcoholics, or had sex with a Guru’s wife, but not those who have murdered a Brāhmaṇa, shall eat every fourth meal-time a little food, bathe at the times of the three libations [morning, noon, and evening], passing the day standing and the night sitting. After the lapse of three years they are absolved of their guilt;
prathamaṃ varṇaṃ parihāpya prathamaṃ varṇaṃ hatvā saṃgrāmaṃ gatvā- avatiṣṭheta | tatra-enaṃ hanyuḥ || 11 ||
11. [A man of any caste, excepting the first, who has slain a man of the first caste, shall go on a battle-field and place himself [between the two hostile armies]. There being killed in battle [he thereby becomes pure]. (Manu 11:74; Yajñ. 3:248.)
api vā lomāni tvacaṃ māṃsam iti hāvayitvā-agniṃ praviśet || 12 ||
12. Or such a criminal may tear from his body and make the priest offer as a burnt-offering his hair, skin, flesh, and the rest, and then throw himself into the fire.
The Mantras given in the commentary, and a parallel passage of Vasiṣṭha 20:25-26, show that this terrible penance is not altogether a mere theory of Apastamba. Yajñ. 3:247.
vāyasa pracalāka barhiṇa cakravāka haṃsa bhāsa maṇḍūka nakulaḍerika aśvahiṃsāyāṃ śūdravat prāyaścittam || 13 ||
13. If a crow, a chameleon, a peacock, a Brāhmani duck, a swan, the vulture called Bhāsa, a frog, an ichneumon, a musk-rat, or a dog has been killed, then the same penance as for a śūdra must be performed.
The penance must be performed if all these animals together have been slain none
of these creatures individually has the same socialy equivalent value of a sudra . Manu 11:132, 136; Yajñ. 3:270-272.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 26.
dhenv anaḍuhoś ca-akāraṇāt || 1 ||
1. [The same penance must be performed], if a milch-cow or a full-grown ox [has been slain] without a reason.
‘A reason’ for hurting a cow is, according to Haradatta, anger, or for meat.
dhurya vāha pravṛttau ca-itareṣāṃ prāṇinām || 2 ||
2. And for other animals [which have no bones], if an ox-load of them has been killed.
Manu 11:141; Yajñ. 3:269. That ‘animals without bones,’ ie. insects or molluscs, are intended in the Sūtra is an inference, drawn by Haradatta from the parallel passages of Gautama, Manu, and Yajñavalkya.
anākrośyam ākruśya-anṛtaṃ vā- uktvā trirātram akṣīra akṣāra alavaṇa bhojanaṃ || 3 ||
3. He who abuses a person who, [on account of his venerability] ought not to be abused, or speaks an untruth [regarding any small matter] must abstain for three days from milk, pungent condiments, and salt.
A person who ought not to be abused, ie. a father, a teacher, and the like.’ — Haradatta.
śūdrasya sapta rātram abhojanam || 4 ||
4. [If the same offences have been committed] by a śūdra, he must fast for seven days.
strīṇāṃ ca-evam || 5 ||
5. And the same [penances must also be performed] by women, [but not those which follow].
The same penances, ie. those prescribed 1:9:24 -1:9:26, 4. According to Haradatta this Sūtra is intended to teach that women shall not perform the penances which follow. Others, however, are of opinion that it is given in order to indicate that the preceding Sūtras apply to women by an atideśa, and that, according to a Smārta principle, applicable to such cases, it may be inferred, that women are to perform one-half only of the penances prescribed for men.
yeṣv ābhiśastyaṃ teṣām ekāṅgaṃ chittvā-aprāṇa hiṃsāyām || 6 ||
6. He who cuts off a limb of a person for whose murder he would become an Abhiśasta [must perform the penance prescribed for killing a śūdra], if the life [of the person injured] has not been endangered.
anāryavapaiśuna pratiṣiddhāacāreṣv abhakṣya abhojya apeyaprāśane śūdrāyāṃ ca retaḥ siktvā-ayonau ca doṣavac ca karma abhisaṃdhi pūrvaṃ kṛtvā-anabhisaṃdhi pūrvaṃ vā-ab liṅgābhir apa upaspṛśed vāruṇībhir vā-anyair vā pavitrair yathā karma abhyāsaḥ || 7 ||
7. He who has been guilty of conduct unworthy of an āryan, of defaming others, of actions contrary to the rule of conduct, of eating or drinking things forbidden, of sex with a woman of the śūdra caste, of unnatural sex, of performing magic rites with intent [to harm his enemies] or [of hurting others] unintentionally, shall bathe and sprinkle himself with water, reciting the [seven] verses addressed to the Waters, or the verses addressed to Varuṇa, or [other verses chosen from the Anuvāka, called] Pavitra, in proportion to the frequency with which the offence has been committed.
The Anuvāka is Taitt. Samh. 2:5:12.
‘Unnatural’ sex is defined by the text as ejaculating into anything other than a vagina.
(retaḥ siktvā ayonau)
gardabhena- avakīrṇī nirṛtiṃ pāka yajñena yajeta || 8 ||
8. A [student] who has broken the vow of chastity, shall offer to Nirṛiti an ass, according to the manner of the Pāka-yajña-rites.
Taitt. Ar. 2:18, and Manu 11:119 seq.; and Yajñ. 3:280. Regarding the Pāka-yajña- rites, see Aśv. Gri:—Su. 1:1:2 .
tasya śūdraḥ prāśnīyāt || 9 ||
9. A śūdra shall eat [the remainder] of that [offering].
mithyā adhīta prāyaścittam || 10 ||
10. [Now follows] the penance for him who transgresses the rules of studentship.
saṃvatsaram ācārya hite vartamāno vācaṃ yacchet svādhyāya eva- utsṛjamāno vācam ācārya ācārya dāre bhikṣā carye ca || 11 ||
11. He shall for a year serve his teacher silently, sppeaking only during the daily study [of the Veda, in dealing with necessary business to] his teacher or his teacher’s wife, and whilst collecting alms.
evam anyeṣv api doṣavat sva patanīyeṣu-uttarāṇi yāni vakṣyāmaḥ || 12 ||
12. The following [penances] which we are going to teach, may be performed for the same offence, and also for other offences, which do not cause loss of caste.
Regarding the Pataniya-crimes which cause loss of caste, see above, 1. 7, 2 1, 7 seq.
kāma manyubhyāṃ vā juhuyāt kāmo- ‘akārṣīn manyur akārṣīd iti japed vā || 13 ||
13. He may either offer oblations to Kāma and Manyu [with the following two mantras], ‘Kāma [passion] has done it; Manyu [anger] has done it.’ Or he may mutter [these Mantras].
According to the greatness of the crime the number of the burnt-oblations must be increased and the prayers be repeated.
parvaṇi vā tila bhakṣa upoṣya vā śvo bhūta udakam upaspṛśya sāvitrīṃ prāṇāyāmaśaḥ sahasra kṛtva āvartayed aprāṇāyāmaśo vā || 14 ||
14. Or, after having eaten sesame or fasted on the days of the full and new moon he may, on the following day bathe, and regulating the breath (prāṇāyāma), repeat [the Gāyatrī mantra] one thousand times, or he may do so without prāṇāyāma.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 27.
śrāvaṇyāṃ paurṇamāsyāṃ tilabhaksa upoṣya vā śvobhūte mahā nadam udakam upaspṛśya sāvitryā samit sahasram ādadhyāj japed vā || 1 ||
1. After having eaten sesame or having fasted on the full moon day of the month Śrāvana [July/August], he may on the following day bathe in the water of a great river and offer [a burnt-oblation of] one thousand sticks of sacred fuel, whilst reciting the Gāyatri, or he may repeat [the Gāyatri] as many times.
The oblations of sacred fuel [samidh] are not to be accompanied by the exclamation svāhā.’ — Haradatta.
iṣṭi yajña kratūn vā pavitra arthān āharet || 2 ||
2. Or he may perform Iṣṭis and Soma-sacrifices for the sake of purifying himself [from his offences].
Iṣṭis are the simplest forms of the śrauta-sacrifices, ie. of those for which three fires are necessary.
abhojyaṃ bhuktvā naiṣpurīṣyam || 3 ||
3. After having eaten forbidden food, one must fast, until the bowels are completely empty.
For some particular kinds of forbidden food the same penance is prescribed, Manu 11:153-154.
tat sapta rātreṇa- avāpyate || 4 ||
4. That is [generally] attained after seven days.
hemanta śiśirayor vā-ubhayoḥ saṃdhyor udakam upaspṛśet || 5 ||
5. Or he may during winter and during the dewy season [November-March] bathe in cold water both morning and evening.
kṛcchra dvādaśa rātraṃ vā caret || 6 ||
6. Or he may perform a Kṛcchra penance, which lasts twelve days.
tryaham anakta āśy adivā āśī tatas tryahaṃ tryaham ayācita vratas tryahaṃ na-aśnāti kiṃcana-iti kṛcchra dvādaśa rātrasya vidhiḥ || 7 ||
7. The rule for the Kṛcchra penance of twelve days [is the following]:—For three days he must not eat in the evening, and then for three days not in the morning; for three days he must live on food which has been given unasked, and three days he must not eat anything.
The same penance is described, under the name Prajāpatya Kṛcchra, the Kṛcchra invented by Prajapati. Manu 11:212 & Yajñ 3:220
etam eva- abhyaset saṃvatsaraṃ sa kṛcchra saṃvatsaraḥ || 8 ||
8. If he repeats this for a year, that is called a Kṛcchra penance, which lasts for a year.
atha-aparam| bahūny apy apatanīyāni kṛtvā tribhir anaśnat pārāyaṇaiḥ kṛta prāyaścitto bhavati || 9 ||
9. Now follows another penance. He who has committed even a great many offences which do not cause him to fall, becomes free from guilt, if, fasting, he recites the entire śākha of his Veda three times consecutively. (Manu 11:259.)
anāryāṃ śayane bibhred dadad vṛddhiṃ kaṣāyapaḥ | abrāhmaṇa iva vanditvā tṛṇeṣv āsīta pṛṣṭhatap || 10 ||
10. He who has sex with a non-āryan woman, who lends money at interest, who drinks [other] spirituous liquors [than Sura], he who praises everybody in a manner unworthy of a Brāhmaṇa, shall sit on grass, allowing his back to be scorched [by the sun].
According to Khāṇḍa 26:7. One who has sex with a sudra woman must bathe and sprinkle himself with water, reciting the [seven] verses addressed to the Waters, or the verses addressed to Varuṇa, or [other verses chosen from the Anuvāka, called] Pavitra.
yad eka rātreṇa karoti pāpaṃ kṛṣṇaṃ varṇaṃ brāhmaṇaḥ sevamānaḥ | caturtha kāla udaka abhyavāyī tribhir varṣais tad apahanti pāpam || 11 ||
11. A Brāhmaṇa atones for the offence which he has committed by serving one day and night [a man of] the black race, if he bathes for three years, eating at every fourth meal-time.
The expression kṛṣṇa varṇa, ‘the black race,’ is truly Vedic. In the Rig Veda it usually denotes the aboriginal races, and sometimes the demons.
If a brāhmaṇa commits any of the afore mentioned offences in verse 10 he may be atone for them by serving a sudra for 24 hours, or by taking ceremonial baths at specific astrological timings or by fasting by eating at every 4th meal for 3 years.
Thus a number of options are given which are either up to the indivdual to choose, or if he presents himself to a pariṣad for resolution, the pariṣad will ordain according to the severity of the offence.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 10. Khaṇḍa 28.
yathā kathā ca para parigraham abhimanyate steno ha bhavati-iti kautsa hārītau tathā kaṇva puṣkarasādī || 1 ||
1. One who, under any conditions whatsoever, covets [and takes] another person’s possessions is a thief; thus [teach] Kautsa and Hārita as well as Kanva and Puṣkarasādi.
santy apavādāḥ parigraheṣv iti vārṣyāyaṇiḥ || 2 ||
2. Vārśyāyani declares, that there are exceptions to this law, in regard to some articles.
śamyoṣā yugya ghāso na svāminaḥ pratiṣedhayanti || 3 ||
3. For example — seeds ripening in the pod, food for a draught-ox; [if these are taken], the owners [ought] not [to] forbid it.
It is not a crime to steal food to feed onself or ones’ family or to feed a draught-ox which is being used for work. The same rule Manu emphatically ascribes to himself, Manu 8:339. But see also 8:331.
ativyapahāro vyṛddho bhavati || 4 ||
4. To take even these things in too great a quantity is immoral.
One is permitted to take only that which one absolutely needs but not in excess.
sarvatra-anumati pūrvam iti hārītaḥ || 5 ||
5. Hārita declares, that in every case the permission [of the owner must be obtained] first.
na patitam ācāryaṃ jñātiṃ vā darśanārtho gacchet || 6 ||
6. One shall not go to visit a fallen teacher or blood relation.
na ca-asmād bhogān upayuñjīta || 7 ||
7. Nor shall he accept the [means for procuring] enjoyments from such a person.
Haradatta remarks, that this Sūtra implicitly forbids to accept the heritage of an outcast. But it seems that the intention of Āpastamba is that only that which is conducive to enjoyment and recreation and not to one’s livelihood is to be rejected.
yadṛcchā saṃnipāta upasaṃgṛhya tūṣṇīṃ vyativrajet || 8 ||
8. If he meets them accidentally he shall silently touch [their feet] and pass on.
mātā putratvasya bhūyāṃsi karmāṇy ārabhate tasyāṃ śuśrūṣā nityā patitāyām api || 9 ||
9. A mother does very many acts for her son, therefore he must constantly serve her, though she be fallen.
No matter what offence a mother is guilty of she is never to be neglected or shunned by her sons — everything must be done to care for and support her.
na tu dharma saṃnipātaḥ syāt || 10 ||
10. But [there shall be] no inclusion [of a fallen mother] in acts performed for the acquisition of spiritual merit (dharma).
Although she is never to be shunned socially or excluded from general ceremonies and celebrations such as births or marriages, she may not be included in ceremonies and acts which are performed solely for the aqquisition of merit — such as the dedication of a park, well, hospital etc.
adharma āhṛtān bhogān anujñāya na vayaṃ ca-adharmaś ca-ity abhivyāhṛtya-adho nābhi-upari jānu-āchādya tri ṣavaṇam udakam upaspṛśann akṣīra akṣāra alavaṇaṃ bhuñjāno dvādaśa varṣāṇi nāgāraṃ praviśet || 11 ||
11. All unrighteous enjoyments should be given up; he shall say, ‘I and sin [do not dwell together].’ Clothing himself with a garment reaching from the navel down to the knee, bathing daily, morning, noon, and evening, eating food which contains neither milk nor pungent condiments, nor salt, he shall not enter a house for twelve years.
Unrighteous enjoyments are those which are condemned by the śāstra but are different for each social group. For example — hunting for pleasure, drinking binges, sexual excesses and gambling although legal are to be eschewed by caste Hindus. (Manu 7:50) Nothing is forbidden to sudras who may eat, drink and enjoy as long as it is not illegal.
A similar but easier penance is prescribed, Manu 11:194.
tataḥ siddhiḥ || 12 ||
12. After that he [may be] purified.
atha saṃprayogaḥ syād āryaiḥ || 13 ||
13. Then he may socialise with āryans.
etad eva-anyeṣām api patanīyānām || 14 ||
14. This penance may also be employed in the case of the other offences which cause loss of caste [for which no penance has been ordained above].
guru talpa gāmī tu suṣirāṃ sūrmiṃ praviśya-ubhayata ādīpya-abhidahed ātmānam || 15 ||
15. But the violator of a Guru’s bed shall enter a hollow iron image and, having caused a fire to be lit on both sides, he shall burn himself.
[This penance, which had been prescribed above, 1, 9, 25,1 is enjoined [once more], in order to show that it is not optional [as might be expected according to Sūtra 14].’ — Haradatta.
mithyā-etad iti hārītaḥ || 16 ||
16. According to Hārita, this [last-mentioned penance must] not [be performed].
yo hy ātmānaṃ paraṃ vā-abhimanyate- ‘abhiśasta eva sa bhavati || 17 ||
17. For he who takes his own or another’s life becomes an Abhiśasta.
A person who attempts suicide but fails becomes an outcaste. Here Āpastamba extends the previous definition of an abhiśasta to include all those guilty of pre- meditated murder, for what is common to both these crimes is “intent”. The previous definition was applied to those who killed brāhmaṇas — either learned or unlearned or one initiated for a Soma-yāga. Nowadays the extended definition would apply i.e. all murderers would be considered as abhiśastas.
etena-eva vidhinā-uttamād ucchvāsāc caret |
na-asya-asmiṃl loke pratyāpattir vidyate | kalmaṣaṃ tu nirhaṇyate || 18
18. He [the violator of a Guru’s bed] shall perform to his last breath [the penance] prescribed by that rule [Sūtra II]. He cannot be purified in this world. But [after death] his offence is taken away.
dāra vyatikramī khara ajinaṃ bahir loma paridhāya dāra vyatikramiṇe bhikṣām iti sapta agārāṇi caret | sā vṛttiḥ ṣaṇ māsān || 19 ||
19. He who has unjustly abandoned his wife shall put on an ass’s skin, with the hair turned outside, and beg in seven houses, saying, ‘Give alms to him who abandoned his wife.’ That shall be his livelihood for six months.
And then he should take her back as before.
striyās tu bhartṛ vyatikramekṛcchra dvādaśa rātrābhyāsas tāvantaṃ kālam || 20 ||
20. But if a wife abandons her husband, she shall perform the twelve-night Kṛcchra penance for as long a time [i.e. 6 months].
atha bhrūṇahā śva ajinaṃ khara ajinaṃ vā bahir loma paridhāya puruṣa śiraḥ pratīpāna artham ādāya || 21 ||
21. He who has killed a Bhrūṇa [a man learned in the Vedas and Vedāṅgas and skilled in the performance of the rites] shall put on the skin of a dog or of an ass, with the hair turned outside, and use a human skull for his drinking-vessel.
Praśna 1. Paṭala 10. Khaṇḍa 29.
khaṭva aṅgam daṇḍa arthe karma nāmadheyaṃ prabruvāṇaś caṅkramyeta ko bhrūṇa ghne bhikṣām iti | grāme prāṇa vṛttiṃ pratilabhya śūnya agāraṃ vṛkṣa mūlaṃ vā- abhyupāśrayen na hi ma āryaiḥ saṃprayogo vidyate | etena-eva vidhinā-uttamād ucchvāsāc caret | na-asya-asmiṃl loke pratyāpattir vidyate | kalmaṣaṃ tu nirhaṇyate ||
1. And he shall take the foot of a bed instead of a staff and, proclaiming the nature of his deed, he shall go about [saying], ‘Who [gives] alms to the murderer of a Bhrūṇa?’ Obtaining thus his livelihood in the village, he shall dwell in an empty house or under a tree, [knowing that] he is not allowed to socialise with āryans. According to this rule he shall act until death. He cannot be purified in this world. But [after death] his offence is taken away.
yaḥ pramatto hanti prāptam doṣa phalam || 2 ||
2. Even if it is unintentional homicide, nevertheless one reaps the result of his crime.
saha saṃkalpena bhūyaḥ || 3 ||
3. [His guilt is] greater, [if he murders] intentionally.
evam anyeṣv api doṣavatsu karmasu || 4 ||
4. The same [principle applies] also to other sinful actions.
tathā puṇya kriyāsu || 5 ||
5. And also to good works.
Haradatta gives, as an example, the case where a warrior saves the property of a traveller from thieves. If the traveller turns out to be a Brāhmaṇa, and the warrior did not know his caste before rescuing his property, his merit will be less than if he had rescued knowingly the property of a Brāhmaṇa.
parīkṣā artho- ‘api brāhmaṇa āyudhaṃ na-ādadīta || 6 ||
6. A Brāhmaṇa shall not take a weapon into his hand, though he be only desirous of examining it.
yo hiṃsā artham abhikrāntaṃ hanti manyur eva manyuṃ spṛśati na tasmin doṣa iti purāṇe || 7 ||
7. In a Purāṇa [it has been declared], that one who kills an assailant does not sin, for [in that case] wrath meets wrath.
There any act of violence in self-defence or the defence of another — women, children and the weak is not considered as a sin. The fact that Apastamba mentions it as coming from a Purāṇa i.e. a commonly held teaching — seems to suggest that he himself has some undefined reservations.
atha- abhiśastāḥ samavasāya careyur dhārmyam iti sāṃśitya-itaretara yājakā itaretara adhyāpakā mitho vivahamānāḥ || 8 ||
8. But Abhiśastas shall live together in dwellings [outside the village]; considering this their lawful [mode of life], they shall sacrifice for each other, teach each other, and marry amongst each other.
marry amongst each other — this assumes that they are living with women who are related or dependant upon them i.e. wives and daughters who joined them in their social exile, or that they have taken women of non-aryan community as wives or consorts.
putrān saṃniṣpādya brūyur vipra vrajatata-asmad evaṃ hy asmatsv āryāḥ saṃpratyapatsyata-iti || 9 ||
9. If they have begot sons, let them say to them:— “Go out from amongst us, for thus the āryas, [throwing the guilt] upon us, will receive you [amongst their number]”.
It is impossible to agree with Haradatta’s explanation of the words to be addressed by Abhiśastas to their children. No Vedic license can excuse the use of the second person plural instead of the third. The following is a preferable translation — ‘Go out from among us; for thus [leaving the guilt] to us, you will be received [as] āryas.’ It is, however, not improbable that our text is disfigured by several very old corruptions, compare Baudhāyana 2:1:2:18
atha-api na sa indriyaḥ patati || 10 ||
10. For the organs do not become impure together with the person.
tad etena veditavyam | aṅga hīno hi sa aṅgaṃ janayati || 11 ||
11. [The truth of] that may be learned from this [parallel case]; one deficient in limbs begets a son who possesses the full number of limbs.
In like manner a person who has lost his rights, [can] beget a son, who possesses the rights [of his caste]. For the wife is also a cause [of the birth of the son], and she is guiltless.’ — Haradatta.
mithyā-etad iti hārītaḥ || 12 ||
12. Hārita declares that this is wrong.
dadhi dhānī sa dharmā strī bhavati || 13 ||
13. A wife is similar to the vessel which contains the curds [for the sacrifice].
The statements now following are those with which Apastamba agrees. Those contained in Sūtras 8-11 are merely the pūrva-pakṣa
yo hi dadhi dhānyām aprayataṃ paya ātacya manthati na tena dharma kṛtyaṃ kriyate | evam aśuci śuklaṃ yan nivartate na tena saha saṃprayogo vidyate || 14 ||
14. For if one makes impure milk curdle [by mixing it with whey and water] in a milk-vessel and stirs it, no sacrificial rite can be performed with [the curds produced from] that. Just so no socialising can be allowed with the impure seed which comes [from an Abhiśasta].
abhīcārā anuvyāhārāv aśuci karāv apatanīyau || 15 ||
15. Sorcery and curses [employed against a Brāhmaṇa] cause one to become impure, but not loss of caste.
patanīyāv iti hārītaḥ || 16 ||
16. Hārita declares that they cause loss of caste.
patanīya vṛttis tv aśuci karāṇāṃ dvādaśa māsān dvādaśa ardhamāsān dvādaśa dvādaśa ahān dvādaśa sapta ahān dvādaśa try ahāndvādaśa ahaṃ sapta ahaṃ try aham eka aham |
17. But crimes causing impurity must be expiated, [when no particular penance is prescribed,] by performing the penance enjoined for crimes causing loss of caste during twelve months, or twelve half months, or twelve twelve-nights, or twelve days & nights, or twelve times three days, or twelve days, or seven days, or three days, or one day.
ity aśuci kara nirveṣo yathā karma abhyāsaḥ || 18 ||
18. Thus acts causing impurity must be expiated according to the manner in which the [offending] act has been committed [whether intentionally or unintentionally].
Praśna 1. Paṭala 11. Khaṇḍa 30.
vidyayā snāti-ity eke || 1 ||
1. Some declare, that a student shall bathe after [having acquired] the knowledge of the Veda, [however long or short the time of his studentship may have been].
The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms part of the Samāvartana- ceremony. From this rite a student who has completed his course of study derives the name Snātaka, ‘one who has bathed.’
tathā vratena-aṣṭācatvāriṃśat parīmāṇena || 2 ||
2. [He may] also [bathe] after having kept the student’s vow for forty-eight, [thirty-six or twenty-four] years, [though he may not have mastered the Veda].
vidyā vratena ca-ity eke || 3 ||
3. Some declare, that the student [shall bathe] after [having acquired] the knowledge of the Veda and after [the expiration of] his vow [or studentship].
teṣu sarveṣu snātakavad vṛttiḥ || 4 ||
4. To all those persons who have bathed in accordance with any of the above rules must be shown] the honour due to a Snātaka.
samādhi viśeṣāt-śruti viśeṣāt-ca pūjāyāṃ phala viśeṣaḥ || 5 ||
5. The reverence [shown to a Snātaka] brings, however, different rewards according to the degree of devotion or of learning [possessed by the person honoured].
atha snātaka vratāni || 6 ||
6. Now follow the observances of a Snātaka.
pūrveṇa grāmān niṣkramaṇa praveśanāni śīlayed uttareṇa vā || 7 ||
7. He shall usually enter the village and leave it by the eastern or the northern gate.
saṃdhyoś ca bahir grāmād āsanaṃ vāg yataś ca || 8 ||
8. During the morning and evening twilight, he shall sit outside the village, and not discuss anything [referring to worldly matters].
vipratiṣedhe śruti lakṣaṇaṃ balīyaḥ || 9 ||
9. [But an Agnihotri, who is occupied at home by oblations in the morning and evening, must not go out; for] in the case of a conflict [of duties], that enjoined by the Veda is the more important.
If the snātaka is also an agni-hotrin observing the morning and evening homas then he should not go out of the village. This verse assumes that the unmarried can also be agni-hotrins.
sarvān rāgān vāsasi varjayet || 10 ||
10. He shall avoid all dyed dresses,
The rule to wear white garments is given Yajñ 1:131; Manu 4:35,
kṛṣṇaṃ ca svābhāvikam || 11 ||
11. And all naturally black cloth.
anūdbhāsi vāso vasīta || 12 ||
12. He shall wear clothing that is neither shining.
apratikṛṣṭaṃ ca śakti viṣaye || 13 ||
13. Nor contemptible, if he is able [to afford it]. (Manu 4.34)
divā ca śirasaḥ prāvaraṇaṃ varjayen mūtra purīṣayoḥ karma parihāpya || 14 ||
14. And in the day-time he shall avoid wrapping up his head [with a turban], except when voiding faeces.
śiras tu prāvṛtya mūtra purīṣe kuryād bhūmyāṃ kiṃcid antardhāya || 15 ||
15. But when voiding faeces, he shall envelop his head and place some [grass or the like] on the ground. (Manu 4.49)
chāyāyām mūtra purīṣayoḥ karma varjayet || 16 ||
16. He shall not void faeces in the shade [of a tree, where travellers rest].
svāṃ tu chāyām avamehet || 17 ||
17. But he may discharge urine on his own shadow.
na sa upānah-mūtra purīṣe kuryāt kṛṣṭe pathy apsu ca || 18 ||
18. He shall not void faeces with his shoes on, nor on a ploughed field, nor on a path, nor in water. (Manu 4.45, 46; Yajñ. 1:137)
tathā ṣṭhevana maithunayoḥ karma-apsu varjayet || 19 ||
19. One shall also avoid spitting into, or having sex in water. (Manu 4.56.)
agnim ādityam apo brāhmaṇaṃ gā devatāś ca-abhimukho mūtra purīṣayoḥ karma varjayet || 20 ||
20. One shall not void faeces facing the fire, the Sun, water, a Brāhmaṇa, cows, or the gods. (Manu 4:48, 52; Yajñ. 1.134.)
aśmānaṃ loṣṭham ārdrān oṣadhi vanaspatīn ūrdhvān ācchidya mūtra purīṣayoḥ śundhane varjayet || 21 ||
21. One shall avoid cleaning oneself after defecating or urinating with a stone, a clod of earth, or with green [boughs of] herbs or trees which one has broken off.
agnimapo brāhmaṇaṃ gā devatā dvāraṃ pratīvātam ca śakti viṣaye na- abhiprasārayīta ||
22. If possible, one shall not stretch out the feet towards a fire, water, a Brāhmaṇa, a cow, the gods, a door, or against the wind.
The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also Manu 4, 53; Yajñ. 1:137.
atha-apy udāharanti || 23 ||
23. Now they quote also [the following verse]:—
Praśna 1. Paṭala 11. Khaṇḍa 31.
prāṅ mukho- ‘annāni bhuñjīta uccared dakṣiṇā mukhaḥ | udaṅ mukhaḥ- mūtraṃ kuryāt pratyak pādāvanejanam iti || 1 ||
1. One shall eat facing the east, void faeces facing the south, discharge urine facing the north, and wash the feet facing the west.
ārāc ca-āvasathān mūtra purīṣe kuryād dakṣiṇāṃ diśaṃ dakṣiṇā parāṃ vā || 2 ||
2. One shall void faeces far from the house, having gone towards the south or south-west. (Manu 4:151; Yajñ 1:16)
astam ite ca bahir grāmād ārād āvasathād vā mūtra purīṣayoḥ karma varjayet || 3 ||
3. But after sunset one must not void faeces outside the village or far from the house.
devatā abhidhānaṃ ca-aprayataḥ || 4 ||
4. And as long as one is impure one [shall avoid] mentioning the names of the gods.
puruṣam ca-ubhayor devatānāṃ rājñaś ca || 5 ||
5. And one shall not speak evil of the gods or of the king. (Manu 4.163)
brāhmaṇasya gor iti pada upasparśanaṃ varjayet || 6 ||
6. One shall not touch a Brāhmaṇa, a cow, nor any other [venerable beings] with his foot.
hastena ca-akāraṇāt || 7 ||
7. [Nor] with the hand, except for particular reasons.
gor dakṣiṇānāṃ kumāryāś ca parīvādān varjayet || 8 ||
8. One shall not mention the blemishes of a cow, of sacrificial presents (dakṣina), or of a girl.
In the section on transcendental knowledge [1, 8:23; 5], “speaking evil” has been forbidden, in connection with the means of liberation. And below [Sūtra 25] the [author] will declare that the sins which destroy creatures are to be avoided. But this precept [is given in order to indicate that] in the case of cows and the rest an extra penance must be performed.’ — Haradatta.
stṛhatīṃ ca gāṃ na- ācakṣīta || 9 ||
9. And one shall not report it [to the owner] if a cow does damage [by eating corn or grass in a field].
saṃsṛṣṭāṃ ca vatsena-animitte || 10 ||
10. [Nor shall one call attention to it] if a cow is together with her calf, except for a particular reason.
na-adhenum adhenur iti brūyāt | dhenu bhavyā-ity eva brūyāt || 11 ||
11. And of a cow which is not a milch-cow one shall not say, ‘She is not a milch-cow.’ One must say, ‘This is a cow which will become a milch-cow.’
na bhadram bhadram iti brūyāt | puṇyaṃ praśāstam ity eva brūyāt || 12 ||
12. One shall not call “auspicious” that which is “auspicious”. One shall rather call it “meritorious” (punyam), “Divine grace” (prasadam). (Manu 4.139.)
vatsa tantīṃ ca na-upari gacchet || 13 ||
13. One shall not step over a rope to which a calf [or cow] is tied. (Manu 4.38)
pleṅkhāv antareṇa ca na- atīyāt || 14 ||
14. One shall not pass between the posts from which a swing is suspended. Or according to others, ‘He shall not pass between pillars supporting an arch.”- Haradatta.
na-asau me sapatna iti brūyāt | yady asau me sapatna iti brūyād dviṣantaṃ bhrātṛvyaṃ janayet || 15 ||
15. [In company] One should never say, ‘This person is my enemy.’ If one says, ‘This person is my enemy,’ an enemy will be created, who will show his hatred.
na-indra dhanur iti parasmai prabrūyāt || 16 ||
16. If one sees a rainbow, one must not say to others, ‘Here is Indra’s bow.’ (Manu 4.59.)
na patataḥ sañcakṣītaḥ || 17 ||
17. One shall not count [a flock of] birds.
Others explain [the Sūtra thus]:—He shall not announce it to others, if he sees jivas [as falling stars] falling from heaven on account of the expenditure of their merit, [ie.) he shall not call attention to them.’ — Haradatta.
udyantam astaṃ yantaṃ ca-ādityaṃ darśane varjayet || 18 ||
18. One shall avoid looking at the sun when it rises or sets. (Manu 4.37.)
divā-ādityaḥ sattvāni gopāyati naktaṃ candramās tasmād amāvāsyāyāṃ niśāyāṃ svādhīya ātmano guptim icchet prāyatya brahmacaryakāle caryayā ca || 19 ||
19. During the day the sun protects the creatures, during the night the moon. Therefore let one eagerly strive to protect oneself on the night of the new moon by purity, continence, and rites adapted for the season. (Manu 4.153.)
saha hy etāṃ rātriṃ sūryā candramasau vasataḥ || 19 ||
20. For during that night the sun and the moon dwell together.
na kusṛtyā grāmaṃ praviśet | yadi praviśen namo rudrāya vāstoṣpataya ity etām ṛcaṃ japed anyāṃ vā raudrīm || 20 ||
21. One should not enter the village by a by-path. If one does, one shall mutter this Rik-verse, ‘Praise be to Rudra, the lord of the dwelling,’ or some other [verse] addressed to Rudra. (Manu 4.73 Yajñ. 1:140)
na-abrāhmaṇāya-ucchiṣṭaṃ prayacchet |
yadi prayacched dantān skuptvā tasminn avadhāya prayacchet || 22 ||
22. One shall not [ordinarily] give the left-over food to a person who is not a Brāhmaṇa. When one gives it [to such a one], one shall clean the teeth and give [the food] after having placed in it [the dirt from the teeth]. (Manu 4.80)
This prohibition [given in the first part of the Sūtras refers to śūdras who are not dependents; to dependents the following [exception applies].’ — Haradatta.
krodhādīṃś ca bhūta dāhīyān doṣān varjayet || 23 ||
23. And let one avoid the faults that destroy sentient beings such as anger and the like.
See above, 1:8:23:4 and 5, and Manu 4, 163
Praśna 1. Paṭala 11. Khaṇḍa 32.
pravacana yukto varṣā śaradaṃ maithunaṃ varjayet || 1 ||
1. Let one who teaches, avoid sexual intercourse during the rainy season and in autumn.
mithunī bhūya ca na tayā saha sarvāṃ rātriṃ śayīta || 2 ||
2. And if one has had sex [with his wife], he shall not lie with her during the whole night. (Manu 4:40)
śayānaś ca-adhyāpanaṃ varjayet || 3 ||
3. One shall not teach whilst lying on a bed.
na ca tasyāṃ śayyāyām adhyāpayed yasyāṃ śayīta || 4 ||
4. Nor shall one teach [sitting] on that bed on which he lies [at night with his wife].
anāviḥsrag anulepaṇaḥ syāt || 5 ||
5. One shall not display oneself adorned with a garland, or anointed with ointments. (Manu 4.72.)
sadā niśāyāṃ dāraṃ praty alaṃkurvīta || 6 ||
6. At night one shall always adorn oneself for one’s wife.
saśirā vamajjanam apsu varjayet || 7 ||
7. One should not submerge the head together with the body [in bathing],
astamite ca snānam || 8 ||
8. And [one should avoid] bathing after sunset.
In the days of Apastamba there were no bathrooms and all bathing took place in the local river which was a dangerous place after sunset.
pālāśam āsanaṃ pāduke danta prakṣālanam iti ca varjayet || 9 ||
9. One should avoid using a seat, clogs, sticks for cleaning the teeth, [and other utensils] made of Palāśa-wood.
stutiṃ ca guroḥ samakṣaṃ yathā su snātam iti || 10 ||
10. One should avoid self-praise in front of the teacher, saying, ‘I have properly bathed or the like.’
ā niśāyā jāgaraṇam || 11 ||
11. One should awake from midnight.
This is an interesting sūtra — one is advised to sleep for 6 hours which would mean that one has gone to be bed just after sunet.
anadhyāyo niśāyām anyatra dharma upadeśāt-śiṣyebhyaḥ || 12 ||
12. One shouldn’t study [or teach] in the middle of the night; but [may instruct] students in their duties.
One should not teach the Vedas but one may teach the students about their other duties and obligations relating to their Vedic studies.
manasā vā svayam || 13 ||
13. Or [one may] personally mentally [repeat the Veda].
ūrdhvam ardha rātrād adhyāpanam || 14 ||
14. After midnight one may teach.
na-apara rātram utthāya-anadhyāya iti saṃviśet || 15 ||
15. When one has risen [at midnight, and taught] during the third watch of the night, one shouldn’t lie down again [saying], ‘Studying is forbidden.’
If the following day is a forbidden day, eg. an aṣṭami. See also Manu 4, 99.
kāmam apaś śayīta || 16 ||
16. At one’s pleasure one may [sleep] leaning [against a post or wall].
But not returning to bed – lying on a bed creates impurity and requires one to bathe when arising but leaning against a wall etc. does not incur impurity.
manasā vā- adhīyīta || 17 ||
17. Or one may mentally repeat [the sacred texts].
kṣudrān kṣudrā caritāṃś ca deśān na seveta || 18 ||
18. One shouldn’t visit inferior people nor countries which are inhabited by them. (Manu 4.60 and 61.)
sabhāḥ samājāṃś ca || 19 ||
19. Nor assemblies and crowds.
samājaṃ ced gacchet pradakṣiṇī kṛtya- apeyāt || 20 ||
20. If one has entered a crowd, one shall leave it, turning in a clockwise direction [around the crowd].
nagara praveśanāni ca varjayet || 21 ||
21. Nor shall one frequently enter towns.
praśnaṃ ca na vibrūyāt || 22 ||
22. One should avoid answering directly a question [that is difficult to decide].
atha-apy udāharanti || 23 ||
23, Now they quote also [the following verse]:—
mūlaṃ tūlaṃ vṛhati durvivaktuḥ prajāṃ paśūn āyatanaṃ hinasti | dharma prahrāda na kumālanāya rudan ha mṛtyur vyuvāca praśnam iti || 24 ||
24. [The foolish decision] of a person who decided wrongly destroys his ancestors and his future happiness, it harms his children, cattle, and house. ‘Oh Dharmaprahrāda, [this deed belongs] not to Kumālana!’ thus decided Death, weeping, the question [addressed to him by the Rishi].
Haradatta tells the story to which the second half of the verse alludes, in the following manner:—’A certain Rishi had two students, called Dharmaprahrāda and Kumālana. Once they brought from the forest two great bundles of firewood and threw them negligently into their teacher’s house, without looking. One of the bundles struck the teacher’s little son so that he died. Then the teacher asked his two students, “Which of you two has killed him “Both answered, ‘Not I, not I.” Hereupon the teacher, being unable to [come to a decision in order to] send away the sinner and to keep the innocent one, called Death, and asked him, “Which of the two has killed the boy?” Then Death, finding himself involved in a difficult law question, began to weep, and giving his decision, said, “Oh Dharmaprahrāda, not to Kumālana [the dative has the sense of the genitive], this sin is none of kumālana’s !” Instead of declaring. “Dharmaprahrāda, thou hast done this,” he said, ‘The other did not do it.” Still from the circumstances of the case it appeared that the meaning of the answer was, “The other has done it.” “This was the decision which he gave crying,”- The reading of the text rendered in the translation is, dharmaprahrāda na kumālanāya.
gārdabhaṃ yānam ārohaṇe viṣam ārohaṇa avarohaṇāni ca varjayet || 25
25. One should avoid travelling in a carriage yoked with donkeys; and one should avoid ascending or descending from vehicles in difficult places.
bāhubhyāṃ ca nadītaram || 26 || (nadītaraṇam )
26. And [One should avoid] crossing a river by swimming. (Manu 4.77.)
nāvāṃ ca sāṃśayikīm || 27 || (nāvaṃ )
27. And [avoid also] boats of doubtful [solidity].
tṛṇa cchedana loṣṭa vimardanā ṣṭhevanāni ca-akāraṇāt || 28 || (vimardana )
28. One should avoid cutting grass, crushing clods of earth, and spitting, without a particular reason, (Manu 4.70 and 71.)
yac ca-anyat paricakṣate yac ca-anyat paricakṣate || 29 ||
29. And whatever else they [the wise] forbid.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 1. Khaṇḍa 1.
pāṇi grahaṇād adhi gṛhamedhinor vratam || 1 ||
1. After marriage the rites prescribed for a householder and his wife [must be performed].
According to Haradatta, this rule is intended to refute the opinion of those who hold that the sacred household-fire may be kept, and the prescribed offerings therein may be performed, either from the time of the marriage, or after the division of the family estate. He also states that the use of the dual gṛha-medhinoḥ indicates that husband and wife must perform the rites conjointly. Manu 3:67.
kālayor bhojanam || 2 ||
2. One shall eat at the two [appointed] times, [morning and evening].
Haradatta thinks that this Sūtra is intended to prevent householders from having more than two meals a day, and to keep them from gluttony. Others are of opinion that its object is to keep householders from excessive fasting, and to make them perform the Prāṇāgni-hotra at either meal. At the Prāṇāgni-hotra the sacrificer eats five mouthfuls invoking successively, whilst he eats, the five vital airs. At the first mouthful he says, ‘To Prana Svāhā;’ at the second, ‘To Apāṇa Svāhā,’ etc.
atṛptiś ca-annasya || 3 ||
3. And one shall not eat to repletion.
parvasu ca-ubhayor upavāsaḥ || 4 ||
4. And both [the householder and his wife] shall fast on [the days of] the new and full moon.
aupavastam eva kāla antare bhojanam || 5 ||
5. To eat once [on those days] in the morning that also is called fasting. (Aśv. Grh: Su. 1:10:2.)
tṛptiś ca-annasya || 6 ||
6. And they may eat [at that single meal] until they are quite satisfied.
yac ca-enayoḥ priyaṃ syāt tad etasminn ahani bhuñjīyātām || 7 ||
7. And on [the anniversary of] that [wedding] day they may eat that food of which they are fond.
Haradatta holds that the words ‘on that day’ do not refer to the days of the new and full moon, the Pārvan-days, mentioned in Sūtra 4. His reasons are, first, that the permission to eat food, of which the householder may be particularly fond, has already been given in Sūtra 6, by the term tṛptiḥ, ‘satisfaction’; and, secondly, that the singular ‘on this day’ does not agree with the plural ‘on the Pārvan-days.’ Hence he comes to the conclusion that the words ‘on that day’ must refer to the wedding-day, mentioned in Sūtra 1. as well as to its anniversary. Haradatta is, probably, right in his explanation, though the reasons adduced here are very weak. A stronger reason for detaching this Sūtra from Sūtra 4 will be brought forward below, under Sūtra 11. Mahādeva, the commentator of the Hiraṇyakeśi-dharma, adopts the view rejected by Haradatta.
adhaś ca śayīyātām || 8 ||
8. And [on the night of that day] they shall sleep on the ground [on a raised heap of earth]. (Aśv. Grh: Sūtra. 1:3:10.)
maithuna varjanaṃ ca || 9 ||
9. And they shall avoid having sex.
śvo bhūte sthālīpākaḥ ||10 || (śvo bhūte )
10. And on the day after [that day] a Sthālipāka must be offered.
A Sthālipāka is an offering at which rice cooked in a pot, sthāli, is offered in the fire A full description of this kind of sacrifice occurs, Aśv. Gr,:1:10:seq.
tasya-upacāraḥ pārvaṇena vyākhyātaḥ || 11 ||
11. The manner in which that offering must be performed has been declared by [the description of the Sthālipāka] to be performed on the days of the new and full moon [the Pārvana].
The Pārvana Sthālipāka has been described by Apastamba in the Gṛhya sūtra, 3:7. Again, Haradatta returns to the question whether the words on that day [Sūtra 7] refer to the Pārvan-days, or the marriage-day and its anniversaries. He now adds, in favour of the latter view, that the word pārvanena, ‘by the rite to be performed on Pārvan-days,’ by which the Sthālipāka on Pārvan-days is intended, clearly proves the impossibility to refer the preceding rules to the Pārvan-days. He adds that some, nevertheless, adopt the explanation rejected by himself.
nityaṃ loka upadiśanti || 12 ||
12. And they declare [that this rite which is known] amongst the people [must be performed] every [year].
They, ie. the Siṣṭas, those learned in the law. ‘Another commentator says, the rite which will be taught [in the following Sūtra], and which is known from the usage of the learned, is constant, ie. must be performed in every case. That it is what the “learned” declare. — Haradatta. The latter explanation of the Sūtra is adopted by Mahādeva.
yatra kva ca-agnim upasamādhāsyan syāt tatra prācīr udīcīś ca tisras tisro lekhā likhitvā-adbhir avokṣya-agnim upasamindhyāt || 13 ||
13. At every [burnt-offering], when he wishes to place the fire on the altar [called Sthaṇḍila], let him draw on that [altar] three lines from west to east and three lines from south to north, and sprinkle [the altar] with water, turning the palm of the hand downwards, and let him then make the fire burn brightly by adding [fuel]. (Aśv. Grh:Su. 1:3:1-3.)
utsicya-etad udakam uttareṇa pūrveṇa vā-anyad upadadhyāt || 14 ||
14. He shall pour out [the remainder of] this water used for sprinkling, to the north or to the east [of the altar], and take other [water into the vessel].
nityam uda dhānāny adbhir ariktāni syur gṛhamedhinor vratam || 15 ||
15. The water-vessels in the house shall never be empty; that is the duty to be observed by the householder and his wife.
Haradatta states that the objection of the repetition of the words ‘the householder and his wife’is to show that they themselves must fill the water-vessels, and not employ others for this purpose. He adds that, according to another commentator, the object of the repetition is to show that Sūtras 13 and 14 apply not only to householders, but also to students, and that hence students, when they offer the daily oblations of sacred fuel [above, 1:1:4:14 seq.), should also perform the rites taught in the preceding Sūtras.
ahany asaṃveśanam || 16 ||
16. One should not have sex in the day-time.
ṛtau ca saṃnipāto dāreṇa-anuvratam || 17 ||
17. But let him have sex with his wife at the proper time, according to the rules [of the law]. (Manu 3:46-48; Yajñ. 1.79.80.)
antarāle- ‘api dāra eva || 18 ||
18. Let him have sex in the interval also, if his wife [desires it]. (Manu 3:45; Yajñ. 1:81)
Interestingly enough the Dharma śāstra confers conjugal rights on women but not on men. It is for the women to instigate sexual intercourse and to decide when and how often to have sex.
brāhmaṇa vacanāc ca saṃveśanam || 19 ||
19. [The duty of] having sex [follows from] the passage of a Brāhmaṇa, [Let us dwell together until a son be born.’]
See Taittiriya Samhita 2:5:1:5.
strī vāsasā-eva saṃnipātaḥ syāt || 20 ||
20. But during sex he shall be dressed in a particular garment kept for this purpose.
yāvat saṃnipātaṃ ca-eva sahaśayyā || 21 ||
21. And during sex only they shall lie together,
tato nānā || 22 ||
22. Afterwards separate.
udaka upasparśanam || 23 ||
23. Then they both shall bathe;
Praśna 2. Paṭala 1. Khaṇḍa 2.
api vā lepān prakṣālya- ācamya prokṣaṇam aṅgānām || 1 ||
1. Or they shall remove the emissions with earth or water, sip water, and sprinkle the body with water.
sarva varṇānāṃ sva dharma anuṣṭhāne parama parimitaṃ sukham || 2 ||
2. People of all castes, if they fulfil their [assigned] duties, enjoy [in heaven] the highest, imperishable bliss.
tataḥ parivṛttau karma phala śeṣeṇa jātiṃ rūpaṃ varṇaṃ balaṃ medhāṃ prajñāṃ dravyāṇi dharma anuṣṭhānam iti pratipadyate | tat-cakravad ubhayor lokayoḥ sukha eva vartate || 3 ||
3. Afterwards when [one who has fulfilled his duties] returns to this world, he obtains, by virtue of a remainder of merit, birth in a distinguished family, physical beauty, beauty of complexion, strength, aptitude for learning, wisdom, wealth, and the gift of fulfilling the laws of his [caste and order]. Therefore in both worlds he dwells in happiness, [rolling] like a wheel [from the one to the other].
yathā-oṣadhi vanaspatīnāṃ bījasya kṣetra karma viśeṣe phala parivṛddhir evam || 4 ||
4. As the seed of herbs [and] trees, [sown] in good and well-cultivated soil, gives manifold returns of fruit [even so it is with those who have received the various sacraments].
etena doṣa phala parivṛddhir uktā || 5 ||
5. The increase of the results of faults has been explained hereby.
steno- ‘abhiśasto brāhmaṇo rājanyo vaiśyo vā parasmiṃl loke parimite niraye vṛtte jāyate cāṇḍālo brāhmaṇaḥ paulkaso rājanyo vaiṇo vaiśyaḥ || 6 || (parimitaṃ )
6. Thus after having undergone a long punishment in the next world, a person who has stolen [the gold of a Brāhmaṇa] or killed a [Brāhmaṇa] is born again, in case he was a Brāhmaṇa as a Caṇḍāla, in case he was a Kṣatriya as a Paulkasa, in case he was a Vaiśya as a Vaiṇa.
Manu 12:55; Yajñ. 3:206, 207. A Paulkasa is said to be the offspring of a Niṣāda and a Kshatriya woman. A Vaiṇa is a rope-dancer, or an acrobat.
etena-anye doṣa phalaiḥ karmabhiḥ paridhvaṃsā doṣa phalāsu yoniṣu [jāyante varṇa paridhvaṃsāyām || 7 ||
7. In the same manner others who have become outcasts as a result of their negative actions are born again, on account of [these] actions in the wombs [of various animals] — losing their caste. (Manu 122. 52.)
yathā cāṇḍāla upasparśane saṃbhāṣāyāṃ darśane ca doṣas tatra prāyaścittam || 8 ||
8. As it is forbidden to touch a Caṇḍāla, to speak to him or to look at him.
The penance for these [offences will be declared].
avagāhanam apām upasparśane saṃbhāṣāyāṃ brāhmaṇa saṃbhāṣā darśane jyotiṣāṃ darśanam || 9 ||
9. [The penance] for touching him is to bathe, submerging the whole body; for speaking to him to speak to a Brāhmaṇa; for looking at him to look at the lights [of heaven].
Praśna 2. Paṭala 2. Khaṇḍa 3.
āryāḥ prayatā vaiśvadeve- ‘anna saṃskartāraḥ syuḥ || 1 ||
1. Pure men of the first three castes shall prepare the food [of a householder which is used] at the Vaiśvadeva ceremony.
‘The food which is used at the Vaiśvadeva, i. e. the food prepared for the daily meals of the householder and of his wife.’ — Haradatta.
bhāṣāṃ kāsaṃ kṣavayum ity abhimukho- ‘annaṃ varjayet || 2 ||
2. The [cook] shall not speak, nor cough, nor sneeze, while facing the food.
keśān aṅgaṃ vāsaś ca-ālabhya-apa upaspṛśet || 3 ||
3. He shall wash his hands if he has touched his hair, his limbs, or his garment.
ārya adhiṣṭhitā vā śūdrāḥ saṃskartāraḥ syuḥ || 4 ||
4. Or śūdras may prepare the food, under the superintendence of people of the first three castes.
teṣāṃ sa eva-ācamana kalpaḥ || 5 ||
5. For them is prescribed the same rule of sipping water [as for their masters].
This Sūtra is a jñāpaka, as it indicates that Apastamba also recognises the different rules which are usually prescribed in the Smṛtis for Brāhmaṇas, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas, and śūdras. See above, 1:5:16:2.
adhikam ahar ahaḥ keśa śmaśru loma nakha vāpanam || 6 ||
6. Besides, the [śūdra cooks] shall daily trim their hair, their beards, the hair on their bodies, and their nails.
udaka upasparśanaṃ ca saha vāsasā || 7 ||
7. And they shall bathe, keeping their clothes on.
Usually in bathing both āryas and śūdras wear no dress except the langoṭi.
api vā-aṣṭamīṣv eva parvasu vā vaperan || 8 ||
8. Or they may trim [their hair and nails] on the eighth day [of each half- month], or on the days of the full and new moon.
parokṣam annaṃ saṃskṛtam agnāv adhiśritya-adbhiḥ prokṣet | tad deva pavitram ity ācakṣate || 9 ||
9. [The householder himself] shall place on the fire that food which has been prepared [by śūdras] without supervision, and shall sprinkle it with water. Such food also they state to be fit for the gods.
shall place on the fire — in other words whatever food is prepared by unsupervised sudra cooks should be reheated on the fire and then sprinkled with water and the recitation of mantras.
siddhe- ‘anne tiṣṭhan bhūtam iti svāmine prabrūyāt || 10 ||
10. When the food is ready, [the cook] shall stand before his master and announce it to him [saying], ‘It is ready.’
tat su bhūtaṃ virāḍ annaṃ tan mā kṣāyi-iti prativacanaḥ || 11 ||
11. The answer [of the master] shall be, ‘That well-prepared food is the means to obtain splendour; may it never fail !’ (Manu 2:54.)
gṛhamedhinor yad aśanīyasya homā balayaś ca svarga puṣṭi saṃyuktāḥ || 12 || (gṛhamedhino)
12. The burnt-oblations and Bali-offerings made with the food which the husband and his wife are to eat, bring [as their reward] prosperity, [and the enjoyment of] heaven.
Balis are portions of food which are thrown before the door, or placed in a special sequence on the floor of the house. See below, Sūtra 16 seq.
teṣāṃ mantrāṇām upayoge dvādaśa aham adhaḥ śayyā brahma caryaṃ kṣāra lavaṇa varjanaṃ ca || 13 ||
13. Whilst learning the sacred formulas [to be recited during the performance] of those [burnt oblations and Bali-offerings, a householder] shall sleep on the ground, abstain from sexual intercourse and from eating spicy condiments and salt, during twelve days.
Others explain this Sūtra thus:—”After having used for the first time these sacred formulas [which are to be recited in offering the burnt-oblation and the Balis, the householder and his wife] shall sleep,” etc.
uttamasya-eka rātram upavāsaḥ || 14 ||
14. [When he studies the Mantras] for the last [Bali offered to the goblins],
he shall fast for one [day and] night.
Regarding the use of ekarātra in the sense of ‘a [day and a] night,’ see above. The ‘last’ Bali-offering is that described below, 2:2:4:5.
balīnāṃ tasya tasya deśe saṃskāro hastena parimṛjya- avokṣya nyupya paścāt pariṣecanam || 15 ||
15. for each Bali-offering the ground must be prepared separately. [The performer] sweeps [the ground] with his [right] hand, sprinkles it with water, turning the palm downwards, throws down [the offering], and afterwards sprinkles water around it.
They say that the word “afterwards” is used in order to indicate that perfumes, garlands, and other [Upacāras] must be offered between [the last two acts].’— Haradatta.
aupāsane pacane vā ṣaḍbhir ādyaiḥ pratimantraṃ hastena juhuyāt || 16 ||
16 [At the Vaiśvadeva sacrifice] he shall offer the oblations with his hand, [offering them] into the kitchen-fire or into the sacred [Gṛhya]-fire, and reciting [each time one of] the first six Mantras [prescribed in the Nārāyaṇi Upanishad].
It is a disputed point with the commentators whether every Brāhmaṇa may offer the Vaiśvadeva in the common kitchen-fire, or those persons only who do not keep a sacred domestic fire.
The six Mantras, which are given in Taitt. Ar. 10:67:1 are:—1. Agnaye Svāhā, ‘to Agni Svāhā’; 3. Somāya Svāhā, ‘to Soma Svāhā’; 3. Viśvebhyo devebhyah Svāhā, ‘to all the gods Svāhā’; 4. Dhruvāya bhāmāya Svāhā, ‘to Dhruva Bhima Svāhā’; 5. Dhruvakṣitaye Svāhā, ‘to Dhruvakṣiti Svāhā’; 6. Acyutakṣitaye Svāhā, ‘to Acyutakṣiti Svāhā.’ Haradatta adds that some add a seventh formula, addressed to Agni sviṣṭakṛt, ‘to the fire which perfects the performance of the sacrifice,’ while others leave out the second Mantra and give that addressed to Agni sviṣṭakṛt the sixth place. This latter is the order given in the Calcutta edition of the Taittiriya Araṇyaka.
ubhayataḥ pariṣecanaṃ yathā purastāt || 17 ||
17. He shall sprinkle water all around both times [before and after the oblations], as [has been declared] above.
‘Above, ie. Gṛhya-sūtra, 1:2:3:8.’ — Haradatta. The Mantras recited are:—1. at the first sprinkling, Adite ‘numanyasva, ‘Aditi permit’; Anumate ‘numanyasva, ‘Anumati permit’; Sarasvaty anumanyasva, ‘Sarasvati permit’; Deva Savitah prasuva, ‘Divine Sāvitri permit’; 2. at the second sprinkling, the same as above, anvamamsthāḥ and prāsāvīh, ‘thou hast permitted,’ being substituted for anumanyasva and prasuva. 18. This Sūtra is a restriction of Sūtra 15. 20.
The first six offerings constitute the Devayajña or Vaiśvadeva which is offered in the fire. Now follow the bali-offerings, which are merely placed on the ground. ‘behind the fire’ means to the east of the fire; for the sacrificer must face the east.
evaṃ balīnāṃ deśe deśe samavetānāṃ sakṛt sakṛd ante pariṣecanam || 18
18. In like manner water is sprinkled around once only after the performance of those Bali-offerings that are performed in one place.
sati su upasaṃsṛṣṭena kāryāḥ || 19 ||
19. [If a seasoning] has been prepared, [the Bali-offering should consist of rice] mixed with that seasoning.
apareṇa-agniṃ saptama aṣṭamābhyām udag apavargam || 20 ||
20. With the seventh and eighth Mantras [Balis must be offered to Dharma and Adharma] behind the fire, and must be placed the one to the north of the other.
uda dhāna saṃnidhau navamena || 21 ||
21. With the ninth (Mantra a Bali offered to the waters must be placed] near the water-vessel [in which the water for domestic purposes is kept].
The Mantra is, Adbhyah Svāhā, “to the Waters Svāhā”.
madhye- ‘agārasya daśama ekādaśābhyāṃ prāg apavargam || 22 ||
22. With the tenth and eleventh (Mantras, Balis, offered to the herbs and trees and to Rakṣo-deva-gana, must be placed] in the centre of the house, and the one to the east of the other.
The Mantras are, Oshadhi-vanaspatibhyah Svāhā, “to the herbs and trees Svāhā”; Rakṣo-deva-ganebhyaḥ svāhā, “to the Rākṣasas and the servants of the gods Svāhā.”
uttara pūrvadeśe- ‘agārasya-uttaraiś caturbhiḥ || 23 ||
23. With the following four (Mantras, Balis must be placed] in the north- eastern part of the house [and the one to the east of the other].
These four Balis are sacred to the Grahas, to the Avasānas, to the Avasānapatis, and to all sentient beings.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 2. Khaṇḍa 4.
śayyā deśe kāma liṅgena || 1 ||
1. Near the bed [a Bali must be offered] with [a Mantra] addressed to Kāma Deva.
dehalyām antarikṣa liṅgena || 2 ||
2. On the door-sill [a Bali must be placed] with [a Mantra] addressed to Antarikṣa [the air].
uttareṇa-apidhānyām ||3 ||
3. With [the Mantra] that follows [in the Upanishad, he offers a Bali] near the door.
Others explain apidhāna, “the panels of the door,” to mean the bolt of the door. — Haradatta. The offering is made to Nāma, the name, or essence of things.’
uttarair brahma sadane || 4 ||
4. With the following [ten Mantras, addressed to Earth, Air, Heaven, Sun, Moon, the Constellations, Indra, Bṛhaspati, Prajapati, and Brahman, he offers ten Balis, each following one to the east of the preceding one], in [the part of the house called] the seat of Brahman.
Haradatta gives two explanations of the word Brahma-sadana, ‘the seat of Brahman.’ According to some, it is an architectural term, designating the centre of the house; according to others, it denotes the place where, at the time of the burnt- oblations, the Brahman or superintending priest is seated, ie. a spot to the south of the sacred fire.
dakṣiṇataḥ pitṛ liṅgena prācīna āvīty avācīna pāṇiḥ kuryāt || 5 ||
5. He shall offer to the south [of the Balis offered before, a Bali] with a Mantra addressed to the Manes; his sacrificial cord shall be suspended over the right shoulder, and the [palm of his right hand shall be turned upwards and] inclined to the right.
Balis and water for the Manes are placed or poured into the palm of the hand and thrown out between the thumb and forefinger. That part of the palm is, therefore, sometimes called ‘the tīrtha sacred to the Manes.’ See Manu 2:39.
raudra uttaro yathā devatābhyaḥ || 6 ||
6. To the north [of the Bali given to the Manes, a Bali shall be offered] to Rudra, in the same manner as to the [other] gods.
‘That is to say, the sacrificial cord shall not be suspended over the right shoulder, nor shall the Bali be thrown out between the thumb and forefinger.’ — Haradatta.
tayor nānā pariṣecanaṃ dharma bhedāt || 7 ||
7. The sprinkling with water [which precedes and follows the oblation] of these two [Balis, takes place] separately, on account of the difference of the rule [for each case].
In sprinkling around an offering to the gods, the sacrificer turns his right hand towards the oblation and pours out the water, beginning in the south and ending, in the east. In sprinkling around an offering to the Manes, exactly the opposite order is to be followed.
naktam eva-uttamena vaihāyasam || 8 ||
8. At night only he shall offer [the Bali to the elementals] throwing it into the air and reciting the last [Mantra].
At night, i. e. before the evening meal. The Mantra is, ‘To those beings which, being servants of Vituda, roam about day and night, desiring a Bali-offering, I offer this Bali, desirous of prosperity]. May the Lord of prosperity grant me prosperity, Svāhā.’ Haradatta adds, that according to another commentator, no other Bali but this is to be offered in the evening, and that some modify the Mantra for each occasion, offering the Bali in the morning to ‘the Bhūtas that roam about during the day,’ and in the evening ‘to the night-walkers. Compare for the whole section Manu 3:90-92; Yajñ. 1:102-104.
ya etān avyagro yathā upadeśaṃ kurute nityaḥ svargaḥ puṣṭiś ca || 9 ||
9. He who devoutly offers these [above-described Balis and Homas], according to the rules, [obtains] eternal bliss in heaven and prosperity.
agraṃ ca deyam || 10 ||
10. And [after the Balis have been performed, a portion of the food] must first be given as alms. (Manu 3:94 seq.)
atithīn eva-agre bhojayet || 11 ||
11. One shall feed guests first, (Manu 3:115; Yajñ. 1. 105.)
bālān vṛddhān roga saṃbandhān strīś ca-antarvatnīḥ || 12 ||
12. And infants, old or sick people, female [relations, and] pregnant women. (Manu 3:114; Yajñ. 1.105.)
kāle svāmināv annārthinaṃ na pratyā cakṣīyātām || 13 ||
13. The master [of the house] and his wife shall not refuse one who asks for food at the time [when the Vaiśvadeva offering has been performed].
abhāve bhūmir udakaṃ tṛṇāni kalyāṇī vāg iti | etāni vai sato- ‘agāre na kṣīyante kadācana-iti || 14 ||
2:2:4:14. If there is no food; [then] earth, water, grass, and a kind word, indeed, never fail in the house of a good person. Thus [say those who know the law]. (Manu 3:101; Yajñ. I:107.)
In the event of there being no food in the house then the minimum that should be offered to guests is a grass-mat to sit upon, water to drink and kind words.
evaṃ vṛttāv ananta lokau bhavataḥ || 15 ||
15. Endless realms are the reward [of those householders and wives] who act thus.
brāhmaṇāya-anadhīyāanāya-āsanam udakam annam iti deyam | na pratyuttiṣṭhet || 16 ||
16. To a Brāhmaṇa who has not studied the Veda, a seat, water, and food must be given. But [the giver] shall not rise [to show him respect]. (Manu 3:99)
abhivādanāya-eva-uttiṣṭhed abhivādyaś cet || 17 ||
17. But if [such a person] is worthy of a salutation [for other reasons], he shall rise to salute him.
rājanya vaiśyau ca || 18 ||
18. Nor [shall a Brāhmaṇa rise to receive] a Kshatriya or Vaishya [though they may be learned]. (Manu 3:110-l12; Yajñ. I:107)
śūdram abhyāgataṃ karmaṇi niyuñjyāt | atha-asmai dadyāt || 19 ||
19. If a śūdra comes as a guest to a Brāhmaṇa], he shall give him some work to do. He may feed him, after [that has been done]. (Manu loc. cit.)
A small token work is prescribed such as fetch water, chop some wood, sweep a path, set the table, etc.
dāsā vā rāja kulād āhṛtya-atithivat-śūdram pūjayeyuḥ || 20 ||
20. Or the servants [of the Brāhmaṇa householder] shall fetch [rice] from the royal stores, and honour the śūdra as a guest.
nityam uttaraṃ vāsaḥ kāryam || 21 ||
21. [A householder] must always wear his garment over [his left shoulder and under his right arm].
api vā sūtram eva- upavītārthe || 22 ||
22. Or he may use a cord only, slung over his left shoulder and passed under his right arm, instead of the garment.
These 2 sūtras indicate that the wearing of the sacred thread (yajñopavītam) was optional in the time of Apastamba and originally was used as a substitute for the actual garment (anga-vastra).
yatra bhujyate tat samūhya nirhṛtya- avokṣya taṃ deśam amatrebhyo lepān saṃkṛṣya-adbhiḥ saṃsṛjya-uttarataḥ śucau deśe rudrāya ninayet | evaṃ vāstu śivaṃ bhavati || 23
23. One shall sweep together [the crumbs] on the place where one has eaten, and take them away. One shall sprinkle water on that place with the
palm downwards, and remove the remnants [of food from the cooking- vessels with a spoon], wash them with water, and take their contents to a clean place to the north [of the house, offering them] to Rudra. In this manner the house will become prosperous.
brāhmaṇa ācāryaḥ smaryate tu || 24 ||
24. It is declared in the Smṛtis that a Brāhmaṇa alone should be chosen as teacher [or spiritual guide].
The reference in the context is to Vedic study.
Manu 2:241, 242. From here down to 2:3:6:2 Apastamba again treats of the duties of students and teachers, a subject which appears to have in his eyes a greater importance than any other. The rules given now apply chiefly to householders. It would seem that they have been inserted in this particular place, because the reception of a former teacher is to be described 2:3:5:4 - 11 and that of a ‘learned guest’ 2:3:6:3 seq.
āpadi brāhmaṇena rājanye vaiśye vā-adhyayanam || 25 ||
25. In exceptional circumstances a Brāhmaṇa may study under a Kṣatriya or Vaiśya.
anugamanaṃ ca paścāt || 26 ||
26. And [during his discipleship] he must walk behind [such a teacher].
tata ūrdhvaṃ brāhmaṇa eva-agre gatau syāt || 27 ||
27. Afterwards the Brāhmaṇa shall take precedence before [his Kṣatriya or Vaiśya teacher].
Praśna 2. Paṭala 2. Khaṇḍa 5.
sarva vidyānām apy upaniṣadām upākṛtya-anadhyayanaṃ tad ahaḥ || 1 ||
1. On the day on which, beginning the study of the whole sacred science, the Upaniṣads [and the rest, he performs the Upākarma in the morning], he shall not study [at night].
This rule refers to the Upākarma, to be performed yearly by householders. Nowadays, too, the custom is observed, and the whole Brahminical community change their yajñopavitas or sacrificial cords on this occasion in the month of Śrāvana. The adherents of the various śākhas of the Vedas, however, perform the ceremony on different days. According to Haradatta, the Upaniṣads are named, in order to show that they are of the highest importance. See also Satapatha- Brāhmaṇa 10:3:5:12.
adhītya ca-avikramaṇaṃ sadyaḥ || 2 ||
2. And he shall not leave his teacher immediately after completing the study.
Others consider that this Sūtra refers to the annual Upakarma of the householder. In that case the translation would be, ‘And after having performed the Upakarma,’ etc. Probably Apastamba means to give a general rule, applicable both to householders and to students who have returned home.
yadi tvareta guroḥ samīkṣāyāṃ svādhyāyam adhītya kāmaṃ gacchet | evam ubhayoḥ śivaṃ bhavati || 3 ||
3. If he is in a hurry to go, he shall perform the daily recitation of the Veda in the presence of his teacher, and then go at his pleasure. In this manner good fortune will attend both of them.
samāvṛttaṃ ced ācāryo- ‘abhyāgacchet tam abhimukho- ‘ abhyāgamya tasya- upasaṃgṛhya na bībhatsamāna udakam upaspṛśet puraskṛtya- upasthāpya yathā upadeśaṃ pūjayet || 4 ||
4. If the [former] teacher visits him after he has returned home, he shall go out to meet him, and touch his [feet], without washing afterwards showing disgust. He shall let him enter the house first, and then fetch [the materials necessary for a hospitable reception], and honour him according to the rule.
Though he may suspect that the teacher had been defiled by the touch of a Caṇḍāla or the like, still he shall not show disgust nor wash himself.’ — Haradatta.
Regarding the rule of receiving guests, see below, 2:4, 8, 6 seq.
āsane śayane bhakṣye bhojye vāsasi vā saṃnihite nihīnatara vṛttiḥ syāt || 5 ||
5. If [his former teacher is] present, he himself shall use a seat, a bed, food, and garments inferior to, and lower [than those offered to the teacher].
tiṣṭhan savyena pāṇinā- anugṛhya-ācāryam ācamayet || 6 ||
6. Standing [slighty bent], one shall place the left hand [under the water- vessel, and bending with his other hand its mouth downwards], he shall offer to his teacher water for sipping.
According to Haradatta, the repetition of the word ācāryam, ‘the teacher,’ in this Sūtra, indicates that the rule holds good not only when the teacher comes as a guest to his former student, but on every occasion when he receives water for sipping.
anyaṃ vā samudetam || 7 ||
7. And [he shall offer water for sipping in this manner] to other guests also who possess all [good qualities] together.
He is called samudeta, “possessed of all [good qualities] together,” who is endowed with [good] birth, disposition, behaviour, [great] learning, and a [venerable] age.’ — Haradatta.
sthāna āsana caṅkramaṇa smiteṣv anucikīrṣan || 8 ||
8. He shall follow [his teacher] in rising, sitting, walking about, and smiling.
In other words he shall do these acts only after his teacher has done them.
saṃnihite mūtrā purīṣa vāta karma-uccair bhāṣā hāsa ṣṭhevana danta skavana niḥśṛṅkhaṇa bhrukṣepaṇa tālana niṣṭhyāni-iti || 9 ||
9. In the presence [of the teacher] one shall not defecate, fart, speak aloud, laugh, spit, clean the teeth, blow the nose, frown, clap hands, nor snap fingers.
dāre prajāyāṃ ca-upasparśana bhāṣā visrambha pūrvāḥ parivarjayet || 10 ||
10. Nor shall one tenderly embrace or address caressing words to his spouse or children.
vākyena vākyasya pratīghātam ācāryasya varjayet || 11 ||
11. One shall not contradict what the teacher says.
Contradict out of insolence or cheek, but if there are inconsistencies in the teaching one may make these known and seek clarification.
śreyasāṃ ca || 12 ||
12. Nor those that are one’s superiors.
sarva bhūta parīvāda ākrośāṃś ca || 13 ||
13. [One shall not] blame or deprecate any sentient being.
Haradatta states that ‘deprecating’ is forbidden here once more in order that it should be particularly avoided.
vidyayā ca vidyānām || 14 ||
14. [One shall not revile one branch of] sacred learning by [invidiously comparing it with] another.
For example, one shall not say, “The Rig Veda is sweet to the ear, the other Vedas grate on the ear,” or “the Taittiriya Veda is a śākha consisting of leavings,” or “the Brāhmaṇa proclaimed by Yajñavalkya is of modern origin.” — Haradatta. ‘The second sentence refers to the story that Yajñavalkya vomited the Black Yajur Veda, and his fellow-students, becoming partridges, picked it up. Regarding the third sentence, see Vārttika on Pānini 4, 3, 105,
yayā vidyayā na viroceta punar ācāryam upetya niyamena sādhayet || 15
15. If one does not achieve perfection in a [branch of] the Veda [which he studied formerly], he shall again go to the [same] teacher and master it,
observing the [same] rules as [during his first studentship].
upākaraṇād ā-utsarjanādadhyāpayitur niyamaḥ | loma saṃharaṇaṃ māṃsaṃ śrāddhaṃ maithunam iti ca varjayet || 16 ||
16. The restrictions [to be kept] by the teacher from the beginning of the course of [annual] teaching [upākarma] to its end [utsarjana – vide 1:3:9:2] are: to avoid cutting the hair on the body, partaking of meat or of food- offerings to the Manes, and sex.
These things can be done again once the course has ended under the full-moon of Pausha — about 5 months.
ṛtve vā jāyām || 17 ||
17. Or [he may have sex] with his wife at the proper season.
yathā āgamaṃ śiṣyebhyo vidyā saṃpradāne niyameṣu ca yuktaḥ syāt | evaṃ vartamānaḥ pūrva aparān saṃbandhān ātmānaṃ ca kṣeme yunakti || 18 ||
18. He shall be attentive in instructing his students in the sacred knowledge, in such a manner that they master it, and in observing the restrictions [imposed upon householders during their teaching]. He who acts thus, gains heavenly bliss for himself, his descendants and ancestors.
manasā vācā prāṇena cakṣuṣā śrotreṇa tvak śiśna udara ārambhanaṇa anāsrāvān parivṛñjāno- ‘amṛtatvāya kalpate || 19 ||
19. He who entirely avoids with mind, word, nose, eye, and ear the sensual objects [such as are] enjoyed by the touch, the organ, or the stomach, gains immortality.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 3. Khaṇḍa 6.
jāti ācāra saṃśaye dharma artham āgatam agnim upasamādhāya jātim ācāraṃ ca pṛcchet || 1 ||
1. If any doubts arise regarding the caste and conduct of a person who has come in order to fulfil his duty [of learning the Veda], he (the teacher) shall kindle a fire [with the ceremonies prescribed for kindling the sacrificial fire] and ask [the prospective student] about his caste and conduct.
The person desirous to study addresses his teacher elect with the following mantra:—Bhagavan maitreṇa cakṣuṣā paśya śivena manasānugṛhāṇa prasīda mām adhyāpaya, ‘venerable Sir, look on me with a friendly eye, receive me with a favourable mind, be kind and teach me.’ The teacher elect then asks:—Kim gotro ‘si saumya, kim-ācāraḥ, ‘friend, of what family are you? what is your mode of conduct?
sādhutāṃ cet pratijānīte- ‘agnir upadraṣṭā vāyur upaśrotā-ādityo- ‘anukhyātā sādhutāṃ pratijānīte sādhu-asmā astu vitatha eṣa enasa ity uktvā śāstuṃ pratipadyeta || 2 ||
2. If he declares himself to be [of] good [family and conduct, the teacher elect] shall say, ‘Agni who sees, Vāyu who hears, Aditya who brings to light, vouch for his goodness; may it be well with this person! He is free from blame.’ Then he shall begin to teach him.
agnir iva jvalann atithir abhyāgacchati || 3 ||
3. A guest comes to the house resembling a burning fire.
The object of this Sūtra is to show the absolute necessity of feeding a guest. For, if offended, he might burn the house with the flames of his anger.
dharmeṇa vedānām eka ekāṃ śākhām adhītya śrotriyo bhavati || 4 ||
4. A śrotriya is considered to be one who, observing the law [of studentship], has learned one complete recension of the Veda.
The object of this Sūtra is to complete the definition of the term ‘guest’ to be given in the following Sūtra. The literal sense of Apastamba’s words is, ‘He who, observing the law, has studied one recension of each [of the four] Vedas, becomes a śrotriya.’ Haradatta says this definition would be contrary to the current acceptation of the term. That argument proves, however, nothing for Apastamba’s times.
sva dharma yuktaṃ kuṭumbinam abhyāgacchati dharma puraskāro na- anya prayojanaḥ so- ‘atithir bhavati || 5 ||
5. A guest (atithi) is one who, approaches a householder solely for the fulfilment of his religious duties (Dharma), and with no other purpose. (Manu 3:102, 103; Yajñ. 1:111.)
tasya pūjāyāṃ śāntiḥ svargaś ca || 6 ||
6. The reward for honouring [such a guest] is immunity from misfortunes, and heavenly bliss. (Yajñ. 1.109. Manu 3:101.)
tam abhimukho- ‘abhyāgamya yathā vayaḥ sametya tasya-āsanam āhārayet || 7 ||
7. One shall go out to meet such [a guest], honour him according to his age [by the formulas of salutation prescribed], and cause a seat to be given to him.
śakti viṣaye na-abahu pādam āsanaṃ bhavati-ity eke || 8 ||
8. Some declare that, if possible, the seat should have many legs. Haradatta states that this is also Apastamba’s opinion.
tasya pādau prakṣālayet | śūdra mithunāv ity eke || 9 ||
9. The [householder himself] shall wash the feet of that [guest]; according to some, two śūdras shall do it.
anyataro- ‘abhiṣecane syāt || 10 ||
10. One of them shall be employed in pouring water [over the guest, the other in washing his feet].
tasya-udakam āhārayen mṛnmayena-ity eke || 11 ||
11. Some declare that the water for the [guest] shall be brought in an earthen vessel.
According to Haradatta, Apastamba is of opinion that it should be brought in a jar made of metal.
na-udakam ācārayed(āhārayed?) asamāvṛttaḥ || 12 ||
12. But water should not be fetched for [a guest] who has not yet completed his studies.
It is unnecessary to offer water for washing the feet to a student.
adhyayana sāṃvṛttiś ca-atra-adhikā || 13 ||
13. In case a [student comes, the host] shall chant the Veda [together with him] for a longer time [than with other guests].
sāntvayitvā tarpayed rasair bhakṣyair adbhir avarārdhyena-iti || 14 ||
14. He shall converse kindly [with his guest], and please him with milk or other [drinks], with eatables, or at least with water.
āvasathaṃ dadyād upari śayyām upastaraṇam upadhānaṃ sa avastaraṇam abhyañjanaṃ ca-iti || 15 ||
15. He shall offer to his guest a room, a bed, a mattress, a pillow with a cover, and ointment, and what else [may be necessary].
‘Ointment, ie. oil or clarified butter for anointing the feet.’ — Haradatta. Manu 3:107. anna saṃskartāram āhūya vrīhīn yavān vā tad arthān nirvapet || 16 ||
16. [If dinner has already been finished before the arrival of the guest], he shall call his cook and give him rice or wheat for [preparing a fresh meal for] the guest. (Manu 3:108.)
uddhṛtāny annāny avekṣeta-idaṃ bhūyā3 idā3m iti ||17 ||
17. [If dinner is ready when the guest arrives], he himself shall serve out the food and look at it, saying [to himself], ‘Is this [portion] greater, or this?’
bhūya uddhara-ity eva brūyāt || 18 ||
18. He shall say, ‘Take out a larger [portion for the guest].’
dviṣan dviṣato vā na-annam aśnīyād doṣeṇa vā mīmāṃsamānasya mīmāṃsitasya vā || 19 ||
19. A guest who is at enmity [with his host] shall not eat his food, nor [shall he eat the food of a host] who hates him or accuses him of a crime, or of one who is suspected of a crime. (Manu 4, 213; Yajñ. 1. 162.)
pāpmānaṃ hi sa tasya bhakṣayati-iti vijñāyate || 20 ||
20. For it is declared in the Veda that he [who eats the food of such a person] eats his guilt.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 3. Khaṇḍa 7.
sa eṣa prājāpatyaḥ kuṭumbino yajño nitya pratataḥ || 1 ||
1. This reception of guests is an everlasting [śrauta] sacrifice offered by the householder to Prajāpati.
‘Prajāpatya may mean either “created by Prajāpati” or sacred to “Prajāpati.” — Haradatta.
yo- ‘atithīnām agniḥ sa āhavanīyo yaḥ kuṭumbe sa gārhapatyo yasmin pacyate so-’anvāhāryapacanaḥ || 2 ||
2. The fire in the stomach of the guest [represents] the Ahavanīya, [the sacred fire] in the house of the host represents the Gārhapatya, the fire at which the food for the guest is cooked [represents] the fire used for cooking the sacrificial viands [the Dakṣināgni].
In the first Sūtra the reception of guests had been compared to an everlasting Vedic sacrifice. This analogy is traced further in detail in this Sūtra. One of the chief characteristics of a Vedic sacrifice is the vitāna or the use of three sacred fires; Hence Apastamba shows that three fires also are used in offering hospitality to guests.
ūrjaṃ puṣṭiṃ prajāṃ paśūn iṣṭā pūrtam iti gṛhāṇām aśnāti yaḥ pūrvo- ’atither aśnāti || 3
3. One who eats before the guests consumes the food, the prosperity, the children, the cattle, the merit which his family acquired by sacrifices and charitable works.
paya upasecanam annam agniṣṭoma saṃmitaṃ sarpiṣā-ukthya saṃmitaṃ madhunā-atirātra saṃmitaṃ māṃsena dvādaśa aha saṃmitam udakena.
prajā vṛddhir āyuṣaś ca || 4
4. Food [offered to guests] which is mixed with milk procures the reward of an Agniṣṭoma-sacrifice, food mixed with clarified butter procures the reward of an Ukthya, food mixed with honey the reward of an Atirātra, food accompanied by meat the reward of a Dvādaśa, [food and] water numerous offspring and long life.
Regarding the Agniṣṭoma and the other sacrifices mentioned, see Aitareya Brāhmaṇa 111:8; 4:1:4.
priyā apriyāś ca-atithayaḥ svargaṃ lokaṃ gamayanti-iti vijñāyate || 5 ||
5. It is declared in the Veda, ‘Both welcome and unwelcome guests procure heaven [for their host].’
sa yat prātar madhyaṃdine sāyam iti dadāti savanāny eva tāni bhavanti || 6 ||
6. When he gives food in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, [these gifts] are the Savanas [of that sacrifice offered to Prajāpati].
The morning, midday, and evening offerings offered at the great Vedic sacrifices are called Savanas. The object of this Sūtra is to prescribe the hospitable reception of guests at all times of the day, and to further describe the similarity of a guest- offering to a Vedic sacrifice.
yad anutiṣṭhaty udavasyaty eva tat || 7 ||
7. When he rises after his guest has risen [to depart], that act represents the Udavāsanīya- iṣṭi [of a Vedic sacrifice].
Regarding the Udavasānīyā iṣṭi, see Aitareya Brāhmaṇa 8:5. It is the ‘concluding iṣṭi.’ yat sāntvayatati sā dakṣiṇā praśaṃsā || 8 ||
8. When he addresses [the guest] kindly, that kind address [represents] the Dakṣina.
Dakṣina is the gratuity given to priests who officiate at a sacrifice.
yat saṃsādhayati te viṣṇu kramāḥ || 9 ||
9. When he follows [his departing guest, his steps represent] the steps of Vishnu.
‘The steps of Vishnu’ are three steps which the sacrificer has to make between the Vedi and the āhavanīya-fire.
yad upāvartate so- ‘avabhṛthaḥ || 10 ||
10. When he returns [after having accompanied his guest], that [act represents] the Avabhṛtha, [the final bath performed after the completion of a sacrifice.)
iti hi brāhmaṇam || 11 ||
11. Thus [a Brāhmaṇa shall treat] a Brāhmaṇa, [and a Kshatriya and a Vaishya their caste-fellows.]
rājānaṃ ced atithir abhyāgacchet-śreyasīm asmai pūjām ātmanaḥ kārayet || 12 ||
12. If a guest comes to a king, he shall make [his Purohita] honour him more than himself.
‘A guest,’ ie. such a one as described above, 2:3, 6, 4 and 5
āhita agniṃ ced atithir abhyāgacchet svayam enam abhyudetya brūyāt | vrātya kva-avātsīr iti | vrātya udakam iti | vrātya tarpayaṃs tv iti || 13 ||
13. If a guest comes to an Agnihotrin, he himself shall go to meet him and say to him:—’O faithful fulfiller of vows, where did you stay [last night] ? ‘[Then he offers water, saying]:—”O faithful fulfiller of vows, here is water”. [Next he offers milk or the like, saying]:—”O faithful fulfiller of vows, may [these fluids] refresh [you]”.
An Agnihotrin is a Brāhmaṇa who offers certain daily burnt offerings called Agnihotra. The translation of the last clause renders tarpayantu, the reading of the Atharva Veda.
purā-agnihotrasya homād upāṃśu japet | vrātya yathā te manas tathā- astu-iti | vrātya yathā te vaśas tathā- astu-iti | vrātya yathā te priyaṃ tathā- astu-iti | vrātya yathā te nikāmas tathā- astu-iti || 14 ||
14. [If the guest stays at the time of the Agnihotra, he shall make him sit down to the north of the fire and] murmur in a low voice, before offering the oblations:—”O faithful fulfiller of vows, may it be as your heart desires;” “O faithful fulfiller of vows, may it be as your will is;” “O faithful fulfiller of vows, may it be as your wish is;” “O faithful fulfiller of the] vows, may it be as your desire is.”
According to some, all these sentences must be pronounced; according to Haradatta, one only, which may be selected optionally.
yasya- uddhṛteṣv ahuteṣv agniṣv atithir abhyāgacchet svayam enam abhyudetya brūyāt vrātya atisṛja hoṣyāmi | ity atisṛṣṭena hotavyam | anatisṛṣṭaś cej- juhuyād doṣaṃ brāhmaṇam āha || 15 ||
15. If a guest comes, after the fires have been placed [on the altar], but before the oblations have been offered, [the host] himself shall approach him and say to him:— O faithful fulfiller of vows, give me permission; I wish to sacrifice.’ Then he shall sacrifice, after having received permission. A Brāhmaṇa text declares that he commits a sin if he sacrifices without permission.
Haradatta states that the Brāhmaṇa mentioned in the text is the Atharvana Brāhmaṇa see Atharva Veda 15:11 - 12.
eka rātraṃ ced atithīn vāsayet pārthivāṃl lokān abhijayati dvitīyayā- antarikṣyāṃs tṛtīyayā divyāṃś caturthyā parāvato lokān aparimitābhir aparimitāṃl lokān abhijayati-iti vijñāyate || 16 ||
16. One who entertains guests for one night obtains earthly happiness, a second night gains the middle air, a third heavenly bliss, a fourth the world of unsurpassable bliss; many nights procure endless worlds. That has been declared in the Veda.
asamudetaś ced atithir bruvāṇa āgacched āsanam udakam annaṃ śrotriyāya dadāmi-ity eva dadyāt | evam asya samṛddhaṃ bhavati || 17 ||
17. If an unlearned person who pretends to be [worthy of the appellation] ‘guest’ approaches, one shall offer a seat, water, and food, [thinking] “I give it to a learned Brāhmaṇa.’ Thus [the merit] of his [gift] becomes [as] great [as if a learned Brāhmaṇa had received it].
This illustrates the power of one’s mental attitude and resolve.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 4. Khaṇḍa 8.
yena kṛta āvasathaḥ syād atithir na taṃ pratyuttiṣṭhet pratyavarohed vā purastāt-ced abhivāditaḥ || 1 ||
1. On the second and following days of the guest’s stay, the host shall not rise or descend.
If the guest is staying for a few days then formalities need to be observed only on the first day and not thereafter — the guest is treated as any other member of the household.
śeṣabhojī-atithīnāṃ syāt || 2 ||
2. One shall eat after the guests. (Manu 3:117; Yajñ. 1.105.)
na rasān gṛhe bhuñjīta-anavaśeṣam atithibhyaḥ || 3 ||
3. One shall not consume all the flavoured liquids in the house, so as to leave nothing for guests.
Flavoured liquids, ie. milk, whey, lassi, juices etc.
na-ātma artham abhirūpam annaṃ pācayet || 4 ||
4. One shall not have sweets prepared for his own sake. (Manu 3:106.)
go madhu parka arho veda adhyāyaḥ || 5 ||
5. [A guest] who can repeat the [whole] Veda [together with the supplementary books] is worthy to receive a cow and the Madhuparka, (Manu 3:119 and 120; Yajñ 1:110.)
A guest is also called goghna, ‘cow-killer,’ because formerly a cow used to be killed on the arrival of a distinguished guest. The rite is described by Aśvalāyana Gṛhya-sūtra 1:24, 31-33.
ācārya ṛtvik snātako rājā vā dharma yuktaḥ || 6 ||
6. [And also] the teacher, an officiating priest, a Snātaka, and a just king [though not learned in the Veda].
Nowadays the only time Madhuparka is offered is at the time of marriage to the son-in-law (who is supposed to be a snātaka i.e. vedic graduate). In lieu of the cow a coconut is offered which he rolls away with a request not to kill the cow for him but to let it roam about and eat grass and drink water.
ācāryāya-ṛtvije śvaśurāya rājña iti parisaṃvatsarād upatiṣṭhadbhyo gaur madhu parkaś ca || 7 ||
7. A cow and the Madhuparka [shall be offered] to the teacher, to an officiating priest, to a father-in-law, and to a king, if they come after a year has elapsed [since their former visit].
dadhi madhu saṃsṛṣṭaṃ madhu parkaḥ payo vā madhu saṃsṛṣṭam || 8 ||
8. The Madhuparka shall consist of curds mixed with honey, or of milk mixed with honey. (Aśvalāyana Gṛhya sūtra 1:24, 5 and 6.)
abhāva udakam || 9 ||
9. In the absence [of these substances] water [mixed with honey may be used].
ṣaḍaṅgo vedaḥ || 10 ||
10. The Veda has six Aṅgas [auxiliary works].
This Sūtra explains the term, vedādhyāya ‘[a guest] who can repeat the [whole] Veda,’ which occurs above, Sūtra 5. - Haradatta.
Madhuparka is a procedure for formally welcoming certain types of distinguished visitors.
chandaḥ kalpo vyākaraṇaṃ jyotiṣaṃ niruktaṃ śīkṣā chando vicitir iti || 11 ||
11. [The six auxiliary works are] the Kalpa [teaching the ritual] of the Veda, the treatises on grammar, astronomy, etymology, phonetics, and metrics.
śabda artha ārambhaṇānāṃ tu karmaṇāṃ samāmnāya samāptau veda śabdaḥ || 12 || tatra saṃkhyā vipratiṣiddhā |
12. [If any one should contend that] the term Veda [on account of its etymology, implying that which teaches duty or whereby one obtains spiritual merit] applies to the complete collection of [works which contain] rules for rites to be performed on the authority of precepts, [that, consequently, the Kalpa sūtras form part of the Veda, and that thereby] the number [fixed above] for those [Aṅgas] is proved to be wrong,
This Sūtra and the following one are directed against those who consider the Kalpa sūtras to be a part of the Veda, the revealed texts.
aṅgānāṃ tu pradhānair avyapadeśa iti nyāyavit samayaḥ || 13 ||
13. [Then we answer], All those who are learned in Mimāṃsa agree that [the terms Veda, Brāhmana etc., which are applied to] the principal [works], do not include the Aṅgas [the Kalpa sūtras and the rest].
atithiṃ nirākṛtya yatra gate bhojane smaret tato viramya- upoṣya || 14 ||
14. If one recalls at any time during dinner, that one has refused [hospitality to] a guest, he shall at once stop eating and fast for the rest of that day.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 4. Khaṇḍa 9.
śvo bhūteyathā manasaṃ tarpayitvā saṃsādhayet || 1 ||
1. And on the following day [he shall search for him], feast him to his heart’s content, and accompany him [on his departure]. (Yajñ. 1.113.)
yānavantam ā yānāt || 2 ||
2. [If the guest] possesses a vehicle, [he shall accompany him] as far as that.
yāvat-na- anujānīyād itaraḥ || 3 ||
3. Any other [guests he must accompany], until permission to return is given.
apratībhāyāṃ sīmno nivarteta || 4 ||
4. If a guest forgets [to give leave to depart], the [host] may return upon reaching the boundary of the village.
sarvān vaiśvadeve bhāginaḥ kurvīta-ā śva cāṇḍālebhyaḥ || 5 ||
5. To all [those who come for food] at [the end of] the Vaiśvadeva he shall give a portion, even to dogs and chaṇḍālas.
na- anarhadbhyo dadyād ity eke || 6 ||
6. Some declare that he shall not give anything to unworthy people [such as Caṇḍālas].
upetaḥ strīṇām anupetasya ca-ucchiṣṭaṃ varjayet || 7 ||
7. A person who has been initiated shall not eat the leavings of women or of an uninitiated person.
After a long discussion on the object of this Sūtra, Haradatta comes to the conclusion that it is given against the improper custom to dine out of the same vessel with one’s wife and uninitiated children, which prevails in some countries.
sarvāṇy udaka pūrvāṇi dānāni || 8 ||
8. All gifts are to be preceded by [pouring out] water.
Consequently a gift of food also. The custom is to pour water, usually with the spoon called Darvi; [Pallī], into the extended palm of the recipient’s right hand.
yathā śruti vihāre || 9 ||
9. [But gifts offered to priests] at sacrifices [are to be given] in the manner prescribed by the Veda.
ye nityā bhāktikās teṣām anuparodhena saṃvibhāgo vihitaḥ || 10 ||
10. The division of the food must be made in such a manner that those who receive daily portions [servants & dependants] do not suffer by it.
kāmam ātmānaṃ bhāryāṃ putraṃ vā- uparundhyān na tu-eva dāsa karma karam ||11||
11. At his pleasure, the householder may stint himself, his wife, or his children, but by no means a servant who does his work.
tathā ca-ātmano- ‘anuparodhaṃ kuryād yathā karmasv asamarthaḥ syāt || 12 ||
12. And he must not stint himself so much that he becomes unable to perform his duties.
atha-apy udāharanti —
aṣṭau grāsā muner bhakṣaḥ ṣoḍaśa-araṇyavāsinaḥ | dvātriṃśataṃ gṛhasthasya- aparimitaṃ brahmacāriṇaḥ || āhita agnir anaḍvāṃś ca brahmacārī ca te trayaḥ |
aśnanta eva sidhyanti na-eṣāṃ siddhir anaśnatām iti || 13 ||
13. Now they quote also [the following two verses]:— Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen that of a hermit living in the woods, thirty- two that of a householder, and an unlimited quantity that of a student. An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and a student, those three can do their work only if they eat; without eating [much], they cannot do it.’ (Manu 4:28; Yajñ. 3:55.)
Praśna 2. Paṭala 5. Khaṇḍa 10.
bhikṣaṇe nimittam ācāryo vivāho yajño mātā pitror bubhūrṣā-arhataś ca niyama vilopaḥ ||
1. The reasons for [which] begging [is permissible are], [in order to collect the fee for] the teacher, [to celebrate] a wedding, or a śrauta-sacrifice, in order to support one’s parents, and the [impending] interruption of religious ceremonies performed by a worthy man. (Manu 4;251; 11:1 seq.; Yajñ.1.216)
By the term arhat, “a worthy person,” a Brāhmaṇa is here designated who has studied the Veda and performs an Agnihotra.
tatra guṇān samīkṣya yathā śakti deyam || 2 ||
2. [The donor] must examine the qualities [of the petitioner] and give according to his means.
indriya prīty arthasya tu bhikṣaṇam animittam | na tad ādriyeta || 3 ||
3. But if persons solicit donations for the sake of sensual gratification, that is improper; one should disregard them.
svakarma brāhmaṇasya-adhyayanam adhyāpanam yajño yājanam dānaṃ pratigrahaṇam dāyād yaṃ śiloñchaḥ || 4 ||
4. The lawful occupations of a Brāhmaṇa are, studying, teaching, sacrificing for himself, officiating as priest for others, giving alms, receiving alms, inheriting, and gleaning corn in the fields. (Manu 1:88, Yajñ. 1:118.)
anyat-ca- aparigṛhītam || 5 ||
5. And [he may live by taking] other things which belong to nobody. ie. wild roots and fruits.
etāny eva kṣatriyasya-adhyāpana yājana pratigrahaṇāni-iti parihāpya daṇḍa yuddha adhikāni || 6 ||
6. [The lawful occupations] of a Kshatriya are the same, with the exception of teaching, officiating as priest, and receiving alms. [But] governing and fighting must be added. (Manu 1:89; 10:77, 79; Yajñ. 10:1.118, 119.)
kṣatriyavad vaiśyasya daṇḍa yuddha varjaṃ kṛṣi go rakṣya vāṇijya adhikam || 7 ||
7. [The lawful occupations] of a Vaishya are the same as those of a Kshatriya, with the exception of governing and fighting. [But in his case] agriculture, the breeding of cattle, and trade must be added. (Manu 1:90, 10:78, 79; Yajñ. loc. cit.)
na- ananūcānam ṛtvijaṃ vṛṇīte na paṇamānam || 8 ||
8. He [shall] not choose [for the performance of a śrauta-sacrifice] a priest who is unlearned in the Veda, nor one who haggles [about his fee].
ayājyo- ‘anadhīyānaḥ || 9 ||
9. [A priest] shall not officiate for a person unlearned in the Veda.
yuddhe tad yogā yathā upāyam upadiśanti tathā pratipattavyam || 10 ||
10. In war [Kṣatriyas] shall act in such a manner as those order, who are learned in that [art of war].
nyasta āyudha prakīrṇa keśa prāñjali parāṅ āvṛttānām āryā vadhaṃ paricakṣate || 11 ||
11. The āryas forbid the killing [in war] of those who have laid down their arms, of those who [beg for mercy] with loose hair or joined palms, and of fugitives. (Manu 7:91 seq.; Yajñ. 1:325.)
śāstrair adhigatānām indriya daurbalyād vipratipannānāṃ śāstā nirveṣam upadiśed yathā karma yathā uktam || 12 ||
12. The spiritual guide shall order those who, [whilst] participating according to sacred law [in the rights of their caste], have gone astray through the weakness of their senses, to perform penances proportionate to [the greatness of] their sins, according to the precepts [of the Smṛti].
Haradatta explains the words śāstrair adhigatānām, ‘who whilst participating,
according to the sacred law, [in the rights of their caste,] ‘by’ who have been sanctified according to the law by the sacraments, such as the Garbha-dhāna, and are entitled [to the rights and occupations of their caste].’
tasya cet-śāstram atipravarteran rajānaṃ gamayet || 13 ||
13. If [such persons] transgress their [ācārya’s] order he shall take them before the king.
rājā purohitaṃ dharma artha kuśalam || 14 ||
14. The king shall [send them] to his domestic priest (purohit), who should be learned in the law and the science of governing.
sa brāhmaṇān niyuñjyāt || 15 ||
15. He shall order [them to perform the proper penances if they are] Brahmins.
bala viśeṣeṇa vadha dāsya varjaṃ niyamair upaśoṣayet || 16 ||
16. He shall reduce them [to reason] by forcible means, excepting corporal punishment and servitude.
Probably this Sūtra is meant to give a general rule, and to exempt Brahmins in every case from corporal punishment and servitude. Manu 8:379-380.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 5. Khaṇḍa 11.
itareṣāṃ varṇānām ā prāṇa viprayogāt samavekṣya teṣāṃ karmāṇi rājā daṇḍam praṇayet || 1 ||
1. In the cases of [men of] other castes, the king, after having tried them, may punish them even by death.
na ca saṃdehe daṇḍaṃ kuryāt || 2 ||
2. And the king shall never punish on [mere] suspicion.
su vicitaṃ vicitya-ā daiva praśnebhyo rājā daṇḍāya pratipadyeta || 3 ||
3. But having carefully investigated [the case] by means of cross- examining [witnesses] and even of ordeals, the king may proceed to punish. [See also below, 2:11:29:6]
evaṃ vṛtto rājā-ubhau lokāv abhijayati || 4 ||
4. A king who acts thus, gains both [this and the next] world.
rājñaḥ panthā brāhmaṇena- asametya || 5 ||
5. The road belongs to the king except if he meets a Brahmin.
Manu 2:139; Yajñ. 1. 117. According to Haradatta this Sūtra is given, though the precedence among the various castes has been already settled, in order to show that common Kṣatriyas must make way for an anointed king.
sametya tu brāhmaṇasya-eva panthāḥ || 6 ||
6. But if he meets a Brahmin, the road belongs to the latter. (Manu 2:138; Yajñ. 1.117.)
yānasya bhāra abhinihitasya-aturasya striyā iti sarvair dātavyaḥ || 7 ||
7. All must make way for a [laden] vehicle, for a person who carries a burden, for a sick person, for a woman and others [such as senior citizens and infants].
varṇa jyāyasāṃ ca-itarair varṇaiḥ || 8 ||
8. And [way must be given], by the other castes, for those men who are superior by caste.
aśiṣṭa patita matta unmattānām ātma svasti ayana arthena sarvair eva dātavyaḥ || 9 ||
9. And for their own welfare everyone must make way for fools, outcasts, drunkards, and madmen.
dharma caryayā jaghanyo varṇaḥ pūrvaṃ pūrvaṃ varṇam āpadyate jāti parivṛttau || 10 ||
10. In successive births people of the lower castes are born in the next higher one, if they have fulfilled their duties. (Manu 10:64, 65; Yajñ. 1:96.)
adharma caryayā pūrvo varṇo jaghanyaṃ jaghanyaṃ varṇam āpadyate jāti parivṛttau || 11 ||
11. In successive births those of the higher castes are born in the next lower one, if they neglect their duties
dharma prajā saṃpanne dāre na-anyāṃ kurvīta || 12 ||
12. If one has a wife who [is willing and able] to perform [her share of] the religious duties and who bears sons, he shall not take a second. (Manu 9:95; Yajñ. 1:76.)
anyatara abhāve kāryā prāg agnyādheyāt || 13 ||
13. If a wife is deficient in one of these two [qualities], he shall take another, [but] before he kindles the fires [of the Agnihotra]. (Manu 9:80,
81; Yajñ. 1:73.)
ādhāne hi satī karmabhiḥ saṃbadhyate yeṣām etad aṅgam || 14 ||
14. For a wife who assists at the kindling of the fires, becomes connected with those religious rites of which that [fire-kindling] forms a part.
A wife who assists at the kindling of the fires for any sacrificial rite, becomes connected with that rite like any priest, and in that rite no other woman can take her place. Hence in the case of an Agnihotra, which lasts during the performer’s lifetime, or at least as long as he is a householder, the performer cannot take another principal wife after he once has begun his sacrifice. If the wife of an Agnihotrin dies, he must marry again, and also kindle his fires afresh. Manu 5:167, 1 68; Yajñ. 1. 89.
sagotrāya duhitaraṃ na prayacchet || 15 ||
15. He shall not give his daughter to a man belonging to the same Gotra,
The term Gotra means a clan and may be of two kinds, Vaidika for Brāhmaṇas and Laukika, ‘worldly,’ for others. In the first case it denotes ‘persons descended from the same Rishi;’ in the second, ‘persons distinguished by the same family name, or known to be descended from the same ancestor.’ In our days Brāhmaṇas also have Laukika Gotras, which form subdivisions of the very large Vedic Gotras. Manu 3:5; Yajñ.1:33;
mātuś ca yoni saṃbandhebhyaḥ || 16 ||
16. Nor to one related [within six degrees] on the mother’s or [the father’s] side.
The term yoni-sambandha, ‘related [within six degrees],’ corresponds to the more common Sapiṇḍa of Manu, Yajñavalkya, and others; see the definitions given below, 2:6:15:2 In Apastamba’s terminology Sapiṇḍa has probably a more restricted sense. It seems very doubtful whether Haradatta’s explanation of ca’ translated by ‘or,’ is correct, and whether his interpolation of the fathers ought to be admitted. Probably Sūtra 15 refers to the father’s side, and Sūtra 16 to the mother’s side.
brāhme vivāhe bandhu śīla śruta arogyāṇi buddhvā prajā sahatva karmabhyaḥ pratipādayet-śakti viṣayeṇa- alaṃkṛtya || 17 ||
17. At the Brahma-marriage, he shall give away [his daughter] for procreation and performing the duties that must be performed together [by a householder], after having investigated [the bridegroom’s] family, character, learning, and health, and after having given [to the bride] ornaments according to his ability. (Manu 3:27; Yajñ. 1:58)
ārṣe duhitṛmate mithunau gāvau deyau || 18 ||
18. At the wedding called Arṣa, the bridegroom shall present to the father of the bride a bull and a cow. (Manu 3:29; Yajñ. 1:59).
daive yajña tantra ṛtvije pratipādayet || 19 ||
19. At the wedding called Daiva, [the father] shall give her to an officiating priest, who is performing a śrauta-sacrifice. (Manu 3:28; Yajñ. 1:59)
mithaḥ kāmāt sāṃvartete sa gāndharvaḥ || 20 ||
20. If a maiden and a lover unite themselves through love, that is called the Gāndharva-rite. (Manu 3:32; Yajñ. 1:61)
Praśna 2. Paṭala 6. Khaṇḍa 12.
śakti viṣayeṇa dravyāṇi datvā vaheran sa āsuraḥ || 1 ||
1. If the suitor pays as much money [for his bride] as he can afford, and marries her [afterwards], that [marriage is called] the Asura-rite. (Manu 3:31; Yajñ. 1:61.)
It must be understood that, at this rite, a regular sale of the bride must take place. If a suitor merely gives presents to the bride, that is not an Asura-marriage.
duhitṛmataḥ prothayitvā vaheran sa rākṣasaḥ || 2 || (prothayitvā`āvaheran )
2. If the [bridegroom and his friends] abduct [the bride] after having overcome [by force] her father [or relations], that is called the Rākṣasa-rite. (Manu 3:33; Yajñ. 1:61.)
Haradatta points out that the other law-books enumerate two additional marriage- rites, the Prajāpatya or Kāya and the Paiśāca. But Vasiṣṭha 1:29-35, like Apastamba, gives six rites only.
teṣāṃ traya ādyāḥ praśastāḥ pūrvaḥ pūrvaḥ śreyān || 3 ||
3. The first three amongst these [marriage-rites are considered] praiseworthy; each preceding one better than the one following. (Manu 3:24, 25; Yajñ. 1:58-60.)
yathā yukto vivāhas tathā yuktā prajā bhavati || 4 || (yathāyukto )
4. The quality of the offspring is according to the quality of the marriage- rite.
ie. from praiseworthy marriages virtuous children are born, and from blamable marriages bad ones. Manu 3:42.
pāṇi samūḍhaṃ brāhmaṇasya na-aprokṣitam abhitiṣṭhet || 5 ||
5. One shall not step on a spot which has been touched by the hand of a Brāhmaṇa, without having sprinkled it with water.
agniṃ brāhmaṇam ca-antareṇa na- atikrāmet || 6 ||
6. One shall not pass between a fire and a Brāhmaṇa,
brāhmaṇāṃś ca || 7 ||
7. Nor between Brāhmaṇas.
anujñāpya vā- atikrāmet || 8 ||
8. Or one may pass between them after having received permission to do so.
agnim apaś ca na yugapad- dhārayīta || 9 ||
9. One shall not carry fire and water at the same time.
nānā agnīnāṃ ca saṃnivāpaṃ varjayet || 10 || (sannipātaṃ )
10. One shall not carry fires [burning in] separate [places] to one [spot].
Another commentator says, ‘He shall not throw [brands taken from] one fire into another fire.’ — Haradatta.
pratimukham agnim āhriyamāṇam na-apratiṣṭhitaṃ bhūmau pradakṣiṇī kuryāt ||11||
11. If, whilst he walks, fire is being carried towards him, he shall not walk around it with his right hands turned towards it, except after it has been placed on the ground.
The Sūtra implies that under other circumstances he must show this respect to a fire.
pṛṣṭhataś ca-ātmanaḥ pāṇī na saṃśleṣayet || 12 ||
12. One shall not join one’s hands behind the back.
While standing in company one should keep one’s hands visible — i.e. standing with one’s arms folded is respectful.
svapann abhinimrukto na- āśvān vāg yato rātrim āsīta | śvo bhūta udakam upaspṛśya vācaṃ visṛjet || 13 ||
13. If the sun sets whilst one’s sleeping, one shall sit up, fasting and silent, for that night. On the following morning one shall bathe and then raise his voice [in prayer]. (Manu 2:220)
svapann abhyudito na- āśvān vāg yato- ‘ahas tiṣṭhet || 14 ||
14. If the sun rises whilst one is asleep, one shall stand during that day fasting and silent.
ā tamitoḥ prāṇam āyacched ity eke || 15 || (ātamitoḥ )
15. Some declare that he shall restrain his breath (prāṇāyāma) until he is tired.
svapnaṃ vā pāpakaṃ dṛṣṭvā || 16 ||
16. And [he shall restrain his breath until he is tired] if he has had a bad- dream,
arthaṃ vā siṣādhayiṣan || 17 ||
17. Or if he desires to accomplish some object,
niyama atikrame ca-anyasmin || 18 ||
18. Or if he has transgressed some other rule. (Manu 11:200.)
doṣa phala saṃśaye na tat kartavyam || 19 ||
19. [If one is] doubtful [whether] the result [of an action will be negative or positive], one shall not do it.
evam adhyāya anadhyāye || 20 ||
20. [One shall follow] the same principle [if one is in doubt whether one ought] to study or not.
na saṃśaye pratyakṣavad brūyāt || 21 ||
21. One shall not talk of a doubtful matter as if it were clear. See above, 1:11, 32, 22.
abhinimrukta abhyudita kunakhi śyāvadāgradidhiṣu didhiṣūpati paryāhita parīṣṭa parivitta parivinna parivividāneṣu ca-uttara uttarasminn aśuci kara nirveṣo garīyān garīyān || 22 ||
22. In the case of a person who slept at sunset, of one who slept at sunrise, of one who has discoloured nails or teeth, of one who married a younger sister before the elder one was married, of one who married an elder sister whose younger sister had been married already, [of a younger brother who has kindled the sacred Gṛhya-fire before his elder brother,] of one whose younger brother has kindled the sacred fire first, [of a younger brother who offers a Soma-sacrifice before his elder brother,] of an elder brother whose younger brother offered a Soma sacrifice first, of an elder brother who marries or receives his portion of the inheritance after his younger brother, and of a younger brother who takes a wife or receives his portion of the inheritance before his elder brother, — penances ordained for misdemeanours causing impurity, a heavier one for each succeeding case, must be performed.
These sinners are enumerated in nearly the same order in Taittiriya-Brāhmaṇa 3:2,
8:11 and 12, and Ap. śrauta-sūtra 9:12, 11. See also Manu 11:44-49. Regarding the crimes causing impurity, see above, 1:7,:21:12 - 19.
tat-ca liṅgaṃ caritvā- uddhāryam ity eke || 23 ||
23. Some declare, that after having performed that penance, one shall remove its cause.
Its cause, ie. the black nails, etc. According to another Smṛti, one shall not put away a wife or extinguish a fire, for the taking or kindling of which the penance had to be performed.’ - Haradatta. But see Vasiṣṭha 20:7 seq.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 6. Khaṇḍa 13.
savarṇāpūrva śāstra vihitāyāṃ yatha rtu gacchataḥ putrās teṣāṃ karmabhiḥ saṃbandhaḥ || 1 ||
1. Sons begotten by a man who has sex in the proper season with a woman of equal caste, who has not been married to another man, and who has been married legally, have a right to [follow] the occupations [of their castes],
‘śāstra-vihita [translated by “who has been married to him legally”] means either married according to the rites prescribed in the śāstras,” or “possessed of the qualities [which have been described] by [the rule of] the Shastras, He shall not give his daughter to a man of the same Gotra,” and in similar [passages]. - Haradatta.
dāyena-avyatikramaś ca-ubhayoḥ || 2 ||
2. And to [inherit the] estate,
pūrvavatyām asaṃskṛtāyāṃ varṇa antare ca maithune doṣaḥ || 3 ||
3. Having sex with one who has been previously married to another, with one who is not legally married, and with one who is of a different caste constitutes an offence on both their parts.
tatra-api doṣavān putra eva || 4 ||
4. Off-spring of such a union is blameworthy. In that their ability to inherit is obstructed.
utpādayituḥ putra iti hi brāhmaṇam || 5 ||
5. A Brāhmaṇa text declares that the child belongs to the begetter. (See also Manu 9:32 seq., where the same difference of opinion occurs.)
6. atha-apy udāharanti —
(ś) idānīm eva-ahaṃ janaka strīṇām īrṣyāmi no purā |
yadā yamasya sādane janayituḥ putram abruvan |
6b (ś) reto dhāḥ putraṃ nayati paretya yama sādane | tasmād bhāryāṃ rakṣanti bibhyantaḥ para retasaḥ |
6c (ś) apramattā rakṣatha tantum etaṃ mā vaḥ kṣetre parabījāni vāpsuḥ | janayituḥ putro bhavati sāṃparāye moghaṃ vettā kurute tantum etam iti |
6. Now they quote also [the following Gātha from the Veda]:—’[Having considered myself] formerly a father, I shall not now allow [any longer] my wives [to be approached by other men], since they have declared that a son belongs to the begetter in the world of Yama. The giver of the seed carries off the son after death in Yama’s world; therefore they guard their wives, fearing the seed of strangers. Carefully watch over [the procreation of] your children, lest stranger seed be sown on your soil. In the next world the son belongs to the begetter, an [imprudent] husband makes the [begetting of] children vain [for himself].’
According to Haradatta this Gātha gives the sentiments of a husband who neglected to guard his wives, and who had heard from those learned in the law that the sons of his unfaithful wives would in the next world belong to their natural fathers, and that he would not derive any spiritual benefit from their offerings. He adds that this verse does not refer to or prevent the appointment of a eunuch’s wife or of a childless widow to a relation. He also quotes a passage from the śrauta-sūtra 1. 9, 7, in which the dvipitā, the son of two fathers is mentioned But Haradatta’s opinion cannot be reconciled with the statements made below 2:10:27:—2-7 where the Niyoga is plainly forbidden. Baudhāyana, who 2, 3, 34 quotes the same Gātha, reads in the first line the vocative ‘janaka’ instead of the nominative ‘janakaḥ,’ and in the fifth line ‘pare bījāni’ instead of ‘parabījāni.’ The commentator Govindasvamin adds that the verses are addressed by the Rishi Aupajaṅghani to king Janaka of Videha. The translation of the first line must therefore run thus:— ’O Janaka, now I am jealous of my wives, [though I was] not so formerly,’ etc. Baudhāyana’s readings are probably the older ones, and Govindasvamin’s explanation the right one.
dṛṣṭo dharma vyatikramaḥ sāhasaṃ ca pūrveṣām || 7 ||
7. Transgression of Dharma and severity of action are found amongst the ancient [sages].
teṣāṃ tejo viśeṣeṇa pratyavāyo na vidyate || 8 ||
8. But because of the greatness of their spiritual attainment — such actions are not considered as culpable.
tad anvīkṣya prayuñjānaḥ sīdaty avaraḥ || 9 ||
9. A person of later times who seeing their [example] emulates them, falls.
dānaṃ kraya dharmaś ca-apatyasya na vidyate || 10 ||
10. The gift [or adoption of a child] and the right to sell [or buy] a child are not recognised.
Haradatta opines that, as most other Smṛtis enumerate the ‘adopted son’, and ‘the son bought’ in their lists of substitutes for natural sons, Apastamba’s rule can refer only to the gift or sale of an eldest son, or to the gift or sale of a child prompted by a woman. Though it is possible that he may be right in his interpretation, it remains a remarkable fact that Apastamba does not mention the ‘twelve kinds of substitute sons,’ which are known to other Smṛtis.
vivāhe duhitṛmate dānaṃ kāmyaṃ dharmārthaṃ śrūyate tasmād duhitṛmate- ‘adhirathaṃ śataṃ deyaṃ tan mithuyā kuryād iti | tasyāṃ kraya śabdaḥ saṃstuti mātram | dharmād-hi saṃbandhaḥ || 11 ||
11. It has been heard that at the time of marriage, a groom may give a present to the father of the bride, as an act of Dharma or personal pleasure. Therefore he should give a hundred [cows] and a vehicle; which the father- in-law should return to him. In reference to those [marriage-rites], the word ‘sale ‘ [which occurs in some Smṛtis is only used as] a metaphorical expression; for the union [of the husband and wife] is effected through the practice of Dharma only.
This Sūtra seems to be directed against Vasiṣṭha 1:36.
eka dhanena jyeṣṭhaṃ toṣayitvā || 12 ||
12. After having gratified the eldest son by the gift of some [choice portion of his wealth]..........
Praśna 2. Paṭala 6. Khaṇḍa 14.
jīvan putrebhyo dāyaṃ vibhajet samaṃ klībam unmattaṃ patitaṃ ca parihāpya || 1 ||
1. [The householder] should, during his lifetime, divide his wealth equally amongst his sons, excepting the kliba (non-reproductive or gay), the insane, and the outcast.
The last Sūtra of Khāṇḍa 13 and the first of Khāṇḍa 14 are quoted by Colebrooke, Digest, Book 5: Text xlii, and Miṭākṣara, Chap. 1. Sect. iii, Par. 6. Colebrooke translates, jīvan, ‘during his lifetime,’ by ‘who makes a partition during his lifetime.’ This is not quite correct, Apastamba intends to exhort householders to make a division during their lifetime, as later they ought to become ascetics or hermits.
Haradatta introduces into his commentary on this Sūtra the whole chapter on the division of a father’s estate amongst his sons, supplementing Apastamba’s short rule by the texts of other lawyers. No doubt Apastamba means to lay down, in these and the following Sūtras only the leading principles of the law of inheritance, and he intends that the remaining particulars should be supplied from the law of custom or other Smṛtis.
putra abhāve yaḥ pratyāsannaḥ sapiṇḍaḥ || 2 ||
2. On the absence of sons the nearest Sapiṇḍa [takes the inheritance].
Haradatta gives in his commentary a full summary of the rules on the succession of remoter relations. One point only deserves special mention. He declares that it is the opinion of Apastamba, that widows cannot inherit. In this he is probably right, as Apastamba does not mention them, and the use of the masculine ‘sapindaḥ’ precludes the possibility of including them under that collective term. It seems to me certain, that Apastamba, like Baudhāyana, considered women, especially widows, unfit to inherit.
tad abhāva ācārya ācārya abhāve- ‘antevāsī hṛtvā tad artheṣu dharma kṛtyeṣu vā- upayojayet || 3 ||
3. On their absence the guru [inherits]; on the absence of the guru a student shall take [the deceased’s wealth], and use it for religious works for the [deceased’s] benefit, or [he himself may enjoy it];
duhitā vā || 4 ||
4. Or the daughter [may take the inheritance].
‘Some say “on the absence of sons,” others that the rule refers to the preceding Sūtra (ie. that the daughter inherits on failure of students only).’ — Haradatta.
sarva abhāve rājā dāyaṃ hareta || 5 ||
5. On absence of all [relations] let the king take
‘Because the word “all” is used, [the king shall take the estate] only on failure of Bandhus and Sagotras, ie. gentiles within twelve degrees.’ — Haradatta.
jyeṣṭho dāyāda ity eke || 6 ||
6. Some declare, that the eldest son alone inherits.
The other sons shall live under his protection.’ — Haradatta. Miṭākṣara, Chap. 1. iii, Par. 6.
deśa viśeṣe suvarṇam kṛṣṇā gāvaḥ kṛṣṇaṃ bhaumaṃ jyeṣṭhasya || 7 ||
7. In some countries gold, [or] black cattle, [or] black produce of the earth is the share of the eldest.
Black produce of the earth,” ie. black grain, or according to others black iron.’ — Haradatta. Compare for this and the following Sūtras Colebrooke, Miṭākṣara, Chap. 1. Sect. iii, Par. 6,
rathaḥ pituḥ parībhāṇḍaṃ ca gṛhe || 8 ||
8. The vehicle and the furniture in the house are the father’s [share].
Miṭākṣara, Chap. 1. Sect. iii, Par. 6. Both the P.U. and Mr. U.MSS. of the Ujjvalā read rathaḥ pituraṃśo gṛhe yat-paribhāṇḍam upakaraṇam pīṭhādi tadapi, ‘the chariot [is] the father’s share; the furniture which [is] in the house, that also.’
To this reading Mahādeva’s Ujjvala on the Hiraṇyakeśi Sūtra points likewise, which gives pitur antaḥ. The N.U.MS. of the Ujjvala, according to which I made the translation given in the Appendix to West and Buhler’s Digest [1st edition], leaves out the word aṃśaḥ and therefore makes it necessary to combine this Sūtra with the preceding one, and to translate, ‘The father’s chariot and the furniture in the house [are] also [the share of the eldest].’ This latter translation agrees nearly with that given by Colebrooke, Digest, Book 5: Text xlviii, where this and the preceding Sūtra have been joined; but the chariot is not mentioned. A further variation in the interpretation of this Sūtra occurs in Colebrooke’s Digest, Book 5: Text lxxxix, and Miṭākṣara, loc. cit., where the words ‘the furniture in the house’ are joined with Sūtra 9, and the furniture is declared to be the wife’s share. Considering that Sūtra 9 is again quoted in Colebrooke’s Digest, Book 5: Text cccclxsii, and is not joined with the latter part of Sūtra 8, it is not too much to say that Gagannatha has not shown any greater accuracy than his brethren usually do.
alaṃkāro bhāryāyā jñāti dhanaṃ ca-ity eke || 9 ||
9. According to some, the share of the wife consists of her gold-ornaments, and the wealth [which she may have received] from her relations.
The Miṭākṣara, loc. cit., apparently takes the words ‘according to some’ as referring only to property received from relations. The former interpretation is, however, admissible, if the Sūtra is split into two.
tat-śāstrair vipratiṣiddham || 10 ||
10. That [preference of the eldest son] is forbidden by the Shastras. The śāstras are, according to Haradatta, the Vedas.
manuḥ putrebhyo dāyaṃ vyabhajad ity aviśeṣeṇa śrūyate || 11 ||
11. For it is declared in the Veda, without [marking] a difference [in the treatment of the sons]:—”Manu divided his wealth amongst his sons”. (Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:9:4)
atha-api tasmāt-jyeṣṭhaṃ putraṃ dhanena niravasāyayanti-ity ekavat- śrūyate || 12 ||
12. Now the Veda declares also in conformity with [the rule in favour of the eldest son] alone:—They distinguish the eldest by [a larger share of] the heritage.
‘Athāpi [now also] means ‘and certainly.” They distinguish, they set apart the eldest son by wealth:—this has been declared in the Veda in conformity with [the rule regarding] sons [heir, Sūtra 6]. He denies [Sūtra 13] that a passage also, which agrees with the statement that the eldest son alone inherits, is found in the Veda.’ — Haradatta. See Taittiriya Samhita 2:5:2:7.
atha-api nitya anuvādam avidhim āhur nyāyavido yathā tasmād ajāvayaḥ paśūnāṃ saha caranti-iti tasmāt snātakasya mukhaṃ rebhāyati-iva tasmād bastaś ca śrotriyaś ca strī kāmatamāv iti || 13 ||
13. [But to this plea in favour of the eldest I answer]:—Now those who are acquainted With the interpretation of the law declare a statement of facts not to be a rule, is for instance [the following]:—’Therefore amongst domestic animals, goats and sheep walk together’, [or the following], ‘Therefore the face of a learned Brāhmaṇa [a Snātaka] is, as it were, resplendent’, [or], ‘A Brāhmaṇa who has studied the Vedas [a śrotriya] and a he-goat evince the strongest sexual desires’.
Those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law are the Mīmāmsakas. The translation of the second Vedic passage is by no means certain, as the root ribh, translated by ‘to be resplendent,’ usually means ‘to give a sound.’ Haradatta thinks that Apastamba means to show that the passage ‘Manu divided his wealth among his sons’ is likewise merely a statement of facts, and cannot be considered a rule. This is probably erroneous, as Sūtras 10 and 11 distinctly state, that the practice to allow the eldest alone to inherit, is forbidden by the above mentioned passage of the Veda.
sarve hi dharma yuktā bhāginaḥ || 14 ||
14. Therefore all [sons] who are virtuous inherit.
yas tv adharmeṇa dravyāṇi pratipādayati jyeṣṭho- ‘api tam abhāgaṃ kurvīta || 15 ||
15. But him who wastes money unrighteously, he shall disinherit, though he be the eldest son.
The translation of pratipādayati, ‘expends,’ by ‘gains,’ which is also proposed by Gagannatha, is against Apastamba’s usage, see 2:5:11, 17, and below, 2:8:20:19
Jāyā patyor na vibhāgo vidyate || 16 ||
16. No division takes place between husband and wife.
According to Haradatta, this Sūtra gives the reason why, in Sūtra 1, no share has been set apart for the wife.
pāṇigrahaṇād-hi sahatvaṃ karmasu || 17 ||
17. For, from the time of marriage, they are united in religious ceremonies,
tathā puṇya phaleṣu || 18 ||
18. Likewise also as regards the rewards for works by which spiritual merit is acquired,
dravya parigraheṣu ca || 19 ||
19. And with respect to the acquisition of property.
na hi bhartur vipravāse naimittike dāne steyam upadiśanti || 20 ||
20. For they declare that it is not a theft if a wife expends money on occasions [of necessity] during her husband’s absence. (See below, 2:2:29, 3.)
Praśna 2. Paṭala 6. Khaṇḍa 15.
etena deśa kula dharmā vyākhyātāḥ || 1 ||
1. By this [discussion] the law of custom, which is observed in [particular] countries or families, has been disposed of.
Customs are to be followed only if they are not opposed to the teaching of the Vedas and Smṛtis.
mātuś ca yoni saṃbandhebhyaḥ pituś ca-ā saptamāt puruṣād yāvatā vā saṃbandho jñāyate teṣāṃ preteṣu-udaka upasparśanaṃ garbhān parihāpya-aparisaṃvatsarān ||2
2. On account of the blood relations of his mother and [on account of those] of his father within six degrees, or, as far as the relationship is traceable, he shall bathe if they die, excepting children that have not completed their first year. (Manu 5:60; Yajñ. 1. 53; Manu 5:60; Manu 5:58; Yajñ .3:3.)
mātā pitarāv eva teṣu || 3 ||
3. On account of the death of the latter the parents alone bathe.
hartāraś ca || 4 ||
4. And those who carry them out. (Manu 5:69 and 70).
bhāryāyāṃ parama guru saṃsthāyāṃ ca-akālam abhojanam || 5 ||
5. If a wife or one of the chief Gurus [a father or ācārya] die, besides, fasting [is ordained from the time at which they die] up to the same time [on the following day]. (Manu 5:80.)
ātura vyañjanāni kurvīran || 6 ||
6. [In that case] they shall also show the [following] signs of mourning:—
keśān prakīrya pāṃsūn opyekavāsaso (pāṃsūn opya-ekavāsaso ?) dakṣiṇā mukhāḥ sakṛd upamajjaya- uttīrya-upaviśanti || 7 ||
7. Dishevelling their hair and covering themselves with dust [they go outside the village], and, clothed with one garment, their faces turned to the south, stepping into the river they throw up water for the dead once, and then, ascending [the bank], they sit down.
evaṃ triḥ || 8 ||
This [they repeat] thrice.
tat pratyayam udakam utsicya-apratīkṣā grāmam etya yat striya āhus tat kurvanti || 9 ||
9. They pour out water consecrated in such a manner that the dead will know it [to be given to them]. Then they return to the village without looking back, and perform those rites for the dead which the women declare to be necessary.
Yajñ. 3:5:7 seq. The Mantra to be spoken in throwing the water is, ‘I give this water for you N.N. of the family of N.N.’ The water ought to be mixed with sesame.
According to Haradatta those who know the correct interpretation, declare that the word ‘women’ denotes in this Sūtra ‘the Smṛtis.’ But I fear these learned interpreters will find few adherents among those who pay attention to the last Sūtra of this work.
itareṣu ca-etad eva-eke- upadiśanti || 10 ||
10. Some declare, that these same [observances] shall also be kept in the case [of the death] of other [Sapiṇḍas].
śucīn mantravataḥ sarva kṛtyeṣu bhojayet || 11 ||
11. At all religious ceremonies, he shall feed Brāhmaṇas who are pure and who have [studied and remember] the Veda. (Manu 3:128)
deśataḥ kālataḥ śaucataḥ samyak pratigrahītṛta iti dānāni pratipādayati || 12 ||
12. One shall distribute his gifts at the proper places, at the proper times, at the occasion of purificatory rites, and to proper recipients. (Manu 3:98.)
yasya-agnau na kriyate yasya ca-agraṃ na dīyate na tad bhoktavyam || 13 ||
13. That food must not be eaten of which [no portion] is offered in the fire, and of which no portion is first given [to guests].
na kṣāra lavaṇa homo vidyate || 14 ||
14. No food mixed with pungent condiments or salt can be offered as a burnt-offering.
That [substance] is called kṣara, “of pungent or alkaline taste,” the eating of which makes the saliva flow.’ — Haradatta.
tathā-avarān na saṃsṛṣṭasya ca || 15 ||
15. Nor [can food] mixed with bad food [be used for a burnt-oblation].
Avarānna, ‘bad food,’ is explained by kulittha which is a kind of vetch which is considered low food, and eaten by the lower castes only. The meaning of the Sūtra, therefore - ‘ If anybody has been forced by poverty to mix his rice or Dal with kulittha or similar bad food, he cannot offer a burnt-oblation at the Vaiśvadeva ceremony with that. He must observe the rule, given in the following Sūtra.
ahaviṣyasya homa udīcīnam uṣṇaṃ bhasma- apohya tasmiñ juhyāt tad- hutam ahutaṃ ca-agnau bhavati || 16 ||
16. If [he is obliged to offer] a burnt-offering of food unfit for that purpose, he shall take hot ashes from the northern part of his fire and offer the food in that. That oblation is not offered in the fire.
na strī juhuyāt || 17 ||
17. A female shall not offer any oblation into the fire.
na- anupetaḥ || 18 ||
18. Nor a child, that has not been initiated.
ā-anna prāśanād garbhā na- aprayatā bhavanti || 19 ||
19. Infants do not become impure before they receive the sacrament called Annaprāśana [the first feeding].
ā parisaṃvatsarād ity eke || 20 ||
20. Some [declare, that they cannot become impure] until they have completed their first year.
yāvatā yā diśo na prajānīyuḥ || 21 ||
21. Or, as long as they cannot distinguish the points of the horizon.
ā-upanayanād ity aparam || 22 ||
22. The best [opinion is, that they are not subjected to rules of purity and impurity] until the initiation has been performed.
atra hy adhikāraḥ śāstrair bhavati || 23 ||
23. For at that [time a child] according to the rules of the Veda obtains the right [to perform the various religious ceremonies].
sā niṣṭhā || 24 ||
24. That ceremony is the limit [from which the capacity to fulfil the law begins].
smṛtiś ca || 25 ||
25. And the Smṛti [agrees with this opinion].
Haradatta quotes Gautama 2:1-3, on this point, and is apparently of opinion that Apastamba alludes to the same passage. But he is probably wrong, as all Smṛtis are agreed on the point mentioned by Apastamba.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 7. Khaṇḍa 16.
saha deva manuṣyā asmiṃl loke purā babhūvuḥ | atha devāḥ karmabhir divaṃ jagmur ahīyanta manuṣyāḥ | teṣāṃ ye tathā karmāṇy ārabhante saha devair brahmaṇā ca-amuṣmiṃl loke bhavanti | atha-etan manuḥ śrāddha śabdaṃ karma provāca || 1 ||
1. Formerly humans and gods lived together in this world. Then the gods in reward of their sacrifices went to heaven, but humans were left behind. Those who perform sacrifices in the same manner as the gods did, dwell [after death] with the gods and Brahma in heaven. Now [seeing humans left behind], Manu revealed a ceremony, which is designated by the word śrāddha (a post-mortem-oblation).
Intending to give the rules regarding the monthly śrāddha, he premises this explanatory statement in order to praise that sacrifice.’ — Haradatta.
prajā niḥśreyasā ca || 2 ||
2. And [thus this rite has been revealed] for the liberation of humankind.
The reading ‘niḥśreyasa ca’ apparently has given great trouble to the commentators. Their explanations are, however, grammatically impossible. The right one is to take niḥśreyasa as a Vedic instrumental, for niḥśreyasena, which may designate the ‘reason.’ If the dative is read, the sense remains the same.
tatra pitaro devatā brāhmaṇās tv āhavanīya arthe || 3 ||
3. At that [rite] the Manes [of one’s father, grandfather, and great- grandfather] are the deities [to whom the sacrifice is offered]. But the Brāhmaṇas, [who are fed,] represent the Ahavanīya-fire.
The comparison of the Brāhmaṇas with the Ahavanīya indicates that to feed Brāhmaṇas is the chief act at a śrāddha.’ - Haradatta.
māsi māsi kāryam || 4 ||
4. That rite must be performed in each month. (Manu 3:122, 123; Yajñ. 1:217.)
apara pakṣasya-apara ahnaḥ śreyān || 5 ||
5. The afternoon of [a day of] the latter half is preferable [for it]. (Manu 3:255, 278)
tathā-apara pakṣasya jaghanyāny ahāni || 6 ||
6. The last days of the latter half [of the month] likewise are [preferable to the first days].
sarveṣv eva-apara pakṣasya-ahassu kriyamāṇe pitṛṛn | kartus tu kāla abhiniyamāt phala viśeṣaḥ || 7 ||
7. [A śrāddha] offered on any day of the latter half of the month gladdens the Manes. But it procures different rewards for the officiator according to the time observed. (Manu 3:277; Yajñ. 1:264, 265.)
prathame- ‘ahani kriyamāṇe strī prāyam apatye jāyate || 8 ||
8. If it be performed on the first day of the fort-night, the progeny [of the sacrificer] will chiefly consist of females.
dvitīye- ‘astenāḥ || 9 ||
9. [Performed on the second day it procures] children who are free from thievish propensities.
tṛtīye brahma varcasinaḥ || 10 ||
10. [If it is performed] on the third day children will be born to him who will fulfil the various vows for studying [portions of the Veda].
caturthe kṣudra paśumān || 11 ||
11. [The officiator who performs it] on the fourth day becomes rich in small domestic animals.
pañcame pumāṃsaḥ | bahu apatyo na ca-anapatyaḥ pramīyate || 12 ||
12. [If he performs it] on the fifth day, sons [will be born to him]. He will have numerous and distinguished offspring, and he will not die childless.
ṣaṣṭhe- ‘adhvaśīlo- ‘akṣaśīlaś ca || 13 ||
13. [If he performs it] on the sixth day, he will become a great traveller and gambler.
saptame karṣe rāddhiḥ || 14 ||
14. [The reward of a śrāddha performed] on the seventh day is success in agriculture.
aṣṭame puṣṭiḥ || 15 ||
15. [If he performs it] on the eighth day [its reward is] prosperity
navama ekakhurāḥ || 16 ||
16. [If he performs it] on the ninth day [its reward consists in] one-hoofed animals.
daśame vyavahāre rāddhiḥ || 17 ||
17. [If he performs it] on the tenth day [its reward is] success in trade.
ekādaśe kṛṣṇa ayasaṃ trapu sīsam || 18 ||
18. [If he performs it] on the eleventh day [its reward is] black iron, tin, and lead.
dvādaśe paśumān || 19 ||
19. [If he performs a śrāddha] on the twelfth day, he will become rich in cattle.
trayodaśe bahu putro bahu mitro darśanīya apatyaḥ | yuva māriṇas tu bhavanti || 20 ||
20. [If he performs it] on the thirteenth day, he will have many sons [and] many friends, [and] his offspring will be beautiful. But his [sons] will die young.
Others read the last part of the Sūtra, ayuvamārinas tu bhavanti, ‘they will not die young.’ — Haradatta. If the two halves of the Sūtra are joined and darśanīyāpatyoyuvamāriṇaḥ is read, the Sandhi may be dissolved in either manner.
caturdaśa āyudhe rāddhiḥ || 21 ||
21. [If he performs it] on the fourteenth day [its reward is] success in battle.
Manu 3:276, and Yajñ. 1. 263, declare the fourteenth day to be unfit for a śrāddha, and the latter adds that śrāddhas for men killed in battle must be offered on that day. This latter statement explains why Apastamba declares its reward to be ‘success in battle.’ The nature of the reward shows that on that day Kṣatriyas, not Brāhmaṇas, should offer their śrāddhas.
pañcadaśe puṣṭiḥ || 22 ||
22. [If he performs it] on the fifteenth day [its reward is] prosperity.
tatra dravyāṇi tilamāṣā vrīhi yavā āpo mūla phalāni || 23 ||
23. The substances [to be offered] at these [sacrifices] are sesame, māśa, rice, barley, water, roots, and fruits. (Manu 3:267 Yajñ 1:257)
snehavati tv eva-anne tīvratarā pitṛṛṇāṃ prītir drāghīyāṃsaṃ ca kālam || 24 ||
24. But, if food mixed with animal-fat [is offered], the satisfaction of the Manes is greater, and [lasts] a longer time.
tathā dharma āhṛtena dravyeṇa tīrthe pratipannena || 25 ||
25. Likewise, if money, lawfully acquired, is given to worthy [persons].
saṃvatsaraṃ gavyena prītiḥ || 26 ||
26. Beef satisfies [the Manes] for a year. (Manu 3:271)
bhūyāṃsam ato māhiṣeṇa || 27 ||
27. Buffalo’s [meat] for a longer [time] than that.
etena grāmya araṇyānāṃ paśūnāṃ māṃsaṃ medhyaṃ vyākhyātam || 28 ||
28. By this [permission of the use of buffalo’s meat] it has been declared that the meat of [other] tame and wild animals is fit to be offered.