CHAPTER XVI. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF COMMERCE.
THE Superintendent of Commerce shall ascertain demand or absence of demand for, and rise or fall in the price of, various kinds of merchandise which may be the products either of land or of water and which may have been brought in either by land or by water path. He shall also ascertain the time suitable for their distribution, centralisation, purchase, and sale.
That merchandise which is widely distributed shall be centralised and its price enhanced. When the enhanced rate becomes popular, another rate shall be declared.
That merchandise of the king which is of local manufacture shall be centralised; imported merchandise shall be distributed in several markets for sale. Both kinds of merchandise shall be favourably sold to the people.
He shall avoid such large profits as will harm the people.
There shall be no restriction to the time of sale of those commodities for which there is frequent demand; nor shall they be subject to the evils of centralisation (sankuladosha).
Or pedlars may sell the merchandise of the king at a fixed price in many markets and pay necessary compensation (vaidharana) proportional to the loss entailed upon it (chhedánurúpam).
The amount of vyáji due on commodities sold by cubical measure is one-sixteenth of the quantity (shodasabhágo mánavyáji); that on commodities sold by weighing balance is one-twentieth of the quantity; and that on commodities sold in numbers is one-eleventh of the whole.
The superintendent shall show favour to those who import foreign merchandise: mariners (návika) and merchants who import foreign merchandise shall be favoured with remission of the trade-taxes, so that they may derive some profit (áyatikshamam pariháram dadyát).
Foreigners importing merchandise shall be exempted from being sued for debts unless they are (local) associations and partners (anabhiyogaschárthesshvágantúnámanyatassabhyopakári bhyah).
Those who sell the merchandise of the king shall invariably put their sale proceeds in a wooden box kept in a fixed place and provided with a single aperture on the top.
During the eighth part of the day, they shall submit to the superintendent the sale report, saying “this much has been sold and this much remains;” they shall also hand over the weights and measures. Such are the rules applicable to local traffic.
As regards the sale of the king’s merchandise in foreign countries:—
Having ascertained the value of local produce as compared with that of foreign produce that can be obtained in barter, the superintendent will find out (by calculation) whether there is any margin left for profit after meeting the payments (to the foreign king) such as the toll (sulka), road-cess (vartaní), conveyance-cess (átiváhika), tax payable at military stations (gulmadeya), ferry-charges (taradeya), subsistence to the merchant and his followers (bhakta), and the portion of merchandise payable to the foreign king (bhága).
If no profit can be realised by selling the local produce in foreign countries, he has to consider whether any local produce can be profitably bartered for any foreign produce. Then he may send one quarter of his valuable merchandise through safe roads to different markets on land. In view of large profits, he (the deputed merchant) may make friendship with the forest-guards, boundary-guards, and officers in charge of cities and of country-parts (of the foreign king). He shall take care to secure his treasure (sára) and life from danger. If he cannot reach the intended market, he may sell the merchandise (at any market) free from all dues (sarvadeyavisuddham).
Or he may take his merchandise to other countries through rivers (nadípatha).
He shall also gather information as to conveyance-charges (yánabhágaka), subsistence on the way (pathyadana), value of foreign merchandise that can be obtained in barter for local merchandise, occasions of pilgrimages (yátrakála), means that can be employed to ward off dangers (of the journey), and the history of commercial towns (panyapattanacháritra).
Having gathered information as to the transaction in commercial towns along the banks of rivers, he shall transport his merchandise to profitable markets and avoid unprofitable ones.
[Thus ends Chapter XVI, “The Superintendent of Commerce” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of thirty-seventh chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XVII. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FOREST PRODUCE.
THE Superintendent of Forest Produce shall collect timber and other products of forests by employing those who guard productive forests. He shall not only start productive works in forests, but also fix adequate fines and compensations to be levied from those who cause any damage to productive forests except in calamities.
The following are forest products: Sáka (teak), tinisa (Dalbergia Ougeinensis), dhanvana (?), arjuna (Terminalia Arjuna), madhúka (Bassia Latifolia), tilaka (Barleria Cristata), tála (palmyra), simsúpa (Dalbergia Sissu), arimeda (Fetid Mimosa), rájádana (Mimosops Kauki), sirisha (Mimosa Sirísha), khadira (Mimosa Catechu), sarala (Pinus Longifolia), tálasarja (sal tree or Shorea Robesta), asvakarna (Vatica Robesta), somavalka (a kind of white khadíra), kasámra (?), priyaka (yellow sal tree), dhava (Mimosa Hexandra), etc., are the trees of strong timber (sáradáruvarga).
Utaja, Chimiya, Chava, Vénu, Vamsa, Sátina, Kantaka, and Bhállúka, etc., form the group of bamboo.
Vetra (cane), sokavalli, vási (Justicia Ganderussa ?), syámalatá (Ichnocarpus), nágalata (betel), etc., form the group of creepers.
Málati (Jasminum Grandiflorum), dúrvá (panic grass), arka (Calotropis Gigantea), sana (hemp), gavedhuka (Coix Barbata), atasí (Linum Usitatis simum), etc., form the group of fibrous plants (valkavarga).
Munja (Saccharum Munja), balbaja (Eleusine Indica), etc., are plants which yield rope-making material (rajjubhánda).
Táli (Corypha Taliera), tála (palmyra or Borassus Flabelliformis), and bhúrja (birch) yield leaves (patram).
Kimsuka (Butea Frondosa), kusumbha (Carthamus Tinctorius), and kumkuma (Crocus Sativus) yield flowers.
Bulbous roots and fruits are the group of medicines.
Kálakúta, Vatsanábha, Háláhala, Meshasringa, Mustá, (Cyperus Rotundus), kushtha, mahávisha, vellitaka, gaurárdra, bálaka, márkata, haimavata, kálingaka, daradaka, kolasáraka, ushtraka, etc., are poisons.
Likewise snakes and worms kept in pots are the group of poisons.
Skins are those of godha (alligator), seraka (?), dvípi (leopard), simsumára (porpoise), simha (lion), vyághra (tiger), hasti, (elephant.), mahisha (buffalo), chamara (bos grunniens), gomriga (bos gavaeus), and gavaya (the gayal).
Bones, bile (pittha), snáyu (?), teeth, horn, hoofs, and tails of the above animals as well as of other beasts, cattle, birds and snakes (vyála).
Káláyasa (iron), támra (copper), vritta (?), kámsya (bronze), sísa (lead), trapu (tin), vaikrintaka (mercury ?), and árakuata (brass), are metals.
Utensils (bhanda), are those made of cane, bark (vidala), and clay (mrittiká).
Charcoal, bran, and ashes are other things.
Menageries of beasts, cattle, and birds.
Collection of firewood and fodder.
The superintendent of forest produce shall carry on either inside or outside (the capital city) the manufacture of all kinds of articles which are necessary for life or for the defence of forts.
[Thus ends Chapter XVII, “The Superintendent of Forest Produce” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of chapter thirty-eighth from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XVIII. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE ARMOURY.
THE Superintendent of the Armoury shall employ experienced workmen of tried ability to manufacture in a given time and for fixed wages wheels, weapons, mail armour, and other accessory instruments for use in battles, in the construction or defence of forts, or in destroying the cities or strongholds of enemies.
All these weapons and instruments shall be kept in places suitably prepared for them. They shall not only be frequently dusted and transferred from one place to another, but also be exposed to the sun. Such weapons as are likely to be affected by heat and vapour (úshmopasneha) and to be eaten by worms shall be kept in safe localities. They shall also be examined now and then with reference to the class to which they belong, their forms, their characteristics, their size, their source, their value, and their total quantity.
Sarvatobhadra, jamadagnya, bahumukha, visvásagháti, samgháti, yánaka, parjanyaka, ardhabáhu, and úrdhvabáhu are immoveable machines (sthirayantrám).
Pánchálika, devadanda, súkarika, musala, yashti, hastiváraka, tálavrinta, mudgara, gada, spriktala, kuddála, ásphátima, audhghátima, sataghni, trisúla, and chakra are moveable machines.
Sakti, prása, kunta, hátaka, bhindivála, súla, tomara, varáhakarna, kanaya, karpana, trásika, and the like are weapons with edges like a ploughshare (halamukháni).
Bows made of tála (palmyra), of chápa (a kind of bamboo), of dáru (a kind of wood), and sringa (bone or horn) are respectively called kármuka, kodanda, druna, and dhanus.
Bow-strings are made of múrva (Sansviera Roxburghiana), arka (Catotropis Gigantea), sána (hemp), gavedhu (Coix Barbata), venu (bamboo bark), and snáyu (sinew).
Venu, sara, saláka, dandásana, and nárácha are different kinds of arrows. The edges of arrows shall be so made of iron, bone or wood as to cut, rend or pierce.
Nistrimsa, mandalágra, and asiyashti are swords. The handles of swords are made of the horn of rhinoceros, buffalo, of the tusk of elephants, of wood, or of the root of bamboo.
Parasu, kuthára, pattasa, khanitra, kuddála, chakra, and kándachchhedana are razor-like weapons.
Yantrapáshána, goshpanapáshána, mushtipáshána, rochaní (mill-stone), and stones are other weapons (áyudháni).
Lohajáliká, patta, kavacha, and sútraka are varieties of armour made of iron or of skins with hoofs and horns of porpoise, rhinoceros, bison, elephant or cow.
Likewise sirastrána (cover for the head), kanthatrána (cover for the neck) kúrpása (cover for the trunk), kanchuka (a coat extending as far as the knee joints), váravána (a coat extending as far as the heels), patta, (a coat without cover for the arms), and nágodariká (gloves) are varieties of armour.
Veti, charma, hastikarna, tálamúla, dharmanika, kaváta, kitika, apratihata, and valáhakánta are instruments used in self-defence (ávaranáni).
Ornaments for elephants, chariots, and horses as well as goads and hooks to lead them in battle-fields constitute accessory things (upakaranáni).
(Besides the above) such other delusive and destructive contrivances (as are treated of in Book XIV) together with any other new inventions of expert workmen (shall also be kept in stock.)
The Superintendent of Armoury shall precisely ascertain the demand and supply of weapons, their application, their wear and tear, as well as their decay and loss.
[Thus ends Chapter XVIII, “The Superintendent of the Armoury” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents,” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of thirty-ninth chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XIX. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
THE Superintendent of Weights and Measures shall have the same manufactured.
10 seeds of másha (Phraseolus Radiatus) or 5 ,, gunja (Cabrus Precatorius)= 1 suvarna-másha.
16 máshas= 1 suvarna or karsha.
4 karshas= 1 pala.
88 white mustard seeds= 1 silver-másha.
16 silver mashas or 20 saibya seeds= 1 dharana.
20 grains of rice= 1 dharana of a diamond.
Ardha-másha (half a másha), one másha, two máshas, four máshas, eight máshas, one suvarna, two suvarnas, four suvarnas, eight suvarnas, ten suvarnas, twenty suvarnas, thirty suvarnas, forty suvarnas and one hundred suvarnas are different units of weights.
Similar series of weights shall also be made in dharanas.
Weights (pratimánáni) shall be made of iron or of stones available in the countries of Magadha and Mekala; or of such things as will neither contract when wetted, nor expand under the influence of heat.
Beginning with a lever of six angulas in length and of one pala in the weight of its metallic mass, there shall be made ten (different) balances with levers successively increasing by one pala in the weight of their metallic masses, and by eight angulas in their length. A scale-pan shall be attached to each of them on one or both sides.
A balance called samavrittá, with its lever 72-angulas long and weighing 53 palas in its metallic mass shall also be made. A scalepan of 5 palas in the weight of its metallic mass being attached to its edge, the horizontal position of the lever (samakarana) when weighing a karsha shall be marked (on that part of the lever where, held by a thread, it stands horizontal). To the left of that mark, symbols such as 1 pala, 12, 15 and 20 palas shall be marked. After that, each place of tens up to 100 shall be marked. In the place of Akshas, the sign of Nándi shall be marked.
Likewise a balance called parimání of twice as much metallic mass as that of samavrittá and of 96 angulas in length shall be made. On its lever, marks such as 20, 50 and 100 above its initial weight of 100 shall be carved.
20 tulas== 1 bhára.
10 dharanas== 1 pala.
100 such palas== 1 áyamání (measure of royal income).
Public balance (vyávaháriká), servants’ balance (bhájiní), and harem balance (antahpurabhájiní) successively decrease by five palas (compared with áyamáni).
A pala in each of the above successively falls short of the same in áyamáni by half a dharana. The metallic mass of the levers of each of the above successively decreases in weight by two ordinary palas and in length by six angulas.
Excepting flesh, metals, salt, and precious stones, an excess of five palas (prayáma) of all other commodities (shall be given to the king ) when they are weighed in the two first-named balances.
A wooden balance with a lever 8 hands long, with measuring marks and counterpoise weights shall be erected on a pedestal like that of a peacock.
Twenty-five palas of firewood will cook one prastha of rice.
This is the unit (for the calculation) of any greater or less quantity (of firewood).
Thus weighing balance and weights are commented upon.
200 palas in the grains of másha1 drona which is an áyamána, a measure of royal income.
187½ ,,1 public drona.
175 ,,1 bhájaníya, servants’ measure
162½ ,,1 antahpurabhájaníya, harem measure.
Adhaka, prastha, and kudumba, are each ¼ of the one previously mentioned.
16 dronas == 1 várí.
20 ,,== 1 kumbha.
10 kumbhas== 1 vaha.
Cubic measures shall be so made of dry and strong wood that when filled with grains, the conically heaped-up portion of the grains standing on the mouth of the measure is equal to ¼th of the quantity of the grains (so measured); or the measures may also be so made that a quantity equal to the heaped-up portion can be contained within (the measure).
But liquids shall always be measured level to the mouth of the measure.
With regard to wine, flowers, fruits, bran, charcoal and slaked lime, twice the quantity of the heaped-up portion (i.e., ¼th of the measure) shall be given in excess.
1¼ panas is the price of a drona.
¾ pana ,, an ádhaka.
6 máshas,, a prastha.
1 másha ,, a kudumba.
The price of similar liquid-measures is double the above.
20 panas is the price of a set of counter-weights.
6⅔ panas,, of a tulá (balance).
The Superintendent shall charge 4 máshas for stamping weights or measures. A fine of 27¼ panas shall be imposed for using unstamped weights or measures.
Traders shall every day pay one kákaní to the Superintendent towards the charge of stamping the weights and measures.
Those who trade in clarified butter, shall give, (to purchasers) 1/32 part more as taptavyáji (i.e., compensation for decrease in the quantity of ghi owing to its liquid condition). Those who trade in oil shall give 1/64 part more as taptavyáji.
(While selling liquids, traders) shall give 1/50 part more as mánasráva (i.e., compensation for diminution in the quantity owing to its overflow or adhesion to the measuring can).
Half, one-fourth, and one-eighth parts of the measure, kumbha, shall also be manufactured.
84 kudumbas of clarified butter are held to be equal toa wáraka of the same;
64 kudumbas of clarified butter are held to be equal tomake one wáraka of oil (taila);and¼ of a wáraka is called ghatika, either of ghi or of oil.
[Thus ends Chapter XIX, “Balance, Weights and Measures” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the fortieth chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XX. MEASUREMENT OF SPACE AND TIME.
THE Superintendent of lineal measure shall possess the knowledge of measuring space and time.
8 atoms (paramánavah) are equal to1 particle thrown off by the wheel of a chariot.
8 particles are equal to1 likshá.
8 likshás are equal to the middle of a yúka (louse) or a yúka of medium size.
8 yúkas are equal to 1 yava (barley) of middle size.
8 yavas are equal to
1 angula (¾ of an English inch) or the middlemost joint of the middle finger of a man of medium size may be taken to be equal to an angula.
4 angulas are equal to1 dhanurgraha.
8 angulas are equal to1 dhanurmushti.
12 angulas are equal to1 vitasti, or 1 chháyápaurusha.
14 angulas are equal to1 sama, sala, pariraya, or pada.
2 vitastis are equal to1 aratni or 1 prájápatya hasta
2 vitastis plus 1 dhanurgraha are equal to1 hasta used in measuring balances and cubic measures, and pasture lands.
2 vitastis plus 1 dhanurmusti 1 kishku or 1 kamsa.
42 angulas are equal to
1 kishku according to sawyers and blacksmiths and used in measuring the grounds for the encampment of the army, for forts and palaces.
54 angulas are equal to1 hasta used in measuring timber forests.
84 angulas are equal to1 vyáma, used in measuring ropes and the depth of digging, in terms of a man’s height.
4 aratnis are equal to1 danda, 1 dhanus, 1 nálika and 1 paurusha.
108 angulas are equal to
1 garhapatya dhanus (i.e., a measure used by carpenters called grihapati). This measure is used in measuring roads and fort-walls.
The same (108 angulas) are equal to1 paurusha, a measure used in building sacrificial altars.
6 kamsas or 192 angulas are equal to1 danda, used in measuring such lands as are gifted to Bráhmans.
10 dandas are equal to
2 rajjus are equal to1 paridesa (square measure).
3 rajjus are equal to1 nivartana (square measure).
The same (3 rajjus) plus 2 dandas on one side only are equal to1 báhu (arm).
1000 dhanus are equal to1 goruta (sound of a cow).
4 gorutas are equal to1 yojana.
Thus are the lineal and square measures dealt with.
Then with regard to the measures of time:—
(The divisions of time are) a truti, lava, nimesha, káshthá, kalá, náliká, muhúrta, forenoon, afternoon, day, night, paksha, month, ritu (season), ayana (solstice); samvatsara (year), and yuga.
2 trutis are equal to1 lava.
2 lavas are equal to 1 nimesha.
5 nimeshas are equal to1 káshthá.
30 káshthás are equal to1 kalá.
40 kalás are equal to1 náliká, or the time during which one ádhaka of water passes out of a pot through an aperture of the same diameter as that of a wire of 4 angulas in length and made of 4 máshas of gold.
2 nálikas are equal to1 muhúrta.
15 muhúrtas are equal to1 day or 1 night.
Such a day and night happen in the months of Chaitra and Asvayuja. Then after the period of six months it increases or diminishes by three muhúrtas.
When the length of shadow is eight paurushas (96 angulas), it is 1/18th part of the day.
When it is 6 paurushas (72 angulas), it is 1/14th part of the day; when 4 paurushas, 1/8th part; when 2 paurushas, 1/6th part; when 1 paurusha, ¼th part; when it is 8 angulas, 3/10th part (trayodasabhágah); when 4 angulas, 3/8th part; and when no shadow is cast, it is to be considered midday.
Likewise when the day declines, the same process in reverse order shall be observed.
It is in the month of Ashádha that no shadow is cast in midday. After Ashádha, during the six months from Srávana upwards, the length of shadow successively increases by two angulas and during the next six months from Mágha upwards, it successively decreases by two angulas.
Fifteen days and nights together make up one paksha. That paksha during which the moon waxes is white (sukla) and that paksha during which the moon wanes is bahula.
Two pakshas make one month (mása). Thirty days and nights together make one work-a-month (prakarmamásah). The same (30 days and nights) with an additional half a day makes one solar month (saura).
The same (30) less by half a day makes one lunar month (chandramása).
Twenty-seven (days and nights) make a sidereal month (nakshatramása).
Once in thirty-two months there comes one malamása profane month, i.e., an extra month added to lunar year to harmonise it with the solar.
Once in thirty-five months there comes a malamása for Asvaváhas.
Once in forty months there comes a malamása for hastiváhas.
Two months make one ritu (season).
Srávana and proshthapada make the rainy season (varshá).
Asvayuja and Kárthíka make the autumn (sarad).
Márgasírsha and Phausha make the winter (hemanta).
Mágha and Phalguna make the dewy season (sisira).
Chaitra and Vaisákha make the spring (vasanta).
Jyeshthámúlíya and Ashádha make the summer (grishma).
Seasons from sisira and upwards are the summer-solstice (uttaráyana), and (those) from varshá and upwards are the winter solstice (dakshináyana). Two solstices (ayanas) make one year (samvatsara). Five years make one yuga.
The sun carries off (harati) 1/60th of a whole day every day and thus makes one complete day in every two months (ritau). Likewise the moon (falls behind by 1/60th of a whole day every day and falls behind one day in every two months). Thus in the middle of every third year, they (the sun and the moon) make one adhimása, additional month, first in the summer season and second at the end of five years.
[Thus ends Chapter XX, “Measurement of Space and Time” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the forty-first chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XXI. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF TOLLS.
THE Superintendent of Tolls shall erect near the large gate of the city both the toll-house and its flag facing either the north or the south. When merchants with their merchandise arrive at the toll-gate, four or five collectors shall take down who the merchants are, whence they come, what amount of merchandise they have brought and where for the first time the sealmark (abhijnánamudrá) has been made (on the merchandise).
Those whose merchandise has not been stamped with sealmark shall pay twice the amount of toll. For counterfeit seal they shall pay eight times the toll. If the sealmark is effaced or torn, (the merchants in question) shall be compelled to stand in ghatikásthána. When one kind of seal is used for another or when one kind of merchandise has been otherwise named (námakrite), the merchants shall pay a fine of 1¼ panás for each load (sapádapanikam vahanam dápayet).
The merchandise being placed near the flag of the toll-house, the merchants shall declare its quantity and price, cry out thrice “who will purchase this quantity of merchandise for this amount of price,” and hand over the same to those who demand it (for that price). When purchasers happen to bid for it, the enhanced amount of the price together with the toll on the merchandise shall be paid into the king’s treasury. When under the fear of having to pay a heavy toll, the quantity or the price of merchandise is lowered, the excess shall be taken by the king or the merchants shall be made to pay eight times the toll. The same punishment shall be imposed when the price of the merchandise packed in bags is lowered by showing an inferior sort as its sample or when valuable merchandise is covered over with a layer of an inferior one.
When under the fear of bidders (enhancing the price), the price of any merchandise is increased beyond its proper value, the king shall receive the enhanced amount or twice the amount of toll on it. The same punishment or eight times the amount of toll shall be imposed on the Superintendent of tolls if he conceals (merchandise).
Hence commodities shall be sold only after they are precisely weighed, measured, or numbered.
With regard to inferior commodities as well as those which are to be let off free of toll, the amount of toll due shall be determined after careful consideration.
Those merchants who pass beyond the flag of the toll-house without paying the toll shall be fined eight times the amount of the toll due from them.
Those who pass by to and from (the city) shall ascertain (whether or not toll has been paid on any merchandise going along the road.)
Commodities intended for marriages, or taken by a bride from her parents’ house to her husband’s (anváyanam), or intended for presentation, or taken for the purpose of sacrificial performance, confinement of women, worship of gods, ceremony of tonsure, investiture of sacred thread, gift of cows (godána, made before marriage), any religious rite, consecration ceremony (dikshá), and other special ceremonials shall be let off free of toll.
Those who utter a lie shall be punished as thieves.
Those who smuggle a part of merchandise on which toll has not been paid with that on which toll has been paid as well as those who, with a view to smuggle with one pass a second portion of merchandise, put it along with the stamped merchandise after breaking open the bag shall forfeit the smuggled quantity and pay as much fine as is equal to the quantity so smuggled.
He who, falsely swearing by cowdung, smuggles merchandise, shall be punished with the highest amercement.
When a person imports such forbidden articles as weapons (sastra), mail armour, metals, chariots, precious stones, grains and cattle, he shall not only be punished as laid down elsewhere, but also be made to forfeit his merchandise. When any of such commodities has been brought in for sale, they shall be sold, free of toll far outside (the fort).
The officer in charge of boundaries (antapála) shall receive a pana-and-a-quarter as roadcess (vartani) on each load of merchandise (panyavahanasya).
He shall levy a pana on a single-hoofed animal, half a pana on each head of cattle, and a quarter on a minor quadruped.
He shall also receive a másha on a head-load of merchandise.
He shall also make good whatever has been lost by merchants (in the part of the country under his charge).
After carefully examining foreign commodities as to their superior or inferior quality and stamping them with his seal, he shall send the same to the superintendent of tolls.
Or he may send to the king a spy in the guise of a trader with information as to the quantity and quality of the merchandise. (Having received this information,) the king shall in turn send it to the superintendent of tolls in view of exhibiting the king’s omniscient power. The superintendent shall tell the merchants (in question) that such and such a merchant has brought such and such amount of superior or inferior merchandise, which none can possibly hide, and that that information is due to the omniscient power of the king.
For hiding inferior commodities, eight times the amount of toll shall be imposed; and for hiding or concealing superior commodities, they shall be wholly confiscated.
Whatever causes harm or is useless to the country shall be shut out; and whatever is of immense good as well as seeds not easily available shall be let in free of toll.
[Thus ends Chapter XXI, “The Superintendent of Tolls” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the forty-second chapter from the beginning.)
CHAPTER XXII. REGULATION OF TOLL-DUES.
MERCHANDISE, external (báhyam, i.e., arriving from country parts), internal (ábhyantaram, i.e., manufactured inside forts), or foreign (átithyani, i.e., imported from foreign countries) shall all be liable to the payment of toll alike when exported (nishkrámya) and imported (pravésyam).
Imported commodities shall pay 1/5th of their value as toll.
Of flower, fruit, vegetables (sáka), roots (múla), bulbous roots (kanda), pallikya (?), seeds, dried fish, and dried meat, the superintendent shall receive 1/6th as toll.
As regards conch-shells, diamonds, precious stones, pearls, corals, and necklaces, experts acquainted with the time, cost, and finish of the production of such articles shall fix the amount of toll.
Of fibrous garments (kshauma), cotton cloths (dukúla), silk (krimitána), mail armour (kankata), sulphuret of arsenic (haritála), red arsenic (manassilá), vermilion (hingulaka), metals (lóha), and colouring ingredients (varnadhátu); of sandal, brown sandal (agaru), pungents (katuka), ferments (kinva), dress (ávarana), and the like; of wine, ivory, skins, raw materials used in making fibrous or cotton garments, carpets, curtains (právarana), and products yielded by worms (krimijáta); and of wool and other products yielded by goats and sheep, he shall receive 1/10th or 1/15th as toll.
Of cloths (vastra), quadrupeds, bipeds, threads, cotton, scents, medicines, wood, bamboo, fibres (valkala), skins, and clay-pots; of grains, oils, sugar (kshára), salt, liquor (madya) cooked rice and the like, he shall receive 1/20th or 1/25th as toll.
Gate-dues (dvárádeya) shall be 1/5th of toll dues; this tax may be remitted if circumstances necessitate such favour. Commodities shall never be sold where they are grown or manufactured.
When minerals and other commodities are purchased from mines, a fine of 600 panás shall be imposed.
When flower or fruits are purchased from flower or fruit gardens, a fine of 54 panas shall be imposed.
When vegetables, roots, bulbous roots are purchased from vegetable gardens, a fine 51¾ panas shall be imposed.
When any kind of grass or grain is purchased from field, a fine of 53 panas shall be imposed.
(Permanent) fines of 1 pana and 1½ panas shall be levied on agricultural produce (sítátyayah).
Hence in accordance with the customs of countries or of communities, the rate of toll shall be fixed on commodities, either old or new; and fines shall be fixed in proportion to the gravity of offences.
[Thus ends Chapter XXII, “Regulation of Toll-dues,” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the forty-third chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XXIII. SUPERINTENDENT OF WEAVING.
THE Superintendent of Weaving shall employ qualified persons to manufacture threads (sútra), coats (varma), cloths (vastra), and ropes.
Widows, cripple women, girls, mendicant or ascetic women (pravrajitá), women compelled to work in default of paying fines (dandápratikáriní), mothers of prostitutes, old women-servants of the king, and prostitutes (devadási) who have ceased to attend temples on service shall be employed to cut wool, fibre, cotton, panicle (túla), hemp, and flax.
Wages shall be fixed according as the threads spun are fine, coarse (sthúla, i.e., big) or of middle quality and in proportion to a greater or less quantity manufactured, and in consideration of the quantity of thread spun, those (who turn out a greater quantity) shall be presented with oil and dried cakes of myrobalan fruits (tailámalakódvartanaih).
They may also be made to work on holidays (tithishu) by payment of special rewards (prativápadánamánaih).
Wages shall be cut short, if making allowance for the quality of raw material, the quantity of the threads spun out is found to fall short.
Weaving may also be done by those artisans who are qualified to turn out a given amount of work in a given time and for a fixed amount of wages.
The superintendent shall closely associate with the workmen.
Those who manufacture fibrous cloths, raiments, silk-cloths, woollen cloths, and cotton fabrics shall be rewarded by presentations such as scents, garlands of flowers, or any other prizes of encouragement.
Various kinds of garments, blankets, and curtains shall be manufactured.
Those who are acquainted with the work shall manufacture mail armour.
Those women who do not stir out of their houses (anishkásinyah), those whose husbands are gone abroad, and those who are cripple or girls may, when obliged to work for subsistence, be provided with work (spinning out threads) in due courtesy through the medium of maid-servants (of the weaving establishment.)
Those women who can present themselves at the weaving house shall at dawn be enabled to exchange their spinnings for wages (bhándavetanavinimayam). Only so much light as is enough to examine the threads shall be kept. If the superintendent looks at the face of such women or talks about any other work, he shall be punished with the first amercement. Delay in paying the wages shall be punished with the middlemost amercement. Likewise when wages are paid for work that is not completed.
She who, having received wages, does not turn out the work shall have her thumb cut off.
Those who misappropriate, steal, or run away with, (the raw material supplied to them) shall be similarly punished.
Weavers, when guilty, shall be fined out of their wages in proportion to their offences.
The superintendent shall closely associate with those who manufacture ropes and mail armour and shall carry on the manufacture of straps (varatra) and other commodities.
He shall carry on the manufacture of ropes from threads and fibres and of straps from cane and bamboo bark, with which beasts for draught are trained or tethered.
[Thus ends Chapter XXIII, “The Superintendent of Weaving” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the forty-fourth chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XXIV. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF AGRICULTURE.
POSSESSED of the knowledge of the science of agriculture dealing with the plantation of bushes and trees (krishitantragulmavrikshsháyurvedajñah), or assisted by those who are trained in such sciences, the superintendent of agriculture shall in time collect the seeds of all kinds of grains, flowers, fruits, vegetables, bulbous roots, roots, pállikya (?), fibre-producing plants, and cotton.
He shall employ slaves, labourers, and prisoners (dandapratikartri) to sow the seeds on crown-lands which have been often and satisfactorily ploughed.
The work of the above men shall not suffer on account of any want in ploughs (karshanayantra) and other necessary instruments or of bullocks. Nor shall there be any delay in procuring to them the assistence of blacksmiths, carpenters, borers (medaka), ropemakers, as well as those who catch snakes, and similar persons.
Any loss due to the above persons shall be punished with a fine equal to the loss.
The quantity of rain that falls in the country of jángala is 16 dronas; half as much more in moist countries (anúpánám); as to the countries which are fit for agriculture (désavápánam);–13½ dronas in the country of asmakas; 23 dronas in avantí; and an immense quantity in western countries (aparántánám), the borders of the Himalayas, and the countries where water channels are made use of in agriculture (kulyávápánám).
When one-third of the requisite quantity of rain falls both during the commencement and closing months of the rainy season and two-thirds in the middle, then the rainfall is (considered) very even (sushumárúpam).
A forecast of such rainfall can be made by observing the position, motion, and pregnancy (garbhádána) of the Jupiter (Brihaspati), the rise and set and motion of the Venus, and the natural or unnatural aspect of the sun.
From the sun, the sprouting of the seeds can be inferred; from (the position of) the Jupiter, the formation of grains (stambakarita) can be inferred; and from the movements of the Venus, rainfall can be inferred.
Three are the clouds that continuously rain for seven days; eighty are they that pour minute drops; and sixty are they that appear with the sunshine–this is termed rainfall. Where rain, free from wind and unmingled with sunshine, falls so as to render three turns of ploughing possible, there the reaping of good harvest is certain.
Hence, i.e., according as the rainfall is more or less, the superintendent shall sow the seeds which require either more or less water.
Sáli (a kind of rice), vríhi (rice), kodrava (Paspalum Scrobiculatum), tila (sesamum), priyangu (panic seeds), dáraka (?), and varaka (Phraseolus Trilobus) are to be sown at the commencement (púrvávápah) of the rainy season.
Mudga (Phraseolus Mungo), másha (Phraseolus Radiatus), and saibya (?) are to be sown in the middle of the season.
Kusumbha (safflower), masúra (Ervum Hirsutum), kuluttha (Dolichos Uniflorus), yava (barley), godhúma (wheat), kaláya (leguminus seeds), atasi (linseed), and sarshapa (mustard) are to be sown last.
Or seeds may be sown according to the changes of the season.
Fields that are left unsown (vápátiriktam, i.e., owing to the inadequacy of hands) may be brought under cultivation by employing those who cultivate for half the share in the produce (ardhasítiká); or those who live by their own physical exertion (svavíryopajívinah) may cultivate such fields for ¼th or 1/5th of the produce grown; or they may pay (to the king) as much as they can without entailing any hardship upon themselves (anavasitam bhágam), with the exception of their own private lands that are difficult to cultivate.
Those who cultivate irrigating by manual labour (hastaprávartimam) shall pay 1/5th of the produce as water-rate (udakabhágam); by carrying water on shoulders (skandhaprávartimam) ¼th of the produce; by water-lifts (srotoyantraprávartimam), ⅓rd of the produce; and by raising water from rivers, lakes, tanks, and wells (nadisarastatákakúpodghátam),⅓rd or ¼th of the produce.
The superintendent shall grow wet crops (kedára), winter-crops (haimana), or summer crops (graishmika) according to the supply of workmen and water.
Rice-crops and the like are the best (jyáshtha, i.e., to grow); vegetables (shanda) are of intermediate nature; and sugarcane crops (ikshu) are the worst (pratyavarah, i.e., very difficult to grow), for they are subject to various evils and require much care and expenditure to reap.
Lands that are beaten by foam (phenághátah, i.e., banks of rivers, etc.) are suitable for growing vallíphala (pumpkin, gourd and the like); lands that are frequently overflown by water (paríváhánta) for long pepper, grapes (mridvíká), and sugarcane; the vicinity of wells for vegetables and roots; low grounds (hariníparyantáh) for green crops; and marginal furrows between any two rows of crops are suitable for the plantation of fragrant plants, medicinal herbs, cascus roots (usínara), híra (?), beraka (?), and pindáluka (lac) and the like.
Such medicinal herbs as grow in marshy grounds are to be grown not only in grounds suitable for them, but also in pots (sthályam).
The seeds of grains are to be exposed to mist and heat (tushárapáyanamushnam cha) for seven nights; the seeds of kosi are treated similarly for three nights; the seeds of sugarcane and the like (kándabíjánam) are plastered at the cut end with the mixture of honey, clarified butter, the fat of hogs, and cowdung; the seeds of bulbous roots (kanda) with honey and clarified butter; cotton seeds (asthibíja) with cow-dung; and water pits at the root of trees are to be burnt and manured with the bones and dung of cows on proper occasions.
The sprouts of seeds, when grown, are to be manured with a fresh haul of minute fishes and irrigated with the milk of snuhi (Euphorbia Antiquorum).
Where there is the smoke caused by burning the essence of cotton seeds and the slough of a snake, there snakes will not stay.
Always while sowing seeds, a handful of seeds bathed in water with a piece of gold shall be sown first and the following mantra recited:–
“Prajápatye Kasyapáya déváya namah.
Sadá Sítá medhyatám déví bíjéshu cha
dhanéshu cha. Chandaváta hé.”
“Salutation to God Prajápati Kasyapa. Agriculture may always flourish and the Goddess (may reside) in seeds and wealth. Channdavata he.”
Provisions shall be supplied to watchmen, slaves and labourers in proportion to the amount of work done by them.
They shall be paid a pana-and-a-quarter per mensem. Artisans shall be provided with wages and provision in proportion to the amount of work done by them.
Those that are learned in the Vedas and those that are engaged in making penance may take from the fields ripe flowers and fruits for the purpose of worshipping their gods, and rice and barley for the purpose of performing ágrayana, a sacrificial performance at the commencement of harvest season, also those who live by gleaning grains in fields may gather grains where grains had been accumulated and removed from.
Grains and other crops shall be collected as often as they are harvested. No wise man shall leave anything in the fields, nor even chaff. Crops, when reaped, shall be heaped up in high piles or in the form of turrets. The piles of crops shall not be kept close, nor shall their tops be small or low. The threshing floors of different fields shall be situated close to each other. Workmen in the fields shall always have water but no fire.
[Thus ends Chapter XXIV, “The Superintendent of Agriculture” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the forty-fifth chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XXV. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF LIQUOR.
BY employing such men as are acquainted with the manufacture of liquor and ferments (kinva), the Superintendent of Liquor shall carry on liquor-traffic not only in forts and country parts, but also in camps.
In accordance with the requirements of demand and supply (krayavikrayavasena) he may either centralize or decentralize the sale of liquor.
A fine of 600 panas shall be imposed on all offenders other than those who are manufacturers, purchasers, or sellers in liquor-traffic.
Liquor shall not be taken out of villages, nor shall liquor shops be close to each other.
Lest workmen spoil the work in hand, and Aryas violate their decency and virtuous character, and lest firebrands commit indiscreet acts, liquor shall be sold to persons of well known character in such small quantities as one-fourth or half-a-kudumba, one kudumba, half-a-prastha, or one prastha. Those who are well known and of pure character may take liquor out of shop.
Or all may be compelled to drink liquor within the shops and not allowed to stir out at once in view of detecting articles such as sealed deposits, unsealed deposits, commodities given for repair, stolen articles, and the like which the customer’s may have acquired by foul means. When they are found to possess gold and other articles not their own, the superintendent shall contrive to cause them to be arrested outside the shop. Likewise those who are too extravagant or spend beyond their income shall be arrested.
No fresh liquor other than bad liquor shall be sold below its price. Bad liquor may be sold elsewhere or given to slaves or workmen in lieu of wages; or it may form the drink of beasts for draught or the subsistence of hogs.
Liquor shops shall contain many rooms provided with beds and seats kept apart. The drinking room shall contain scents, garlands of flowers, water, and other comfortable things suitable to the varying seasons.
Spies stationed in the shops shall ascertain whether the expenditure incurred by customers in the shop is ordinary or extraordinary and also whether there are any strangers. They shall also ascertain the value of the dress, ornaments, and gold of the customers lying there under intoxication.
When customers under intoxication lose any of their things, the merchants of the shop shall not only make good the loss, but also pay an equivalent fine.
Merchants seated in half-closed rooms shall observe the appearance of local and foreign customers who, in real or false guise of Aryas lie down in intoxication along with their beautiful mistresses.
Of various kinds of liquor such as medaka, prasanna, ásava, arista, maireya, and madhu:–
Medaka is manufactured with one drona of water, half, an ádaka of rice, and three prastha of kinva (ferment).
Twelve ádhakas of flour (pishta), five prasthas of kinva (ferment), with the addition of spices (játisambhára) together with the bark and fruits of putraká (a species of tree) constitute prasanná.
One-hundred palas of kapittha (Feronia Elephantum) 500 palas of phánita (sugar), and one prastha of honey (madhu) form ásava.
With an increase of one-quarter of the above ingredients, a superior kind of ásava is manufactured; and when the same ingredients are lessened to the extent of one-quarter each, it becomes of an inferior quality.
The preparation of various kinds of arishta for various diseases are to be learnt from physicians.
A sour gruel or decoction of the bark of meshasringi (a kind of poison) mixed with jaggery (guda) and with the powder of long pepper and black pepper or with the powder of triphala (1 Terminalia Chebula, 2 Terminalia Bellerica, and 3 Phyllanthus Emblica) forms Maireya.
To all kinds of liquor mixed with jaggery, the powder of triphala is always added.
The juice of grapes is termed madhu. Its own native place (svadesa) is the commentary on such of its various forms as kápisáyana and hárahúraka.
One drona of either boiled or unboiled paste of másha (Phraseolus Radiatus), three parts more of rice, and one karsha of morata (Alangium Hexapetalum) and the like form kinva (ferment).
In the manufacture of medaka and prasanna, five karshas of the powder of (each of páthá (Clypea Hermandifolio), lodhra (Symplocos Racemosa), tejovati (Piper Chaba), eláváluka (Solanum Melongena) honey, the juice of grapes (madhurasa), priyangu (panic seeds), dáruharidra (a species of turmeric) black pepper and long pepper are added as sambhára, requisite spices.
The decoction of madhúka (Bassia Latifolia) mixed with granulated sugar (katasarkará), when added to prasanna, gives it a pleasing colour.
The requisite quantity of spices to be added to ásava is one karshá of the powder of each of chocha (bark of cinnamon), chitraka (Plumbago Zeylanica), vilanga, and gajapippalí (Scindapsus Officinalis), and two karshas of the powder of each of kramuka (betel nut), madhúka (Bassia Latifolia), mustá (Cyprus Rotundus), and lodhra (Symlocos Racemosa).
The addition of one-tenth of the above ingredients (i.e., chocha, kramuka, etc.), is (termed) bíjabandha.
The same ingredients as are added to prasanná are also added to white liquor (svetasurá).
The liquor that is manufactured from mango fruits (sahakárasurá) may contain a greater proportion of mango essence (rasottara), or of spices (bíjottara). It is called mahásura when it contains sambhára (spices as described above).
When a handful (antarnakho mushtih, i.e., so much as can be held in the hand, the fingers being so bent that the nails cannot be seen) of the powder of granulated sugar dissolved in the decoction of moratá (Alangium Hexapetalum), palása (Butea Frondosa), dattúra (Dattura Fastuosa), karanja (Robinia Mitis), meshasringa (a kind of poison) and the bark of milky trees (kshiravriksha) mixed with one-half of the paste formed by combining the powders of lodhra (Symplocos Racemosa), chitraka (Plumbago Zeylanica), vilanga, páthá (clypea Hermandifolia), mustá (cyprus Rotundus), kaláya (leguminous seeds), dáruharidra (Amonum Xanthorrhizon), indívara (blue lotus), satapushpa (Anethum Sowa), apámárga (Achyranthes Aspera) saptaparna (Echites Scholaris), and nimba (Nimba Melia) is added to (even) a kumbha of liquor payable by the king, it renders it very pleasant. Five palas of phánita (sugar) are added to the above in order to increase its flavour.
On special occasions (krityeshu), people (kutumbinah, i.e., families) shall be allowed to manufacture white liquor (svetasura), arishta for use in diseases, and other kinds of liquor.
On the occasions of festivals, fairs (samája), and pilgrimage, right of manufacture of liquor for four days (chaturahassaurikah) shall be allowed.
The Superintendent shall collect the daily fines (daivasikamatyayam, i.e., license fees) from those who on these occasions are permitted to manufacture liquor.
Women and children shall collect ‘sura,’ and ‘kinva,’ ‘ferment.’
Those who deal with liquor other than that of the king shall pay five percent as toll.
With regard to sura, medaka, arishta, wine, phalámla (acid drinks prepared from fruits), and ámlasídhu (spirit distilled from molasses):–
Having ascertained the day’s sale of the above kinds of liquor, the difference of royal and public measures (mánavyáji), and the excessive amount of sale proceeds realised thereby, the Superintendent shall fix the amount of compensation (vaidharana) due to the king (from local or foreign merchants for entailing loss on the king’s liquor traffic) and shall always adopt the best course.
[Thus ends Chapter XXV, “The Superintendent of Liquor” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents,” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the forty-sixth chapter from the beginning.]