CHAPTER XI. EXAMINATION OF GEMS THAT ARE TO BE ENTERED INTO THE TREASURY.
THE Superintendent of the treasury shall, in the presence of qualified persons, admit into the treasury whatever he ought to, gems (ratna) and articles of superior or inferior value.
Támraparnika, that which is produced in the támraparni; Pándyakavátaka, that which is obtained in Pándyakavata; Pásikya, that which is produced in the Pása; Kauleya, that which is produced in the kúla; Chaurneya, that which is produced in the Chúrna; Mahéndra, that which is obtained near the mountain of Mahéndra; Kárdamika, that which is produced in the Kárdama; Srautasíya, that which is produced in the Srótasi; Hrádíya, that which is produced in (a deep pool of water known as) Hrada; and Haimavata, that which is obtained in the vicinity of the Himalayas are the several varieties of pearls.
Oyster-shells, conch-shells, and other miscellaneous things are the wombs of pearls.
That which is like masúra (ervum hirsutam), that which consists of three joints (triputaka), that which is like a tortoise (kúrmaka), that which is semi-circular, that which consists of several coatings, that which is double (yámaka), that which is scratched, that which is of rough surface, that which is possessed of spots (siktakam), that which is like the water-pot used by an ascetic, that which is of dark-brown or blue colour, and that which is badly perforated are inauspicious.
That which is big, circular, without bottom (nistalam), brilliant, white, heavy, soft to the touch, and properly perforated is the best.
Sirshaka, upasirshaka, prakándaka, avaghátaka, and taralapratibandha are several varieties of pearl necklaces.
One thousand and eight strings of pearls form the necklace, Indrachchhanda.
Half of the above is Vijayachchhanda.
Sixty-four strings make up Ardhahára.
Fifty-four strings make up Rasmikalápa.
Thirty-two strings make up Guchchha.
Twenty-seven strings make up Nakshatramála.
Twenty-four strings make up Ardhaguchchha.
Twenty strings make up Mánavaka.
Half of the above is Ardhamánavaka.
The same necklaces with a gem at the centre are called by the same names with the words ‘Mánavaka’ suffixed to their respective names.
When all the strings making up a necklace are of sirshaka pattern, it is called pure necklace (suddhahára); likewise with strings of other pattern. That which contains a gem in the centre is (also) called Ardhamánavaka.
That which contains three slab-like gems (triphalaka) or five slab-like gems (panchaphalaka) in the centre is termed Phalakahára.
An only string of pearls is called pure Ekávali; the same with a gem in the centre is called Yashti; the same variegated with gold globules is termed Ratnávali.
A string made of pearls and gold globules alternately put is called Apavartaka.
Strings of pearls with a gold wire between two strings is called Sopánaka.
The same with a gem in the centre is called Manisópánaka.
The above will explain the formation of head-strings, bracelets, anklets, waist-bands, and other varieties.
Kauta, that which is obtained in the Kúta; Mauleyaka, that which is found in the Múleya; and Párasamudraka, that which is found beyond the ocean are several varieties of gems.
That which possesses such pleasant colour as that of the red lotus flower, or that of the flower of Párijáta (Erithrina Indica), or that of the rising sun is the Saugandhika gem.
That which is of the colour of blue lotus flower, or of sirísha (Acacia Sirisa), or of water, or of fresh bamboo, or of the colour of the feathers of a parrot is the Vaidúrya gem Pushyarága, Gómútraka, and Gómédika are other varieties of the same.
That which is characterised with blue lines, that which is of the colour of the flower of Kaláya (a kind of phraseolus), or which is intensely blue, which possesses the colour of Jambu fruit (rose apple), or which is as blue as the clouds is the Indraníla gem; Nandaka (pleasing gem), Sravanmadhya (that which appears to pour water from its centre), Sítavrishti (that which appears to pour cold shower), and Súryakánta (sunstone) are other forms of gems.
Gems are hexagonal, quadrangular, or circular possessed of dazzling glow, pure, smooth, heavy, brilliant, transparent (antargataprabha) and illuminating; such are the qualities of gems.
Faint colour, sandy layer, spots, holes, bad perforation, and scratches are the defects of gems.
Vimalaka (pure), sasyaka (plant-like), Anjanamúlaka (deep-dark), Pittaka (like the bile of a cow) Sulabhaka (easily procurable), Lohitaka (red), Amritámsuka (of white rays), Jyótírasaka (glowing), Maileyaka, Ahichchhatraka , (procured in the country of Ahichchhatra), Kúrpa, Pútikúrpa, and Sugandhikúrpa, Kshírapaka, Suktichúrnaka (like the powder of an oystershell), Silápraválaka (like coral), Pulaka, Súkrapulaka are varieties of inferior gems.
The rest are metalic beads (káchamani).
Sabháráshtraka, that which is found in the country of Sabháráshtra; Madhyamaráshtraka, that which is found in the Central Province; Kásmaka, that which is found in the country of Kásmaka; Sríkatanaka, that which is found in the vicinity of the mountain, Vedótkata; Manimantaka, that which is found near the mountain Maniman or Manimanta; and Indravánaká are diamonds.
Mines, streams, and other miscellaneous places are their sources.
The colour of a diamond may be like that of a cat’s eye, that of the flower of Sirísha (Acacia Sirísa), the urine of a cow, the bile of a cow, like alum (sphatika), the flower of Málati, or like that of any of the gems (described above).
That which is big, heavy, hard (prahárasaham, tolerant of hitting), regular (samakóna), capable of scratching on the surface of vessels (bhájanalékhi), refractive of light (kubrámi), and brilliant is the best.
That which is devoid of angles, uneven (nirasríkam), and bent on one side (pársvápavrittam) is inauspicious.
Alakandaka, and Vaivarnaka are the two varieties of coral which is possessed of ruby-like colour, which is very hard, and which is free from the contamination of other substances inside.
Sátana is red and smells like the earth; Gósirshaka is dark red and smells like fish; Harichandana is of the colour of the feathers of a parrot and smells like tamarind or mango fruit; likewise Tárnasa; Grámeruka is red or dark red and smells like the urine of a goat; Daivasabheya is red and smells like a lotus flower; likewise Aupaka (Jápaka); Jongaka and Taurupa are red or dark red and soft; Maleyaka is reddish white; Kuchandana is as black as Agaru (resin of the aloe) or red or dark red and very rough; Kála-parvataka is of pleasant appearance; Kosákaraparvataka (that which is the product of that mountain which is of the shape of a bud) is black or variegated black; Sítódakíya is black and soft, and smells like a lotus-flower; Nágaparvataka (that which is the product of Naga mountain) is rough and is possessed of the colour of Saivala (Vallisneria); and Sákala is brown.
Light, soft, moist (asyána, not dry), as greasy as ghee, of pleasant smell, adhesive to the skin, of mild smell, retentive of colour and smell, tolerant of heat, absorptive of heat, and comfortable to the skin–these are the characteristics of sandal (chandana).
(As to) Agaru (Agallochum, resin of aloe):—
Jongaka is black or variegated black and is possessed of variegated spots; Dongaka is black; and Párasamudraka is of variegated colour and smells like cascus or like Navamálika (jasminum).
(Agaru is) heavy, soft, greasy, smells far and long, burns slowly, gives out continuous smoke while burning, is of uniform smell, absorbs heat, and is so adhesive to the skin as not to be removable by rubbing;—these are the characteristics of Agaru.
(As to) Tailaparnika:—
Asókagrámika, the product of Asókagráma, is of the colour of meat and smells like a lotus flower; Jongaka is reddish yellow and smells like a blue lotus flower or like the urine of a cow; Grameruka is greasy and smells like a cow’s urine; Sauvarnakudyaka, product of the country of Suvarnakudya, is reddish yellow and smells like Mátulunga (the fruit of citron tree or sweet lime); Púrnadvipaka, the product of the island, Púrnadviipa, smells like a lotus flower or like butter; Bhadrasríya and Páralauhityaka are of the colour of nutmeg; Antarvatya is of the colour of cascus,—the last two smell like Kushtha (Costus Speciosus); Kaleyaka which is a product of Svarna-bhúmi, gold-producing land, is yellow and greasy; and Auttaraparvataka (a product of, the north mountain) is reddish yellow.
The above (fragrant substances) are commodities of superior value (Sára).
The smell of the Tailaparnika substances is lasting, no matter whether they are made into a paste or boiled or burnt; also it is neither changed nor affected even when mixed with other substances; and these substances resemble sandal and Agallochum in their qualities.
Kántanávaka, Praiyaka, and Auttara-parvataka are the varieties of skins.
Kántanávaka is of the colour of the neck of the peacock; Praiyaka is variegated with blue, yellow, and white spots; these two are eight angulas (inches) long.
Also Bisí and Mahábisí are the products of Dvádasagráma, twelve villages.
That which is of indistinct colour, hairy, and variegated (with spots) is (called) Bisí.
That which is rough and almost white is Mahábisí (great Bisí); These two are twelve angulas long.
Syámika, Kálika, Kadali, Chandrottara, and Sákulá are (other kinds of skins) procured from Aroha (Arohaja).
Syámika is brown and contains variegated spots; Kálika is brown or of the colour of a pigeon; these two are eight angulas long. Kadali is rough and two feet long; when Kadali bears variegated moonlike spots, it is called Chandrottarakadali and is one-third of its length; Sákulá is variegated with large round spots similar to those that manifest themselves in a kind of leprosy (kushtha), or is furnished with tendrils and spotted like a deer’s skin.
Sámúra, Chínasi, and Sámúli are (skins procured from Báhlava, (Bahlaveya).
Sámúra is thirty-six angulas long and black; Chínasi is reddish black or blackish white; Sámúli is of the colour of wheat.
Sátina, Nalatúla, and Vrittapuchchha are the skins of aquatic animals (Audra).
Sátina is black; Nalatúla is of the colour of the fibre of Nala, a kind of grass; and Vrittapuchchha (that which possesses a round tail) is brown.
The above are the varieties of skins.
Of skins, that which is soft, smooth and hairy is the best.
Blankets made of sheep’s wool may be white, purely red, or as red as a lotus flower. They may be made of worsted threads by sewing (khachita); or may be woven of woollen threads of various colour (vánachitra); or may be made of different pieces (khandasanghátya); or may be woven of uniform woollen threads (tantuvichchhinna).
Woollen blankets are (of ten kinds):—Kambala, Kauchapaka, Kulamitika, Saumitika, Turagastarana, Varnaka, Talichchhaka, Váravána, Paristoma, and Samantabhadraka.
Of these, that which is slippery (pichchhila) as a wet surface, possessed of fine hair, and soft, is the best.
That (blanket) which is made up of eight pieces and black in colour is called Bhingisi used as rain-proof ; likewise is Apasáraka; both are the products of Nepal.
Samputika, Chaturasrika, Lambara, Katavánaka, Praváraka, and Sattalika are (blankets made of) the wool of wild animals.
That which is manufactured in the country, Vanga (vangaka) is a white and soft fabric (dukúla); that of Pándya manufacture (Paundraka) is black and as soft as the surface of a gem; and that which is the product of the country, Suvarnakudya, is as red as the sun, as soft as the surface of the gem, woven while the threads are very wet, and of uniform (chaturasra) or mixed texture (vyámisravána).
Single, half, double, treble and quadruple garments are varieties of the same.
The above will explain other kinds of fabrics such as Kásika, Benarese products, and Kshauma which is manufactured in Pándya (Paundraka).
Mágadhika (product of the Magadha country), Paundraka, and Sauvarnakudyaka are fibrous garments.
Nágavriksha (a species of a tree), Likucha (Artocarpus Lakucha), and Vakula (Mimusops Elengi), and Vata (Ficus Indica) are the sources (of their fibres).
That of Nágavriksha is yellow (pita); that of Likucha is of the colour of wheat; that of Vakula is white; and the rest is of the colour of butter.
Of these, that which is produced in the country of Suvarnakudya is the best.
The above will explain the fabrics known as kauseya, silk-cloth, and chinapatta, fabrics of China manufacture.
Of cotton fabrics, those of Madhura, of Aparánta, western parts, of Kálinga, of Kási, of Vanga, of Vatsa, and of Mahisha are the best.
As to other kinds of gems (which are not treated of here), the superintendent shall ascertain their size, their value, species, form, utility, their treatment, the repair of old ones, any adulteration that is not easily detected, their wear and tear due to lapse of time and place, as well as remedies against those which are inauspicious (himsra).
[Thus ends Chapter XI, “Examination of Gems that are to be entered into the Treasury,” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of thirty-second chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XII. CONDUCTING MINING OPERATIONS AND MANUFACTURE.
POSSESSED of the knowledge of the science dealing with copper and other minerals (Sulbádhátusástra), experienced in the art of distillation and condensation of mercury (rasapáka) and of testing gems, aided by experts in mineralogy and equipped with mining labourers and necessary instruments, the superintendent of mines shall examine mines which, on account of their containing mineral excrement (kitta), crucibles, charcoal, and ashes, may appear to have been once exploited or which may be newly discovered on plains or mountain-slopes possessing mineral ores, the richness of which can be ascertained by weight, depth of colour, piercing smell, and taste.
Liquids which ooze out from pits, eaves, slopes, or deep excavations of well-known mountains; which have the colour of the fruit of rose-apple (jambu), of mango, and of fanpalm; which are as yellow as ripe turmeric, sulphurate of arsenic (haritála), honey-comb, and vermilion; which are as resplendent as the petals of a lotus, or the feathers of a parrot or a peacock; which are adjacent to (any mass of) water or shrubs of similar colour; and which are greasy (chikkana), transparent (visada), and very heavy are ores of gold (kánchanika). Likewise liquids which, when dropped on water, spread like oil to which dirt and filth adhere, and which amalgamate themselves more than cent per cent (satádupari veddhárah) with copper or silver.
Of similar appearance as the above (tatpratirúpakam), but of piercing smell and taste is Bitumen.
Those ores which are obtained from plains or slopes of mountains; which are either yellow or as red as copper or reddish yellow; which are disjoined and marked with blue lines; which have the colour of black beans (masha, Phraseolus Radiatus), green beans (mudga, Phraseolus Mungo), and sesamum; which are marked with spots like a drop of curd and resplendent as turmeric, yellow myrobalan, petals of a lotus, acquatic plant, the liver or the spleen; which possess a sandy layer within them and are marked with figures of a circle or a svastika; which contain globular masses (sagulika); and which, when roasted do not split, but emit much foam and smoke are the ores of gold (suvarnadhátavah), and are used to form amalgams with copper or silver (pratívápárthasté stámrarúpyavedharáh).
Those ores which have the colour of a conch-shell, camphor, alum, butter, a pigeon, turtle-dove, Vimalaka (a kind of precious stone), or the neck of a peacock; which are as resplendent as opal (sasyaka), agate (gomédaka), cane-sugar (guda), and granulated sugar (matsyandika) which has the colour of the flower of kovidára (Bauhinia Variegata), of lotus, of patali (Bignonia Suaveolens), of kalaya (a kind of phraseolus), of kshauma (flax), and of atasi (Dinuin Usitatissimum); which may be in combination with lead or iron (anjana); which smell like raw meat, are disjoined gray or blackish white, and are marked with lines or spots; and which, when roasted, do not split, but emit much foam and smoke are silver ores.
The heavier the ores, the greater will be the quantity of metal in them (satvavriddhih).
The impurities of ores, whether superficial or inseparably combined with them can be got rid of and the metal melted when the ores are (chemically) treated with Tikshna urine (mútra) and alkalies (kshára), and are mixed or smeared over with the mixture of (the powder of) Rajavriksha (Clitoria Ternatea), Vata (Ficus Indica), and Pelu (Carnea Arborea), together with cow’s bile and the urine and dung of a buffalo, an ass and an elephant.
(Metals) are rendered soft when they are treated with (the powder of) kandali (mushroom), and vajrakanda, (Antiquorum) together with the ashes of barley, black beans, palása (Butea Frondosa), and pelu (Carnea Arborea), or with the milk of both the cow and the sheep. Whatever metal is split into a hundred thousand parts is rendered soft when it is thrice soaked in the mixture made up of honey (madhu), madhuka (Bassia Latifolia), sheep’s milk, sesamum oil, clarified butter, jaggery, kinva (ferment) and mushroom.
Permanent softness (mridustambhana) is also attained when the metal is treated with the powder of cow’s teeth and horn.
Those ores which are obtained from plains or slopes of mountains; and which are heavy, greasy, soft, tawny, green, dark, bluish-yellow (harita), pale-red, or red are ores of copper.
Those ores which have the colour of kákamechaka (Solanum Indica), pigeon, or cow’s bile, and which are marked with white lines and smell like raw meat are the ores of lead.
Those ores which are as variegated in colour as saline soil or which have the colour of a burnt lump of earth are the ores of tin.
Those ores which are of orange colour (kurumba), or pale-red (pándurohita), or of the colour of the flower of sinduvára (Vitex Trifolia) are the ores of tíkshna.
Those ores which are of the colour of the leaf of kánda (Artemisia Indica) or of the leaf of birch are the ores of vaikrintaka.
Pure, smooth, efflugent, sounding (when struck), very hard (satatívrah), and of little colour (tanurága) are precious stones.
The yield of mines may be put to such uses as are in vogue.
Commerce in commodities manufactured from mineral products shall be centralized and punishment for manufacturers, sellers, and purchasers of such commodities outside the prescribed locality shall also be laid down.
A mine-labourer who steals mineral products except precious stones shall be punished with a fine of eight times their value.
Any person who steals mineral products or carries on mining operations without license shall be bound (with chains) and caused to work (as a prisoner).
Mines which yield such minerals as are made use of in preparing vessels (bhánda) as well as those mines which require large outlay to work out may be leased out for a fixed number of the shares of the output or for a fixed rent (bhágena prakrayena va) Such mines as can be worked out without much outlay shall be directly exploited (by Government agency).
The superintendent of metals (lóhádhyakshah) shall carry on the manufacture of copper, lead, tin, vaikrintaka (mercury [?]), árakúta (brass), vritta(?); kamsa (bronze or bell-metal), tála (sulphurate of arsenic), and lodhra (?), and also of commodities (bhánda) from them.
The superintendent of mint (lakshnádhyakshah), shall carry on the manufacture of silver coins (rúpyarúpa) made up of four parts of copper and one-sixteenth part (másha) of any one of the metals, tikshna, trapu, sisa, and anjana. There shall be a pana, half a pana, a quarter and one-eighth.
Copper coins (támrarúpa) made up of four parts of an alloy (pádajívam), shall be a máshaka, half a máshaka, kákani and half a kákani.
The examiner of coins (rúpadarsaka) shall regulate currency both as a medium of exchange (vyávahárikim) and as legal tender admissible into the treasury (kosapravesyám): The premia levied on coins paid into the treasury shall be) 8 per cent, known as rúpika, 5 per cent known as vyáji, one-eighth pana per cent as páríkshika (testing charge), besides (cha) a fine of 25 pana to be imposed on offenders other than the manufacturer, the seller, the purchaser and the examiner.
The superintendent of ocean-mines (khanyadhyakshah) shall attend to the collection of conch-shells, diamonds, precious stones, pearls, corals, and salt (kshára) and also regulate the commerce in the above commodities.
Soon after crystalisation of salt is over, the superintendent of salt shall in time collect both the money-rent (prakraya) and the quantity of the shares of salt due to the government; and by the sale of salt (thus collected as shares) he shall realise not only its value (múlyam), but also the premium of five per cent (vyájím), both in cash (rúpa).
Imported salt (ágantulavanam) shall pay one-sixth portion (shadbhága) to the king. The sale of this portion (bhágavibhága) shall fetch the premia of five per cent (vyáji), of eight per cent (rúpika) in cash (rúpa). The purchasers shall pay not only the toll (sulka), but also the compensation (vaidharana) equivalent to the loss entailed on the king’s commerce. In default of the above payment, he shall be compelled to pay a fine of 600 panas.
Adulteration of salt shall be punished with the highest amercement; likewise persons other than hermits (vánaprastha) manufacturing salt without license.
Men learned in the Vedas, persons engaged in penance, as well as labourers may take with them salt for food; salt and alkalies for purposes other than this shall be subject to the payment of toll.
Thus; besides collecting from mines the ten kinds of revenue, such as (1) value of the out-put (múlya), (2) the share of the out-put (vibhága), (3) the premium of five per cent (vyáji), (4) the testing charge of coins (parigha), (5) fine previously announced (atyaya), (6) toll (sulka), (7) compensation for loss entailed on the king’s commerce (vaidharana), (8) fines to be determined in proportion to the gravity of crimes (danda), (9), coinage (rúpa), (10) the premium of eight per cent (rúpika), the government shall keep as a state monopoly both mining and commerce (in minerals).
Thus taxes (mukhasangraha) on all commodities intended for sale shall be prescribed once for all.
[Thus ends Chapter XII, “Conducting Mining Operations and Manufacture” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of thirty-third chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XIII. SUPERINTENDENT OF GOLD IN THE GOLDSMITH’S OFFICE.
IN order to manufacture gold and silver jewellry, each being kept apart, the superintendent of gold shall have a goldsmiths office (akshasála) consisting of four rooms and one door.
In the centre of the high road a trained, skilful goldsmith of high birth and of reliable character shall be appointed to hold his shop.
Jámbúnada, that which is the product of the river, Jambu; Sátakumbha, that which is extracted from the mountain of Satakumba; Hátaka, that which is extracted from the mines known as Hátaka; Vainava, that which is the product of the mountain, Vénu; and Sringasúktija, that which is extracted from sringasúkti (?) are the varieties of gold.
(Gold may be obtained) either pure or amalgamated with mercury or silver or alloyed with other impurities as mine gold (ákaródgata).
That which is of the colour of the petals of a lotus, ductile, glossy, incapable of making any continuous sound (anádi), and glittering is the best; that which is reddish yellow (raktapíta) is of middle quality; and that which is red is of low quality.
Impure gold is of whitish colour. It shall be fused with lead of four times the quantity of the impurity. When gold is rendered brittle owing to its contamination with lead, it shall be heated with dry cowdung (sushkapatala). When it splits into pieces owing to hardness, it shall be drenched (after heating) into oil mixed with cowdung (taila-gomaye).
Mine gold which is brittle owing to its contamination with lead shall be heated wound round with cloth (pákapatráni kritvá); and hammered on a wooden anvil. Or it may be drenched in the mixture made of mushroom and vajrakhanda (Antiquorum).
Tutthodgata, what which is extracted from the mountain, Tuttha; gaudika, that which is the product of the country known as Gauda; kámbuka, that which is extracted from the mountain, Kambu; and chákraválika, that which is extracted from the mountain Chakravála are the varieties of silver.
Silver which is white, glossy, and ductile is the best; and that which is of the reverse quality is bad.
Impure silver shall be heated with lead of one-fourth the quantity of the impurity.
That which becomes full of globules, white, glowing, and of the colour of curd is pure.
When the streak of pure gold (made on touch-stone) is of the colour of turmeric, it is termed suvarna. When from one to sixteen kákanis of gold in a suvarna (of sixteen máshakas) are replaced by from one to sixteen kákanis of copper, so that the copper is inseparably alloyed with the whole mass of the remaining quantity of the gold, the sixteen varieties (carats) of the standard of the purity of gold (shodasavarnakáh) will be obtained.
Having first made a streak with suvarna on a touchstone, then (by the side of the streak) a streak with a piece of the gold (to be compared with it) shall be made.
Whenever a uniform streak made on the even surface of a touch-stone can be wiped off or swept away or when the streak is due to the sprinkling of any glittering powder (gairika) by the nail on touch-stone, then an attempt for deception can be inferred.
If, with the edge of the palm dipped in a solution, of vermilion (játihinguláka) or of sulphate of iron (pushpakásísa) in cow’s urine, gold (suvarna) is touched, it becomes white.
A touch-stone with soft and shining splendour is the best. The touch-stone of the Kálinga country with the colour of green beans is also the best. A touch-stone of even or uniform colour is good in sale or purchase (of gold). That which possesses the colour of an elephant, tinged with green colour and capable of reflecting light (pratirági) is good in selling gold. That which is hard, durable, and of uneven colour and not reflecting light, is good for purchasers (krayahitah). That which is grey, greasy, of uniform colour, soft, and glossy is the best.
That (gold) which, when heated, keeps the same colour (tápo bahirantascha samah), is as glittering as tender sprouts, or of the colour of the flower of kárandaka (?) is the best.
That which is black or blue (in gold) is the impurity (apráptaka).
We shall deal with the balance and weights under the “Superintendent of Weights and Measures” (Chap. XIX, Book II). In accordance with the instructions given thereunder silver and gold (rúpyasuvarnam) may be given in exchange.
No person who is not an employee shall enter the gold-smiths’ office. Any person who so enters shall be beheaded (uchchhedyah).
Any workman who enters the office with gold or silver shall have to forfeit the same.
Goldsmiths who are engaged to prepare various kinds of ornaments such as kánchana (pure gold), prishita (hollow ornaments), tvashtri (setting gems in gold) and tapaníya; as well as blowers and sweepers shall enter into or exit from the office after their person and dress are thoroughly examined. All of their instruments together with their unfinished work shall be left where they have been at work. That amount of gold which they have received and the ornamental work which they were doing shall be put in the centre of the office. (Finished articles) shall be examined both morning and evening and be locked up with the seal of both the manufacturer and the superintendent (kárayatri, the owner getting the articles prepared).
Kshepana, guna, and kshudra ate three kinds of ornamental work.
Setting jewels (kácha, glass bead) in gold is termed kshepana.
Thread-making or string making is called guna.
Solid work (ghana), hollow work (sushira), and the manufacture of globules furnished with a rounded orifice is what is termed kshudra, low or ordinary work.
For setting jewels in gold, five parts of káñchana (pure gold) and ten parts of gold alloyed with four parts of copper or silver shall be the required quantity (mána). Here the pure gold shall be preserved from the impure gold.
For setting jewels in hollow ornaments (prishitakácha karmanah), three parts of gold to hold the jewel and four parts for the bottom (shall be the required quantity).
For the work of tvashtri, copper and gold shall be mixed in equal quantities.
For silver article either solid or hollow, silver may be mixed with half of the amount of gold; or by making use of the powder or solution of vermilion, gold equal to one-fourth the amount of silver of the ornament may be painted (vásayet) on it.
Pure and glittering gold is tapaníya. This combined with an equal quantity of lead and heated with rock-salt (saindhav’ika) to melting point under dry cowdung becomes the basis of gold alloys of blue, red, white, yellow (harita), parrot and pidgeon colours.
The colouring ingredient of gold is one kákaní of tíkshna which is of the colour of the neck of a peacock, tinged with white, and which is dazzling and full of copper (pitapúrnitam).
Pure or impure silver (tára) may be heated four times with asthituttha (copper sulphate mixed with powdered bone), again four times with an equal quantity of lead, again four times with dry copper sulphate (sushkatuttha) again three times in skull (kapála), and lastly twice in cowdung. Thus the silver acted upon seventeen times by tuttha (shodasatutthátikrántam) and lastly heated to white light with rock salt may be made to alloy with suvarna to the extent of from one kákani to two Máshas. Then the suvarna attains white colour and is called sveta-tára.
When three parts of tapaníya (pure gold) are melted with thirty-two parts of sveta-tára, the compound becomes reddish white (svetalohitakam). When three parts of tapaníya are combined with thirty-two parts of copper, the compound becomes yellow (píta, red!). Also when three parts of the colouring ingredient (rágatribhága, i.e., tíkshna referred to above) are heated with tapaníya, the compound becomes yellowish red (píta). When two parts of sveta-tára and one part of tapaníya are heated, the whole mass becomes as green as mudga (Phraseolus Mungo). When tapaníya is drenched in a solution of half the quantity of black iron (káláyasa), it becomes black.
When tapaníya is twice drenched in (the above) solution mixed with mercury (rasa), it acquires the colour of the feathers of a parrot.
Before these varieties of gold are put to use, their test streak shall be taken on touch-stone. The process of assaying tíkshna and copper shall be well understood. Hence the various counterweights (avaneyimána) used in weighing diamonds, rubies, pearls, corals, and coins, (rúpa), as well as the proportional amount of gold and silver necessary for various kinds of ornaments can be well understood.
Uniform in colour, equal in the colour of test streak to the standard gold, devoid of hollow bulbs, ductile (sthira), very smooth, free from alloys, pleasing when worn as an ornament, not dazzling though glittering, sweet in its uniformity of mass, and pleasing the mind and eyes,—these are the qualities of tapaníya, pure gold.
[Thus ends Chapter XIII, “The Superintendent of Gold in the Goldsmiths’ Office,” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of thirty-fourth chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XIV. THE DUTIES OF THE STATE GOLDSMITH IN THE HIGH ROAD.
THE State Goldsmith shall employ artisans to manufacture gold and silver coins (rúpyasuvarna) from the bullion of citizens and country people.
The artisans employed in the office shall do their work as ordered and in time. When under the excuse that time and nature of the work has not been prescribed, they spoil the work, they shall not only forfeit their wages, but also pay a fine of twice the amount of their wages. When they postpone work, they shall forfeit one-fourth the amount of their wages and pay a fine of twice the amount of the forfeited wages.
(The goldsmith of the mint) shall return (to the owners coins or ornaments) of the same weight, and of the same quality (varna) as that of the bullion (nikshepa) which they received (at the mint). With the exception of those (coins) which have been worn out or which have undergone diminution (kshínaparisírna), they shall receive the same coins (back into the mint) even after the lapse of a number of years.
The state goldsmith shall gather from the artisans employed in the mint information concerning pure gold, metallic mass (pudgala), coins (lakshana), and rate of exchange (prayóga).
In getting a suvarna coin (of 16 máshas) manufactured from gold or from silver, one kákani (one-fourth másha) weight of the metal more shall be given to the mint towards the loss in manufacture.
The colouring ingredient (rágaprakshépa) shall be two kákanis of tíkshna (copper sulphate ?) one-sixth of which will be lost during the manufacture.
When the quality (varna) of a coin less than the standard of a másha is lowered, the artisans (concerned) shall be punished with the first amercement. When its weight is less than the standard weight, they shall be punished with the middlemost amercement. Deception in balance or weights shall be punished with the highest amercement. Deception in the exchange of manufactured coins (kritabhándopadhau) shall also be punished with the highest amercement.
Whoever causes (gold or silver articles) to be manufactured in any place other than the mint or without being noticed by the state goldsmith shall be fined 12 panás, while the artisan who does that work shall, if found out, be punished with twice the above fine. If he is not found out, measures such as are described in Book IV shall be taken to detect him. When thus detected, he shall be fined 200 panás or shall have his fingers cut off.
Weighing balance and counterweights shall be purchased from the superintendent in charge of them. Otherwise a fine of 12 panás shall be imposed.
Compact work (ghana), compact and hollow work (ghanasushira), soldering (samyúhya), amalgamation (avalepya), enclosing (samghátya), and gilding (vásitakam) are the various kinds of artisan work (kárukasma).
False balances (tulávishama), removal (apasárana), dropping (visrávana), folding (petaka), and confounding (pinka) are the several means employed by goldsmiths to deceive the public.
False balance are—that of bending arms (sannámini); that of high helm or pivot (utkarnika); that of broken head (bhinnamastaka); that of hollow neck (upakanthi); that of bad strings (kusikya); that of bad cups or pans (sakatukakshya); that which is crooked or shaking (párivellya); and that which is combined with a magnet (ayaskánta).
When, by what is called Triputaka which consists of two parts of silver and one part of copper, an equal portion of pure alluvial gold is replaced, that deceitful act is termed copper-removal (triputaká- vasáritam); when, by copper, an equal portion of gold is replaced, that act is termed copper-removal (sulbávasáritam); when by vellakaan equal portion of gold is replaced, it is termed vellaka-removal; and when pure alluvial gold is replaced by that gold half of which is mixed with copper, it is termed gold removal (hemávasáritam).
A crucible with a base metallic piece hidden in it; metallic excrement; pincers; a pair of tongs; metallic pieces (jongani); and borax (sauvarchikálavanam),—these are the several things which are made use of by goldsmiths in stealing gold.
When, intentionally causing the crucible (containing the bullion) to burst, a few sandlike particles of the metal are picked up along with other particles of a base metal previously put therein, and the whole is wrought into a mass for the intended coin or ornament), this act is termed dropping (visravana); or when examining the folded or inlaid leaves of an ornament (áchitakapatrapariksháyám) deception is perpetrated by substituting silver for gold, or when particles of a base metal are substituted for those of gold, it is termed dropping (visrávana) likewise.
Folding (petaka) either firm (gádha) or loose (abhyuddhárya) is practiced in soldering, in preparing amalgams, and in enclosing (a piece of base metal with two pieces of a superior metal).
When a lead piece (sísarúpa–lead coin) is firmly covered over with gold leaf by means of wax (ashtaka), that act is termed gádhapetaka, firm folding; and when the same is loosely folded, it is termed loose folding.
In amalgams, a single or double layer (of a superior metal) is made to cover a piece (of base metal). Copper or silver may also be placed between two leaves (of a superior metal). A copper piece (sulbarúpya) may be covered over with gold leaf, the surface and the edges being smoothened; similarly a piece of any base metal may be covered over with double leaf of copper or silver, the surface and the edges being smoothened.
The two forms of folding may be detected by heating, by testing on touch-stone (nikasha) or by observing absence of sound when it is rubbed (nissabdollekhana).
(They) find out loose folding in the acid juice of badarámla (Flacourtia Cataphracta or jujube fruit) or in salt water;—so much for folding (petaka).
In a compact and hollow piece (ghana-sushire rúpe), small particles of gold-like mud (suvarnamrinválukáh) or bit of vermilion (hingulakalkah) are so heated as to make them firmly adhere to the piece inside. Even in a compact piece (dridhavástuke rúpe), the waxlike mud of Gándhára mixed with the particles of goldlike sand is so heated as to adhere to the piece. These two kinds of impurities are got rid of by hammering the pieces when red hot.
In an ornament or a coin (sapari-bhánde vá rúpe) salt mixed with hard sand (katusarkará) is so heated in flame as to make it firmly adhere to (the ornament or coin). This (salt and sand) can be got rid of by boiling (kváthana).
In some pieces, mica may be firmly fixed inside by wax and covered over with a double leaf (of gold or silver). When such a piece with mica or glass inside is suspended in water (udake) one of its sides dips more than the other; or when pierced by a pin, the pin goes very easily in the layers of mica in the interior (patalántareshu).
Spurious stones and counterfeit gold and silver may be substituted for real ones in compact and hollow pieces (ghanasushira). They are detected by hammering the pieces when red hot—so much for confounding (pinka).
Hence (the state goldsmith) shall have a thorough knowledge of the species, characteristics, colour, weight, and formation (pudgala-lakshana) of diamonds, precious stones (mani), pearls, corals and coins (rúpa).
There are four ways of deception perpetrated when examining new pieces or repairing old ones: they are hammering, cutting, scratching and rubbing.
When, under the excuse of detecting the deception known as folding (petaka) in hollow pieces or in threads or in cups (made of gold or silver), the articles in question are hammered, that act is termed hammering.
When a lead piece (covered over with gold or silver leaf) is substituted for a real one and its interior is cut off, it is termed cutting (avachchhedanam).
When compact pieces are scratched by tíkshna (copper sulphate ?), that act is termed scratching (ullekhana).
When, by a piece of cloth painted with the powder of sulphuret of arsenic (haritála), red arsenic (manassila), or vermilion or with the powder of kuruvinda (black salt ?), gold or silver articles are rubbed, that act is termed rubbing.
By these acts, gold and silver articles (bhándáni) undergo diminution; but no other kind of injury is done to them.
In all those pieces which are hammered, cut, scratched, or rubbed the loss can be inferred by comparing them with intact pieces of similar description. In amalgamated pieces (avalepya) which are cut off, the loss can be ascertained by cutting off an equal portion of a similar piece. Those pieces the appearance of which has changed shall be often heated and drenched in water.
(The state goldsmith) shall infer deception (kácham vidyát) when [the artisan preparing articles pays undue attention to] throwing away, counter-weight, fire, anvil (gandika), working instruments (bhandika), the seat (adhikarani), the assaying balance, folds of dress (chellachollakam), his head, his thigh, flies, eagerness to look at his own body, the water-pot, and the firepot.
Regarding silver, bad smell like that of rotten meat, hardness due to any alloy (mala), projection (prastína), and bad colour may be considered as indicating adulteration.
Thus articles (of gold and silver) new or old, or of bad or unusual colour are to be examined and adequate fines as described above shall be imposed.
[Thus ends Chapter XIV, “The Duties of the State Goldsmith in the High Road” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of thirty-fifth chapter from the beginning.]
CHAPTER XV. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF STOREHOUSE.
THE superintendent of storehouse (Koshthágára) shall supervise the accounts of agricultural produce (síta); taxes coming under Ráshtra, country-parts; commerce (krayima); barter (parivartna); begging for grains (prámityaka); grains borrowed with promise to repay (ápamityaka); manufacture of rice, oils, etc. (simhanika); accidental revenue (anyajáta); statements to check expenditure (vyayapratyaya); and recovery of past arrears (upasthánam).
Whatever in the shape of agricultural produce is brought in by the superintendent of agriculture, (of crown-lands) is termed sítá.
The taxes that are fixed (pindakara), taxes that are paid in the form of one-sixth of produce (shadbhága), provision paid (by the people) for the army (senábhakta), taxes that are levied for religious purposes (bali), taxes or subsidies that are paid by vassal kings and others (kara), taxes that are specially collected on the occasion of the birth of a prince (utsanga), taxes that are collected when there is some margin left for such collection (pársva), compensation levied in the shape of grains for any damage done by cattle to crops (párihínaka), presentation made to the king, (aupáyanika), and taxes that are levied on lands below tanks, lakes, etc., built by the king (Kaushtheyaka),–all these come under the head ‘Ráshtra.’
Sale proceeds of grains, grains purchased and the collection of interest in kind or grain debts (prayogapratyádána) are termed commerce.
Profitable exchange of grains for grains is termed barter (parivarthana).
Grains collected by begging is termed prámityaka.
Grains borrowed with promise to repay the same is termed ápamityaka.
Pounding (rice, etc.), dividing (pulses, etc.), frying (corns and beans), manufacture of beverages (suktakarma), manufacture of flour by employing those persons who live upon such works, extracting oil by employing shepherds and oil-makers, and manufacture of sugar from the juice of sugar-cane are termed simhanika.
Whatever is lost and forgotten (by others) and the like form accidental revenue (anyajáta).
Investment, the relic of a wrecked undertaking, and savings from an estimated outlay are the means to check expenditure (vyayapratyaya).
That amount or quantity of compensation which is claimed for making use of a different balance or for any error in taking a handful is termed vyáji.
Collection of arrears is termed ‘upasthána,’ ‘recovery of past arrears.’
Of grains, oils, sugar, and salt, all that concerns grains will be treated of in connection with the duties of the ‘Superintendent of Agriculture.’
Clarified butter, oil, serum of flesh, and pith or sap (of plants, etc.)., are termed oils (sneha).
Decoction (phánita), jaggory, granulated sugar, and sugar-candy are termed kshára.
Saindhava, that which is the product of the country of Sindhu; Sámudra, that which is produced from seawater; Bida; Yavakshara, nitre, Sauvarchala, that which is the product of the country of suvarchala; and udbhedaja, that which is extracted from saline soil are termed lavana, salt.
The honey of the bee as well as the juice extracted from grapes are called madhu.
Mixture made by combining any one of the substances, such as the juice of sugar-cane, jaggory, honey,. the, juice of grapes, the essence of the fruits of jambu (Euginia Jambolana) and of jaka tree—with the essence of meshasringa (a kind of plant) and long pepper, with or without the addition of the essence of chirbhita (a kind of gourd), cucumber, sugar-cane, mango-fruit and the fruit of myrobalam, the mixture being prepared so as to last for a month, or six months, or a year, constitute the group of astringents (sukta-varga).
The fruits of those trees which bear acid fruits, those of karamarda (Carissa Carandas), those of vidalámalka (myrobalam), those of matulanga (citron tree), those of kola (small jujuba), those of badara (Flacourtia Cataphracta), those of sauvíra (big jujuba), and those of parushaka (Grewia Asiatica) and the like come under the group of acid fruits.
Curds, acid prepared from grains and the like are acids in liquid form.
Long pepper, black pepper, ginger, cumin seed, kiratatikta (Agathotes Chirayta), white mustard, coriander, choraka (a plant), damanaka (Artemisia Indica), maruvaka (Vangueria Spinosa), sigru (Hyperanthera Moringa), and the like together with their roots (kánda) come under the group of pungent substances (tiktavarga).
Dried fish, bulbous roots (kándamúla), fruits and vegetables form the group of edibles (sakavarga).
Of the store, thus, collected, half shall be kept in reserve to ward off the calamities of the people and only the other half shall be used. Old collection shall be replaced by new supply.
The superintendent shall also personally supervise the increase or diminution sustained in grains when they are pounded (kshunna), or frayed (ghrishta), or reduced to flour (pishta), or fried (bhrashta), or dried after soaking in water.
The essential part (sára, i.e., that which is fit for food) of kodrava (Paspalam Scrobiculatum) and of vrihi (rice) is one-half; that of sáli (a kind of rice) is (half) less by one-eighth part; that of varaka (Phraseolus Trilobus) is (half) less by one-third part; that of priyangu (panic seed or millet) is one-half ; that of chamasi (barley), of mudga (Phraseolus Mungo) and of masha (Phraseolus Radiatus) is (half) less by one-eighth part; that of saibya (simbi) is one-half; that of masúra (Ervum Hirsutum) is (half) less by one-third part (than the raw material or grains from which it is prepared).
Raw flour and kulmasha (boiled and forced rice) will be as much as one and a half of the original quantity of the grains.
Barley gruel as well as its flour baked will be twice the original quantity.
Kodrava (Paspalam Scrobiculatum), varaka (Phraseolus Trilobus), udáraka (Panicum), and priyangu (millet) will increase three times the original quantity when cooked. Vríhi (rice) will increase four times when cooked. Sáli (a kind of rice) will increase five times when cooked.
Grains will increase twice the original quantity when moistened; and two and a half times when soaked to sprouting condition.
Grains fried will increase by one-fifth the original quantity; leguminous seeds (kaláya), when fried, will increase twice the original; likewise rice when fried.
Oil extracted from atasi (linseed) will be one-sixth (of the quantity of the seed); that extracted from the seeds, nimba (Azadirachta Indica), kusámra (?), and Kapittha (Feronia Elephantum) will be one-fifth; and that extracted from tila (seasumum), kusumba (a sort of kidney bean), madhúka (Bassia Latifolia), and ingudi (Terminalia Catappa) will be one-fourth.
Five palas of kárpása (cotton) and of kshauma (flax) will yield one pala of threads.
Rice prepared in such a way that five dróna of sáli yield ten ádhakas of rice will be fit to be the food of young elephants; eleven ádhakas from five drónas for elephants of bad temper (vyála); ten ádhakas from the same quantity for elephants trained for riding; nine ádhakas from the same quantity for elephants used in war; eight ádhakas from the same for infantry; eleven ádhakas from the same for chiefs of the army; six ádhakas from the same for queens and princes and five ádhakas from the same quantity for kings.
One prastha of rice, pure and unsplit, one-fourth prastha of súpa, and clarified butter or oil equal to one-fourth part of (súpa) will suffice to form one meal of an Arya.
One-sixth prastha of súpa for a man; and half the above quantity of oil will form one meal for low castes (avara).
The same rations less by one-fourth the above quantities will form one meal for a woman; and half the above rations for children.
For dressing twenty palas of flesh, half a kutumba of oil, one pala of salt, one pala of sugar (kshára), two dharanas of pungent substances (katuka, spices), and half a prastha of curd (will be necessary).
For dressing greater quantities of flesh, the same ingredients can be proportionally increased.
For cooking sákas (dried fish and vegetables), the above substances are to be added one and a half times as much.
For dressing dried fish, the above ingredients are to be added twice as much.
Measures of rations for elephants and horses will be described in connection with the “Duties of Their Respective Superintendents.”
For bullocks, one drona of masha (Phraseolus Radiatus) or one drona of barley cooked with other things, as prescribed for horses, is the requisite quantity of food, besides the special and additional provision of one tula of oilcakes (ghánapinyaka) or ten ádhakas of bran (kanakuttana-kundaka).
Twice the above quantity for buffaloes and camels.
Half a drona for asses, red spotted deer and deer with white stripes.
One ádhaka for an antelope and big red deer.
Half an ádhaka or one ádhaka of grain together with bran for a goat, a ram and a boar.
One prastha of cooked rice for dogs.
Half a prastha for a hamsa (goose), a krauncha (heron) and a peacock.
From the above, the quantity of rations enough for one meal for other beasts, cattle, birds, and rogue elephants (vyála) may be inferred.
Charcoal and chaff may be given over for iron smelting and lime-kiln (bhittilepya).
Bran and flour (kánika) may be given to slaves, labourers, and cooks. The surplus of the above may be given to those who prepare cooked rice, and rice-cakes.
The weighing balance, weights, measures, mill-stone (rochani), pestle, mortar, wooden contrivances for pounding rice, etc., (kuttakayantra), contrivances for splitting seeds into pieces (rochakayantra), winnowing fans, sieves (chálani) grain-baskets (kandoli), boxes, and brooms are the necessary instruments.
Sweepers; preservers; those who weigh things (dharaka); those who measure grains, etc.; those who supervise the work of measuring grains (mápaka); those who supervise the supply of commodities to the store-house (dápaka); those who supply commodities (dáyaka); those who are employed to receive compensation for any real or supposed error in measuring grains, etc. (sálákáipratigráhaka); slaves; and labourers;—all these are called vishti.
Grains are heaped up on the floor; jaggory (kshára) is bound round in grass-rope (múta); oils are kept in earthenware or wooden vessels; and salt is heaped up on the surface of the ground.
[Thus ends Chapter XV, “The Superintendent of Storehouse,” in Book II, “The Duties of Government Superintendents” of the Arthasástra of Kautilya. End of the thirty-sixth chapter from the beginning.]