Praśna 2. Paṭala 7. Khaṇḍa 17.
khaḍga upastaraṇe khaḍga māṃsena-ānantyaṃ kālam || 1 ||
1. [If] rhinoceros’ meat [is fed to Brāhmaṇas seated] on [seats covered with] the skin of a rhinoceros, [the Manes are satisfied] for a very long time. (Manu 3:272; Yajñ. 1;259).
tathā śatabaler matsyasya māṃsena || 2 ||
2. [The same effect is obtained] by [offering the] flesh [of the fish called] śatabali,
See Manu 5:16 where Rohita is explained by śatabali.
vārdhrāṇasasya ca || 3 ||
3. And by [offering the] meat of the [crane called] Vārdhrāṇasa. prayataḥ prasanna manāḥ sṛṣṭo bhojayed brāhmaṇān brahmavido yoni
gotra mantra antevāsī asaṃbandhān || 4 ||
4. Pure, with composed mind and full of ardour, he shall feed Brāhmaṇas who know the Vedas, and who are not connected with him by marriage, blood relationship, by the relationship of yajamāna-purohita, or by the relationship of [teacher and] student. (Manu 3:128-138, and 149, 188; Yajñ 1;225).
guṇa hānyāṃ tu pareṣāṃ samudetaḥ sodaryo- ‘api bhojayitavyaḥ || 5 ||
5. If strangers are deficient in the [requisite] good qualities, even a full brother who possesses them, may be fed [at a śrāddha].
etena-antevāsino vyākhyātāḥ || 6 ||
6. [The admissibility of] students [and the rest] has been declared already [in 4].
atha-apy udāharanti —
saṃbhojanī nāma piśāca bhikṣā na-eṣā pitṛṛn gacchati na-uta devān || 7 ||
7. Now they quote also [in regard to this matter the following verse]:—
The food eaten [at a sacrifice] by persons related to the giver is, indeed, a gift offered to the ghosts. It reaches neither the Manes nor the gods.
iha-eva sā carati kṣīṇa puṇyā śālā antare gaur iva naṣṭa vatsā || 8 ||
8. Losing its power [to procure heaven] it wanders about in this world as a cow that has lost its calf runs into a strange stable.
See Manu 3:141, where this Tṛṣṭubh has been turned into an anuṣṭubh.
iha-eva saṃbhuñjatī dakṣiṇā kulāt kulaṃ vinaśyati-iti || 9 ||
9. The meaning [of the verse] is, that gifts which are eaten [and offered] mutually by relations, [and thus go] from one house to the other, perish in this world.
Charity which is given between families is simply a social transaction and does not give the rewards of charity done to the needy strangers.
tulya guṇeṣu vayo vṛddhaḥ śreyān dravya kṛśaś ca-īpsan || 10 ||
10. If the good qualities [of several persons who might be invited] are equal, old men and [amongst these] poor ones, who wish to come, have the preference.
pūrvedyur nivedanam || 11 ||
11. On the day before [the ceremony] the [first] invitation [must be issued]. (Manu 3:187; Yajñ. 1:225.)
According to Haradatta the formula of invitation is, śvah śrāddham bhavitā, tatrāhavanīyārthe bhavadbhiḥ prasādaḥ kartavya iti, ‘tomorrow a śrāddha will take place. Do me the favour to take the place of the Ahavanīya-fire at that.’
apare dyur dvitīyam || 12 ||
12. On the following day the second invitation takes place. The formula is, Adya śrāddham, ‘to-day the śrāddha takes place.’
tṛtīyam āmantraṇam || 13 ||
13. [On the same day also takes place] the third invitation [which consists in the call to dinner].
The call to dinner is, siddham āgamyatām, ‘the food is ready; please come.’
triḥ prāyam eke śrāddham upadiśanti || 14 ||
14. Some declare, that every act at a funeral sacrifice must be repeated three times.
yathā prathamam evaṃ dvitīyaṃ tṛtīyaṃ ca || 15 ||
15. As [the acts are performed] the first time, so they must be repeated] the second and the third times.
sarveṣu vṛtteṣu sarvataḥ samavadāya śeṣasya grāsa avarārdhyaṃ prāśnīyād yathā uktam || 16 ||
16. When all [the three oblations] have been offered, he shall take a portion of the food of all [three], and shall eat a small mouthful of the remainder in the manner described [in the Gṛhya-sūtra].
Apastamba Gṛhya-sūtra 8:21,9. He shall eat it pronouncing the Mantra, “Prāṇe niviṣṭo’mṛtam juhomi.” Taitt. Ar. 10:34:1
udīcya vṛttis tv āsana gatānāṃ hasteṣu-udapātra ānayanam || 17 ||
17. But the custom of the Northerners is to pour into the hands of the Brāhmaṇas, when they are seated on their seats, [water which has been taken from the water-vessel.)
The North of India begins to the north of the river Sarāvalī. The rule alluded to is given in Yajñ 1:226, 229; Manu 3;210.
uddhriyatām agnau ca kriyatām ity āmantrayate || 18 ||
18. [At the time of the burnt-offering which is offered at the beginning of the dinner] he addresses the Brāhmaṇas with this Mantra:—”Let it be taken out, and let it be offered in the fire.” (Yajñ. 1:235.)
kāmam uddhriyatāṃ kāmam agnau kriyatām ity attisṛṣṭa uddharet- juhuyāt-ca || 19 ||
19. [They shall give their permission with this Mantra]:—”Let it be taken out at thy pleasure, let it be offered in the fire at thy pleasure.” Having received this permission, he shall take out [some of the prepared food] and offer it.
śvabhir apapātraiś ca śrāddhasya darśanaṃ [paricakṣate || 20 ||
20. They blame it, if dogs and Apapātras are allowed to see the performance of a śraddha. (Manu 3:239).
śvitraḥ śipi viṣṭaḥ para talpa gāmy āyudhīya putraḥ śūdra utpanno brāhmaṇyām ity ete śrāddhe bhuñjānāḥ paṅkti dūṣaṇā bhavanti || 21 ||
21. The following persons defile the company if they are invited to a śraddha, viz. a leper, a bald-man, an adulteror, the son of a Brāhmaṇa who follows the profession of a Kṣatriya, and the son of [a Brāhmaṇa who by marrying first a śūdra wife had himself become] a śūdra, born from a Brāhmaṇa woman.
Manu 3:152 – 166, and particularly 153 and 154; Yajñ. 1. 222 – 224.
Haradatta’s explanation of the word “śūdra” by a Brāhmaṇa who has become a śūdra’ is probably right, because the son of a real śūdra and of a Brāhmaṇa male a Caṇḍāla, and has been disposed of by the preceding sūtra.
trimadhus trisuparṇas triṇāciketaś caturmedhaḥ pañcāgnir jyeṣṭha sāmago veda adhyāyy anūcānaputraḥ śrotriya ity ete śrāddhe bhuñjānāḥ paṅkti pāvanā bhavanti || 22 ||
22. The following persons sanctify the company if they eat at a śraddha, viz. one who has studied the three verses of the Veda containing the word “Madhu,” each three times; one who has studied the part of the Veda containing the word “Suparna “ three times; a Tri-naciketa; one who has studied the Mantras required. for the four sacrifices [called Aśva-medha, Puruṣa-medha, Sarva-medha. and Pitri-medha]; one who keeps five fires; one who knows the Sāmān called jyeṣṭa; one who fulfils the duty of daily study; the son of one who has studied and is able to teach the whole Veda with its Aṅgas, and a śrotriya.
Compare Manu-3:185, 186;.Yajñ.1:219-221.
The three verses to be known by a Trimadhu are, Madhu vata ritayate, etc., which occur both in the Taitt. Samh; and in the Taitt. Ar. The explanation of Trisuparna is not certain. Haradatta thinks that it may mean either a person who knows the three verses catuṣ-kapardā yuvatiḥ supeśā, etc., Taittiriya Brāhmaṇa 1:2:1:27 etc., or one who knows the three Anuvākas from the Taittiriya Araṇyaka 10:48 – 50, beginning, Brahmam-etu mam, etc. The word “Tri-naciketa” has three explanations:—- . A person who knows the Naciketa-fire according to the Taittiriya Kaṭhavalli, and the Satapatha, ie. has studied the portions on the Naciketa-fire in these three books. b. A person who has thrice kindled the Naciketa-fire. c. A person who has studied the Anuvākas called Virajas. “Catur- medha may” also mean he who has performed the four sacrifices:’ enumerated above.
na ca naktaṃ śrāddhaṃ kurvīta || 23 ||
23. He shall not perform [any part of] a śraddha at night. (Manu 3:280).
ārabdhe ca-abhojanam ā samāpanāt || 24 ||
24. After having begun [a śraddha], he shall not eat until he has finished it. The śrāddha is stated to begin with the first invitation to the Brahmans. -Haradatta.
anyatra rāhu darśanāt || 25 ||
25. He shall not perform a śraddha at night], except if an eclipse of the moon takes place.
“The Northerners do not generally receive this Sūtra, and therefore former commentators have not explained it.’ — Haradatta.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 8. Khaṇḍa 18.
vilayanaṃ mathitaṃ piṇyākaṃ madhu māṃsaṃ ca varjayet || 1 ||
1. He shall avoid butter, buttermilk, oil-cake, honey, meat.
Sūtras 1 – 4 contain rules for a vow to be kept for the special objects mentioned in Sūtras 3 and 4 for one year only.
Haradatta [on Sūtra 4] says that another commentator thinks that Sūtras 1 – 3 prescribe one vow and Sūtra 4 another, and:—that the latter applies both to householders and students. A passage from Baudhāyana is quoted in support for this later view.
kṛṣṇa dhānyaṃ śūdrānnaṃ ye ca-anyena aśya saṃmatāḥ || 2 ||
2. And black grain [such as kuluttha], food given by śūdras, or by other persons, whose food is not considered fit to be eaten.
ahaviṣyam anṛtaṃ krodhaṃ yena ca krodhayet | smṛtim icchan yaśo medhāṃ svargaṃ puṣṭiṃ dvādaśa-etāni varjayet || 3 ||
3. And food unfit for oblations, speaking an untruth, anger, and [acts or words] by which he might excite anger. He who desires a [good] memory, fame, wisdom, heavenly bliss, and prosperity, shall avoid these twelve [things and acts];
adho nābhi-upari jānu-ācchādya tri ṣavaṇam udakam upaspṛśann anagni pakva vṛttir acchāyā upagaḥ1 sthāna āsanikaḥ saṃvatsaram etad vrataṃ caret | etad aṣṭācatvāriṃśat saṃmitam ity ācakṣate || 4 ||
4. Wearing a dress that reaches from the navel to the knees, bathing morning, noon, and evening, living on food that has not been cooked at a fire, never seeking the shade, standing [during the day] and sitting [during the night], he shall keep this vow for one year. They declare that [its merit] is equal to that of a studentship continued for forty-eight years.
nityaśrāddham || 5 ||
5. [Now follows] the daily śraddha. (Manu 3:82 seq.)
bahir grāmāt-śucayaḥ śucau deśe saṃskurvanti || 6 ||
6. Outside the village pure [cooks] prepare [the food for that rite] in a pure place.
The term ‘‘pure [men]’’ is used in order to indicate that they must be so particularly, because by 2:2:3:1 purity has already been prescribed for cooks.
tatra navāni dravyāṇi || 7 ||
7. New vessels are to be used.
For the unusual meaning of dravya, ‘vessel,’ compare the term sita-dravyāṇi meaning implements of husbandry. (Manu 9:293)
yair annaṃ saṃskriyate yeṣu ca bhujyate || 8 ||
8. In which the food is prepared, and out of which it is eaten.
tāni ca bhuktavadbhyo dadyāt || 9 ||
9. And those [vessels] he shall present [as gifts] to the [Brāhmaṇas] who have been fed.
samudetāṃś ca bhojayet || 10 ||
10. And he shall feed [Brāhmaṇas] possessed of all [good qualities].
na ca-atad guṇāya-ucchiṣṭaṃ prayacchet || 11 ||
11. And he shall not give the residue [of that śraddha dinner] to one who is inferior to them in good qualities.
evaṃ saṃvatsaram || 12 ||
12. Thus [he shall act every day] during a year.
teṣām uttamaṃ lohena-ajena kāryam || 13 ||
13. [The last of these śraddha] he shall perform, sacrificing a red goat. (Yajñ. 1:259, and Manu 3:272)
The red goat is mentioned as particularly fit for a Sraddha.
mānaṃ ca kārayet praticchannam || 14 ||
14. And let him cause an altar to be built, concealed [by a covering and outside the village].
tasya-uttara ardhe brāhmaṇān bhojayet || 15 ||
15. Let him feed the Brāhmaṇas on the northern half of that.
ubhayān paśyati brāhmaṇāṃś ca bhuñjānān māne ca pitṛṛn ity upadiśanti || 16 ||
16. They declare, that [then] he sees both the Brāhmaṇas who eat and the Manes sitting on the altar.
kṛta akṛtam ata ūrdhvam || 17 ||
17. After that he may offer [a śraddha once a month] or stop altogether.
śrāddhena hi tṛptiṃ vedayante pitaraḥ || 18 ||
18. For [by appearing on the altar] the Manes signify that they are satisfied by the śraddha.
tiṣyeṇa puṣṭi kāmaḥ || 19 ||
19. Under the constellation Tiśya he who desires prosperity,
Praśna 2. Paṭala 8. Khaṇḍa 19.
gaura sarṣapāṇāṃ cūrṇāni kārayitvā taiḥ pāṇi pādaṃ prakṣālya mukhaṃ karṇa prāśya ca yad vāto na-ativāti tad āsano- ‘ajinaṃ bastasya prathamaḥ kalpo vāg yato dakṣiṇā mukho bhuñjīta || 1 ||
1. He shall have white mustard seeds ground, his hands, feet, ears, and mouth are to be rubbed with that, and he shall eat [the remainder]. If the wind does not blow too violently, he shall eat sitting silent and facing the south, on a seat — the first alternative is the skin of a he-goat.
The ceremony which is here described, may also be performed daily. lf the reading prāsya is adopted, the translation must run thus:— – and he shall scatter [the remainder of the powder]. If the wind,’ etc.
anāyuṣyaṃ tv evaṃ mukhasya bhojanaṃ mātur ity upadiśanti || 2 ||
2. But they declare, that the life of the mother of that person who eats at this ceremony, facing in that direction, will be shortened.
Therefore those whose mothers are alive should not perform this ceremony.’ — Haradatta.
audumbaraś camasaḥ suvarṇa nābhaḥ praśāstaḥ || 3 ||
3. A vessel of brass, the centre of which is gilt, is best [for this occasion]. Nowadays this is usually a silver plate with a gold drop in the center.
na ca-anyena-api bhoktavyaḥ || 4 ||
4. And nobody else shall eat out of that vessel.
If the masculine bhoktavyaḥ is used instead of bhoktavyam, the participle must be construed with camasaḥ.
yāvad grāsaṃ saṃnayan || 5 ||
5. He shall make a lump of as much [food] as he can swallow [at once].
The verbum finitum, which according to the Sanskrit text ought to be taken with the participle samnayan, is grasīta, Sūtra 9.
askandayan || 6 ||
6. [And he shall] not scatter anything [on the ground].
na-apajahīta || 7 ||
7. He shall not let go the vessel [with his left hand];
apajahīta vā || 8 ||
8. Or he may let it go.
‘Why is this second alternative mentioned, as [the first Sūtra] suffices? True. But according to the maxim that “restrictions are made on account of the continuance of an action once begun,” the meaning of the second Sūtra is that he shall continue to the end to:—handle the vessel [in that manner in which] he has handled it when eating for the first time.’ — Haradatta.
kṛtsnaṃ grāsaṃ grasīta saha-aṅguṣṭham || 9 ||
9. He shall swallow the whole mouthful at once, introducing it, together with the thumb, [into the mouth.)
na ca mukha śabdaṃ kuryāt || 10 ||
10. He shall make no noise with his mouth [whilst eating].
pāṇiṃ ca na-avadhūnuyāt || 11 ||
11. And he shall not shake his right hand [whilst eating].
ācamya ca-ūrdhvau pāṇī dhārayed ā prodakī bhāvāt || 12 ||
12. After he [has eaten and] sipped water, he shall raise his hands, until the water has run off [and they have become dry].
tato- ‘agnim upaspṛśet || 13 ||
13. After that he shall touch fire.
divā ca na bhuñjīta-anyat-mūla phalebhyaḥ || 14 ||
14. And [during this ceremony] he shall not eat in the day-time anything but roots and fruit.
sthālīpāka anudeśyāni ca varjayet || 15 ||
15. And let him avoid Sthāli-pāka offerings, and food offered to the Manes or to the Gods.
sa uttarācchādanaś ca-eva yajñopavītī bhuñjīta || 16 ||
16. He shall eat wearing his upper garment over his left shoulder and under his right arm.
Haradatta remarks that some allow, according to 2:2,4.22. the sacred thread to be substituted, and others think that both the thread and the garment should be worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm.
naiyyamikaṃ tu śrāddhaṃ snehavad eva dadyāt || 17 ||
17. At the [monthly] śrāddha which must necessarily be performed, he must use [food] mixed with fat.
sarpir māṃsam iti prathamaḥ kalpaḥ || 18 ||
18. The first [and preferable] alternative [is to employ] clarified butter and meat.
abhāve tailaṃ śākam iti || 19 ||
19. On failure [of these], oil of sesame, vegetables and [similar materials may be used].
maghāsu ca-adhikaṃ śrāddha kalpena sarpir brāhmaṇān bhojayet || 20 ||
20. And under the asterism Magha he shall feed the Brāhmaṇas more [than at other times] with [food mixed with] clarified butter, according to the rule of the śrāddha.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 8. Khaṇḍa 20.
māsi śrāddhe tilānāṃ droṇaṃ droṇaṃ yena-upāyena śaknuyāt tena- upayojayet || 1 ||
1. At every monthly śrāddha he shall use, in whatever manner he may be able, one drona of sesame.
A drona equals 128 seers or seras. The latter is variously reckoned at about 1kg.
samudetāṃś ca bhojayen na ca-atadguṇāya-ucchiṣṭam dadyuḥ || 2 ||
2. And he shall feed Brāhmaṇas endowed with all [good qualities], and they shall not give the remnants [of the food] to a person who does not possess the same good qualities [as the Brāhmaṇas].
udagayana āpūryamāṇa pakṣasya-ekarātram avarārdhyam upoṣya tiṣyeṇa puṣṭi kāmaḥ sthālīpākaṃ śrapayitvā mahārājam iṣṭvā tena sarpiṣmatā brāhmaṇaṃ bhojayitvā puṣṭy arthena siddhiṃ vācayīta || 3 ||
3. He who desires prosperity shall fast in the half of the year when the sun goes to the north. Under the constellation Tiśya, in the first half of the month, for [a day and] a night at least, prepare a Sthālipāka-offering, offer burnt-oblations to Kubera [the god of riches], feed a Brāhmaṇa with that [food prepared for the Sthālipāka] mixed with clarified butter, and make him wish prosperity with [a Mantra implying prosperity.
The reason that the constellation Tiśya has been chosen for this rite seems to be that Tiśya has another name, Puśya ie. prosperous’, This sacrifice is to begin on the Tiśya-day of the month called Taiśa or Pauṣa [December-January], and to continue for one year.
evam ahar ahar ā parasmāt tiṣyāt || 4 ||
4. This [rite he shall repeat] daily until the next Tiśya[-day].
dvau dvitīye || 5 ||
5. On the second [Tiśya-day and during the second month he shall feed] two [Brāhmaṇas].
trīṃs tṛtīye || 6 ||
6. On the third [Tiśya-day and during the third month he shall feed] three [Brāhmaṇas].
evaṃ saṃvatsaram abhyuccayena || 7 ||
7. In this manner [the Tiśya-rite is to be performed] for a year, with a [monthly] increase [of the number of Brāhmaṇas fed].
mahāntaṃ poṣaṃ puṣyati || 8 ||
8. [Thus] he obtains great prosperity.
ādita eva-upavāsaḥ || 9 ||
9. But the fasting takes place on the first [Tiśya-day] only.
ātta tejasāṃ bhojanaṃ varjayet || 10 ||
10. One shall avoid to eat those things which have lost their strength. Often processing of food causes it to lose some of it’s nutritional value.
bhasma tuṣā adhiṣṭhānam || 11 ||
11. One shall avoid to tread on ashes or husks of grain. (Manu 4:78.)
padā pādasya prakṣālanam adhiṣṭhānaṃ ca varjayet || 12 ||
12. To wash one foot with the other, or to place one foot on the other,
preṅkholanaṃ ca pādayoḥ || 13 ||
13. And to swing one’s feet,
jānuni ca-atyādhānaṃ jaṅghāyāḥ || 14 ||
14. And to place one leg crosswise over the knee [of the other],
nakhaiś ca nakha vādanam || 15 ||
15. And to pare the nails [in front of others]
sphoṭanāni ca-akāraṇāt || 16 ||
16. Or to make [finger joints] crack without a [good] reason,
Good reasons for cracking the joints are fatigue or rheumatism.’ — Haradatta.
yac ca-anyat paricakṣate || 17 ||
17. And all other [acts] which they blame. All other acts which are socially unacceptable.
yā-uktā ca dharma yukteṣu dravya parigraheṣu ca || 18 ||
18. And let him acquire money in all ways that are lawful.
pratipādayitā ca tīrthe || 19 ||
19. And let him spend money on worthy [persons or objects]. (Manu 11:6, and passim).
yantā ca-atīrthe yato na bhayaṃ syāt || 20 ||
20. And let him not give anything to an unworthy [person], whom he does not fear.
saṃgrahītā ca manuṣyān || 21 ||
21. And let him conciliate people [by gifts or kindness].
bhoktā ca dharma avipratiṣiddhān bhogān || 22 ||
22. And he may enjoy the pleasures which are not forbidden by the holy law.
evam ubhau lokāv abhijayati || 23 ||
23. [Acting] thus he conquers both worlds.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 21.
catvāra āśramā gārhasthyam ācārya kulaṃ maunaṃ vānaprasthyam iti ||
1. There are four orders, viz. the order of householders, the order of students, the order of ascetics, and the order of hermits in the woods. (Manu 6:87.)
Though four [orders] are enumerated, he uses the word “four,” lest, in the absence of a distinct rule of the venerable teacher, one order only, that of the householder, should be allowed, as has been taught in other Smṛtis. — Haradatta.
teṣu sarveṣu yathā upadeśam avyagro vartamānaḥ kṣemaṃ gacchati || 2 ||
If he lives in all these four according to the rules [of the law] without allowing himself to be disturbed [by anything], he will obtain Liberation. (Manu 6:88.)
sarveṣām upanayana prabhṛti samāna ācāryakule vāsaḥ || 3 ||
3. The duty to live in the teacher’s house after the initiation is common to all of them. (Manu 2:247 – 249, and above.)
sarveṣām anūtsargo vidyāyāḥ || 4 ||
4. Not to give up sacred learning [is a duty common] to all.
buddhvā karmāṇi yat kāmayeta tad ārabheta || 5 ||
5. Having learnt the rites [that are to be performed in each order], one may perform what one wishes.
yathā vidyā arthasya niyama etena-eva-antam anūpasīdata ācārya kule śarīra nyāso brahmacāriṇaḥ || 6 ||
6. Practicing until death [and living] according to the rule of a [temporary] student, a [professed] student may leave his body in the house of his teacher.
atha parivrājaḥ || 7 ||
7. Now [follow the rules] regarding the ascetic [Samnyāsin].
ata eva brahmacaryavān pravrajati || 8 ||
8. Only after [having fulfilled] the duties of that [order of students] he shall go forth [as an ascetic], remaining chaste.
The meaning of the Sūtra is, that the studentship is a necessary preliminary for the Samnyāsin. If a man considers himself sufficiently purified by his life in that order, he may become a Samnyāsin immediately after its completion. Otherwise he may first become a householder, or a hermit, and enter the last order, when his passions are entirely extinct. (See also Manu 6:36; Yajñ. 3:56 – 57.)
tasya-upadiśanti || 9 ||
9. For him [the Samnyāsin]] they prescribe [the following rules]:—
anagnir aniketaḥ syād aśarma aśaraṇo muniḥ | svādhyāya-eva- utsṛjamāno vācaṃ grāme prāṇa vṛttiṃ pratilabhya-aniho- ‘anamutraś caret ||10||
10. He shall live without a fire, without a house, without pleasures, without protection. Remaining silent and uttering speech only on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda, begging so much food only in the village as will sustain his life, he shall wander about neither caring for this world nor for heaven. (Manu 6:33, 42 – 45; Yajñ. 3:58 seq.)
tasya muktam ācchādanaṃ vihitam || 11 ||
11. It is ordained that he shall wear clothes thrown away [by others as useless].
sarvataḥ parimokṣam eke || 12 ||
12. Some declare that he shall go naked.
Another [commentator] says, “Some declare that he is free from all injunctions and prohibitions, ie. he need neither perform nor avoid any [particular actions].”- Haradatta.
satya anṛte sukha duḥkhe vedān imaṃ lokam amuṃ ca parityajya-ātmānam anvicchet || 13
13. Abandoning truth and falsehood, pleasure and pain, the Vedas, this world and the next, he shall seek the ātman.
He shall seek, it. Meditate upon the Atman or Self, which has been described in the section on transcendental knowledge [1. 8].’ – Haradatta.
buddhe kṣema prāpaṇam || 14 ||
14. [Some say that] he obtains Liberation if he [theoretically] knows [the ātman].
tat-śāstrair vipratiṣiddham || 15 ||
15. [But] that [opinion] is opposed to the Shastras.
Haradatta apparently takes the word Shastras to mean ‘Dharma-śāstras.
buddhe cet kṣema prāpaṇam iha-eva na duḥkham upalabheta || 16 ||
16. [For] if liberation were obtained by the [theoretical] knowledge of the ātman alone, then one ought not to experience suffering even in this [world].
etena paraṃ vyākhyātam || 17 ||
17. Thereby that which follows has been declared. That which follows are the Yogas, which must be employed in order to cause the annihilation of suffering, after the knowledge of the atman or self has been attained.
atha vānaprasthaḥ || 18 ||
18. Now [follow the rules regarding] the hermit living in the woods.
ata eva brahmacaryavān pravrajati || 19 ||
19. Only after [completing] that [studentship] he shall go forth, remaining chaste.
tasya-upadiśanti | || 20 ||
20. For him they give [the following rules]:—
eka agnir aniketaḥ syād aśarma aśaraṇo muniḥ | svādhyāya eva- utsṛjamāno vācam || 21 ||
21. He shall keep one fire only, have no house, enjoy no pleasures, have no protector, observe silence, uttering speech on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda only.
But which is that one fire? Certainly not the Gṛhya-fire, because he must remain chaste. Therefore the meaning intended is, “He shall offer a Samidhā morn and evening in the common fire, just as formerly, [during his studentship].” Another commentator says, ‘Gautama declares that he shall kindle a fire according to the rule of the śrāmaṇaka Sūtra. The śrāmaṇaka Sūtra is the Vaikhānasa Sūtra. Having kindled a fire in the manner prescribed there, he shall sacrifice in it every morning and every evening.” ‘ — Haradatta. (See also Manu 6:4; Yajñ. 3:46.)
Praśna 2. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 22.
tasya-araṇyam ācchādanaṃ vihitam || 1 ||
1. A dress of materials procured in the woods [skins or bark] is ordained for him. (Manu 6:6.)
tato mūlaiḥ phalaiḥ parṇais tṛṇair iti vartayaṃś caret || 2 ||
2. Then he shall wander about, sustaining himself by roots, fruits, leaves, and grass. (Manu 6:5, 21 Yajñ. 3:46.)
antataḥ pravṛttāni || 3 ||
3. In the end [he shall live on] what has become detached spontaneously.
tato- ‘apo vāyum ākāśam ity abhiniśrayet || 4 ||
4. Next he shall live on water, [then] on air, then on ether. ‘Then he shall live on ether, i. e. eat nothing at all.’ – Haradatta. (Manu 6:31; Yajñ.3:56)
teṣām uttara uttaraḥ saṃyogaḥ phalato viśiṣṭaḥ || 5 ||
5. Each following one of these modes of subsistence is distinguished by a [greater] reward.
atha vānaprasthasya-eva-anupūrvyam eke- upadiśanti || 6 ||
6. Now some [teachers] enjoin for the hermit the successive performance [of the acts prescribed for the several orders].
‘The word atha, “now,” introduces a different opinion. Above, it has been declared that the life in the woods [may be begun] after the studentship only. But some teachers enjoin just for that hermit a successful performance of the acts.
vidyāṃ samāpya dāraṃ kṛtvā-agnīn ādhāya karmāṇy ārabhate soma avarārdhyāni yāni śrūyante || 7 ||
7. After having finished the study of the Veda, having taken a wife and kindled the sacred fires, he shall begin the rites, which end with the Soma sacrifices, [performing] as many as are prescribed in the revealed texts.
gṛhān kṛtvā sa dāraḥ sa prajaḥ saha-agnibhir bahir grāmād vaset || 8 ||
8. [Afterwards] he shall build a dwelling, and dwell outside the village with his wife, his children, and his fires, (Manu 6:3 seq.Yajñ3;45)
eko vā || 9 ||
9. Or [he may live] alone.
śiloñchena vartayet || 10 ||
10. He shall support himself by gleaning corn.
Haradatta thinks at this rule refers both to the hermit who lives with his family and to him who lives alone. Others refer it to the latter only.
na ca-ata ūrdhvaṃ pratigṛhṇīyāt || 11 ||
11. And after that he shall not any longer accept gifts.
abhiṣiktaś ca juhuyāt || 12 ||
12. And he shall sacrifice [only] after having bathed [in the following manner]:—
śanair apo- ‘abhyaveyād abhighnann abhimukham ādityam udakam upaspṛśet || 13 ||
13. He shall enter the water slowly, and bathe without beating it [with his hand], his face turned towards the sun.
iti sarvatra-udaka upasparśana vidhiḥ || 14 ||
14. This rule of bathing is valid for all [castes and orders].
tasya dvaṃdvaṃ dravyāṇām eke- upadiśanti pāka artha bhojana artha vāsi paraśu dātrakājānām || 15 ||
15. Some enjoin [that he shall prepare] two sets of utensils for cooking and eating, [and] of choppers, hatchets, sickles, and mallets.
According to Haradatta, the word kāja appears to designate ‘a mallet; in the passage from the Rāmāyaṇa quoted in the Petersburg Dict. the commentator explains it by pitaka, basket.’
dvaṃdvānām eka ekam ādāya-itarāṇi datvā-araṇyam avatiṣṭheta || 16 || (dvandānām )
16. He shall take one of each pair [of instruments], give the others [to his wife], and [then] go Into the forest.
tasya-araṇyena-eva-ata ūrdhvaṃ homo vṛttiḥ pratīkṣāt-chādanaṃ ca || 17 ||
17. After that time [he shall perform] the burnt oblations, [sustain] his life, [feed] his guests, and [prepare] his clothes with materials produced in the forest. (Yajñ. 3:46).
yeṣu karmasu puroḍāśāś caravas teṣu kāryāḥ || 18 ||
18. Rice must be used for those sacrifices for which cakes mixed with meat [are employed by the householder].
sarvaṃ ca-upāṃśu saha svādhyāyena || 19 ||
19. And all [the Mantras], as well as the daily portion of the Veda, [must be recited] inaudibly.
na-araṇyam abhi-āśrāvayet || 20 ||
20. He shall let the inhabitants of the forest hear [his recitation]. This Sūtra explains the word upāṃsu, ‘inaudibly.’
agni arthaṃ śaraṇam || 21 ||
21. [He shall have] a shelter for his fire [only].
ākāśe svayam || 22 ||
22. He himself [shall live] in the open air.
anupastīrṇe śayyā āsane || 23 ||
23. His couch and seat must not be covered [with mats].
nave sasye prāpte purāṇam anujānīyāt || 24 ||
24. If he obtains fresh grain, he shall throw away the old [store]. (Manu 6:15; Yajñ. 3:47)
Praśna 2. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 23
bhūyāṃsaṃ vā niyamam icchann anvaham eva pātreṇa sāyaṃ prātar artham āharet || 1 ||
1. If he desires [to perform] very great austerities, he [shall not make a hoard of grain, but] collect food every day only, morning and evening, in his vessel.
The following rules apply to a solitary hermit.
tato mūlaiḥ phalaiḥ parṇais tṛṇair iti vartayaṃś cared antataḥ pravṛttāni tato- ‘apo vāyum ākāśam ity abhiniśrayet teṣām uttara uttaraḥ saṃyogaḥ phalato viśiṣṭaḥ || 2 ||
2. Afterwards he shall wander about, sustaining his life with roots, fruits, leaves, and grass [which he collects]. Finally [he shall content himself with] what has become detached spontaneously. Then he shall live on water, then on air, [and finally] upon ether. Each succeeding mode of subsistence procures greater rewards.
These Sūtras are repeated in order to show that, according to the opinion of those who allow hermits to live with their families, the end should be the same.
atha purāṇe ślokāv udāharanti || 3 ||
3. Now they quote [the following] two verses from a Purana:—
aṣṭāśītisahasrāṇi ye prajām īśira-ṛṣayaḥ | dakṣiṇena-aryamṇaḥ panthānaṃ te śmaśānāni bhejire || 4 ||
4. Those eighty thousand sages who desired offspring passed to the south by āryaman’s road and obtained cremation grounds.
This verse and the next are applied to disparage the order of householders. Haradatta explains ‘cremation-grounds’ by ‘new births which lead to new deaths; but see below sūtra 10, also Yajñ. 3:186 – 187
aṣṭāśītisahasrāṇi ye prajāṃ na-īṣira-ṛṣayaḥ | uttareṇa-aryamṇaḥ panthānaṃ te- ‘amṛtatvaṃ hi kalpate || 5 ||
5. Those eighty thousand sages who desired no offspring passed by āryaman’s road to the north and obtained immortality
ity ūrdhva retasāṃ praśaṃsā || 6 ||
6. Thus are praised those who keep the vow of chastity.
atha-api saṃkalpa siddhayo bhavanti || 7 ||
7. Now they accomplish also their wishes merely by conceiving them,
yathā varṣaṃ prajā dānaṃ dūre darśanaṃ manojavatā yac ca-anyad evaṃ yuktam || 8 ||
8. For instance [the desire to procure] rain, to bestow children, second sight, to move quick as thought, and other [desires] of this description.
tasmāt-śrutitaḥ pratyakṣa phalatvāc ca viśiṣṭān āśramān etān eke bruvate || 9 ||
9. Therefore on account of [passages] of the revealed texts, and on account of the visible results, some declare these orders [of men keeping the vow of chastity to be] the most excellent.
traividya vṛddhānāṃ tu vedāḥ pramāṇam iti niṣṭhā tatra yāni śrūyante vrīhi yava paśu ājya payaḥ kapāla patnī saṃbandhāny uccair nīcaiḥ kāryam iti tair viruddha ācāro- ‘apramāṇam iti manyante || 10 ||
10. But [to this we] answer:—It is the firm opinion of those who are well versed in the threefold sacred learning, that the Vedas are the highest authority. They consider that the [rites] which are ordered there to be performed with rice, barley, animals, clarified butter, milk, potsherds, [in conjunction] with the wife, [and accompanied] by loud or muttered (Mantras], must be performed, and that [hence] a rule of conduct which is opposed to these [rites] is of no authority.
yat tu śmaśānam ucyate nānā karmaṇām eṣo- ‘ante puruṣa saṃskāro vidhīyate || 11 ||
11. But by the term cremation-ground [in the text above given] it is intended to ordain the last rites for those who have performed many sacrifices, [and not to mean that dead householders become demons and haunt cemetaries.)
The Sūtra is intended to remove the blame thrown on the order of householders by the verse quoted. Haradatta seems to have forgotten his former explanation of Smaśānāni.
tataḥ param anantyaṃ phalaṃ svargya śabdaṃ śrūyate || 12 ||
12. The revealed texts declare that after [the burial follows] a reward without end, which is designated by the term ‘heavenly bliss.’
Praśna 2. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 24.
atha-apy asya prajātim amṛtam āmnāya āha | prajām anu prajāyase tad u te martyāmṛtam iti || 1 ||
1. Now the Veda declares also one’s offspring to be immortality [in this verse]:—’In you offspring you are born again, that, mortal, is your immortality.’
atha-api sa eva-ayaṃ virūḍhaḥ pṛthak pratyakṣeṇa-upalabhyate dṛśyate ca-api sārūpyaṃ dehatvam eva-anyat || 2 ||
2. Now it can also be perceived by the senses that the [father] has been reproduced separately [in the son]; for the likeness [of a father and of a son] is even visible, only [their] bodies are different.
te śiṣṭeṣu karmasu vartamānāḥ pūrveṣāṃ sāṃparāyeṇa kīrtiṃ svargaṃ ca vardhayanti || 3
3. ‘These [sons] who have, fulfilling the rites taught [in the Veda] increase the fame and heavenly bliss of their departed ancestors’
evam avaro- ‘avaraḥ pareṣām || 4 ||
4. ‘In this manner each succeeding generation increases the fame ‘and heavenly bliss of the preceding ones.’
ā bhūta saṃplavāt te svarga jitaḥ || 5 ||
5. ‘They [the ancestors] live in heaven until the [next] general destruction of created things.’
punaḥ sarge bīja arthā bhavanti-iti bhaviṣyat purāṇe || 6 ||
6. At the new creation [of, the world] they become the seed. That has been declared in the Bhaviṣya Purāṇa.
‘They become the seed,’ ie. ‘The Prajāpatis.’
atha-api prajāpater vacanam || 7 ||
7. Now Prajāpati also says,
trayīṃ vidyāṃ brahmacaryaṃ prajātiṃ śraddhāṃ tapo yajñam anupradānam |
ya etāni kurvate tair it saha smo rajo bhūtvā dhvaṃsate- ‘anyat praśaṃsann iti || 8 ||
8. ‘Those dwell with us who fulfil the following [duties]:—the study of the three Vedas, the studentship, the procreation of children, conviction,
meditation, sacrifices, and the giving of charity. He who praises other [duties], becomes dust and perishes.’
‘Other [duties], ie. the order of ascetic and the like.’ – Haradatta.
tatra ye pāpakṛtas ta eva dhvaṃsanti yathā parṇaṃ vanaspater na parān hiṃsanti || 9 ||
9. Those among these [sons] who transgress, perish alone, just as the leaf of a tree [which has been attacked by worms falls without injuring its branch or tree]. They do not hurt their ancestors.
na-asya-asmiṃl loke karmabhiḥ saṃbandho vidyate tathā parasmin karma phalaiḥ || 10 ||
10. [For] the [ancestor] has no connection with the acts committed [by his descendant] in this world, nor with their results in the next.
tad etena veditavyam || 11 ||
11. [The truth of] that may be known by the following [reason]:—
prajāpater ṛṣīṇām iti sargo- ‘ayam || 12 ||
12. This creation [is the work] of Prajāpati and of the sages.
tatra ye puṇya kṛtas teṣāṃ prakṛtayaḥ parā jvalantya upalabhyante || 13 ||
13. The bodies of those [sages] who stay there [in heaven] on account of their merits appear visibly most excellent and brilliant [as, for instance, the constellation of the seven Rishis].
As the Rishis have not lost heaven through the sins of their sons, the dogma according to which ancestors lose heaven through the sins of their sons, must be false.
syāt tu karma avayavena tapasā vā kaścit saśarīro- ‘antavantaṃ lokaṃ jayati saṃkalpa siddhiś ca syān na tu taj jyaiṣṭhyam āśramāṇām || 14 ||
14. But even though some [ascetic], whilst still in the body, may gain heaven through a portion of [the merit acquired by his former] works or through austerities, and though he may accomplish [his objects] by his mere wish, still this is no reason to place one order before the other.
Apastamba’s own opinion is apparently against pure asceticism.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 9. Khaṇḍa 25.
vyākhyātāḥ sarva varṇānāṃ sādhāraṇa vaiśeṣikā dharmāḥ | rājñas tu viśeṣādvakṣyāmaḥ ||
1. The general and special duties of all castes have been explained. But we will now declare those of a ruler in particular.
dakṣiṇā dvāraṃ veśma puraṃ ca māpayet || 2 ||
2. He shall have built a town and a palace, the gates of both of which [must look] towards the South.
antarasyāṃ puri veśma || 3 ||
3. The palace [shall stand] in the heart of the town.
‘In the heart of the town, i. e. in that town which is surrounded by all the walls. — Haradatta. (Compare Manu 7:76).
tasya purastād āvasathas tad āmantraṇam ity ācakṣate || 4 ||
4. In front of that [there shall be] a hall. That is called the hall of invitation.
dakṣiṇena puraṃ sabhā dakṣiṇa udag dvārā yathā-ubhayaṃ saṃdṛśyeta bahir antaraṃ ca-iti || 5 ||
5. [At a little distance] from the town to the south [he shall cause to be built] an assembly-house with doors on the south and on the north sides, so that one can see what passes inside and outside.
sarveṣv eva-ajasrā agnayaḥ syuḥ || 6 ||
6. In all [these three places] fires shall burn constantly. According to Haradatta, the fires are to be common, not consecrated ones.
agni pūjā ca nityā yathā gṛhamedhe || 7 ||
7. And oblations must be offered in these fires daily, just as at the daily sacrifice of a householder. (Manu 7:78; Yajñ. I1:313).
āvasathe śrotriya avarārdhyān atithīn vāsayet || 8 ||
8. In the hall he shall put up his guests, at least those who are learned in the Vedas. (Manu 7:82 seq.)
teṣāṃ yathā guṇam āvasathāḥ śayya ānna pānaṃ ca videyam || 9 ||
9. Rooms, a couch, food and drink should be given to them according to their good qualities.
gurūn amātyāṃś ca na-atijīvet || 10 ||
10. Let him not live better than his Gurus or advisors.
‘The Gurus are the father and other [venerable relations].’ — Haradatta.
na ca-asya viṣaye kṣudhā rogeṇa hima ātapābhyāṃ vā-avasīded abhāvād buddhi pūrvaṃ vā kaścit || 11 ||
11. And in his realm no [Brāhmaṇa] should suffer hunger, sickness, cold, or heat, be it through want, or intentionally. (Manu 7:134.)
‘Or intentionally; with reference to that the following example may be given. If anybody is to be made to pay his debts of taxes, then he is to be exposed to cold or heat, or to ‘be made’ to fast [until he pays]. The king shall :—punish [every one] who acts thus.’ — Haradatta.
sabhāyā madhye- ‘adhidevanam uddhatya-avokṣya-akṣān nivaped yugmān vaibhītakān yathāarthān || 12 ||
12. In the midst of the assembly-house, [the superintendent of the house] shall raise a play-table and sprinkle it with water, turning his hand downwards, and place on it dice in even numbers, made of Vibhītaka [wood], as many as are wanted.
āryāḥ śucayaḥ satyaśīlā dīvitāraḥ syuḥ || 13 ||
13. People of the first three castes, who are pure and truthful, may be allowed to play there.
Having played there, they shall give a fixed sum to the gambling-house keeper and go away. The latter shall, every day or every month or every year; give that gain to the king. And the king shall punish those who play elsewhere or quarrel in the assembly-house.’ — Haradatta
āyudha grahaṇaṃ nṛtta gīta vāditrāṇi-iti rāja adhīnebhyo- ‘anyatra na vidyeran || 14 ||
14. Contests of martial arts, dancing, singing, music, and the like [performances] shall be held only [in the houses] of the king’s servants.
At festivals and the like occasions [these performances] take place also elsewhere, that is the custom. — Haradatta.
kṣemakṛd rājā yasya viṣaye grāme- ‘araṇye vā taskara bhayaṃ na vidyate || 15 ||
15. That king only takes care of the welfare of his subjects in whose dominions, be it in villages or forests, there is no danger from thieves. (Manu 7:143, and passim; Yajñ. 1:335.)
Praśna 2. Paṭala 10. Khaṇḍa 26.
bhṛtyānām anuparodhena kṣetraṃ vittaṃ ca dadad brāhmaṇebhyo yathā arham anantāṃl lokān abhijayati || 1 ||
1. A [king] who, without detriment to his servants, gives land and money to Brāhmaṇas according to their deserts gains endless worlds. (Manu 7:83, 84, 88; Yajñ. 1:314)
brāhmaṇa svāny apajigīṣamāṇo rājā yo hanyate tam āhur ātmayūpo yajño- ‘ananta dakṣiṇa iti || 2 ||
2. They say [that] a king, who is slain in attempting to recover the property of Brāhmaṇas, [performs] a sacrifice where his body takes the place of the sacrificial post, and at which an unlimited fee is given.
According to Haradatta the king’s body represents the post [yupa], his Self the sacrificial animal, the recovered property the reward for the priests or fee.
etena-anye śūrā vyākhyātāḥ prayojane yudhyamānās tanu tyajaḥ || 3 ||
3. Hereby have been declared [the rewards of] other heroes, who fall fighting for a [worthy] cause. (Manu 7:89; Yajñ. 1:323, 324).
grāmeṣu nagareṣu ca-āryān-śucīn satyaśīlān prajāguptaye nidadhyāt || 4 ||
4. He shall appoint men of the first three castes, who are pure and truthful, over villages and towns for the protection of the people. (Manu 7:115 – 124; Yajñ. 1:321).
teṣāṃ puruṣās tathā guṇā eva syuḥ || 5 ||
5. Their servants shall possess the same qualities.
sarvato yojanaṃ nagaraṃ taskarebhyo rakṣyam || 6 ||
6. They must protect a town from thieves in every direction to the distance of one yojana. Yajñ. 2:27I – 272.
A yojana is a distance of 4 krośa, [kos]
krośo grāmebhyaḥ || 7 ||
7. [They must protect the country to the distance of] one krosha from each village.
A krosa, kos, or gau, literally; ‘the lowing of a cow’ is variously reckoned at 1.5 – 4 miles .
tatra yat-muṣyate tais tat pratidāpyam || 8 ||
8. They must be made to compensate for what is stolen within these boundaries. (Yajñ. 1:272.)
dhārmyaṃ śulkam avahārayet || 9 ||
9. The [king] shall make them collect the lawful taxes [śulka] According to Haradatta, who quotes Gautama in his commentary, the śulka is the
1.20th part of a merchant’s gains. On account of the Sūtras immediately following, it is, however, more probable that the term is here used as a synonym of ‘kara,’ and includes all taxes. ‘Lawful’ taxes are, of course, those sanctioned by custom and approved of by the Smṛtis.
akaraḥ śrotriyaḥ || 10 ||
10. A Vedic Scholar is exempt from taxes, (Manu 7:133.)
sarva varṇānāṃ ca striyaḥ || 11 ||
11. And the women of all castes,
kumārāś ca prāg vyañjanebhyaḥ || 12 ||
12. And boys before the marks [of puberty appear],
ye ca vidyā arthā vasanti || 13 ||
13. And those who live [with a teacher] in order to study,
tapasvinaś ca ye dharma parāḥ || 14 ||
14. And those who perform austerities, being intent on fulfilling the sacred law,
‘Why does he say “intent on fulfilling the holy law?” Those shall not be free from taxes who perform austerities in order to make their magic charms efficacious.’ — Haradatta.
śūdraś ca pāda avanektā || 15 ||
15. And a śūdra who lives by washing the feet,
andha mūka badhira roga viṣṭāś ca || 16 ||
16. Also blind, dumb, deaf, and diseased persons [as long as their infirmities last],
ye vyarthā dravya parigrahaiḥ || 17 ||
17. And those to whom the acquisition of property is forbidden [as Sannyāsins].
abuddhi pūrvam alaṃkṛto yuvā paradāram anupraviśan kumārīṃ vā vācā bādhyaḥ || 18 ||
18. A young man who, decked with ornaments, enters unintentionally [a place where] a married woman or a [marriageable] damsel [sits], must be reprimanded.
The ornaments would indicate that he was bent on mischief. Compare above, 1:2:32:6.
buddhi pūrvaṃ tu duṣṭa bhāvo daṇḍyaḥ || 19 ||
19. But if he does it intentionally with a bad purpose, he must be fined. (Manu 8:354; Yajñ. 2:284.)
The punishment must be proportionate to his property and the greatness of his offence. The term “with a bad purpose” is added, because he who has been sent by his teacher [to such a place] should not be punished.’ — Haradatta.
saṃnipāte vṛtte śiśna cchedanaṃ sa vṛṣaṇasya || 20 ||
20. If he has actually committed adultery, his penis shall be cut off together with the testicles.
kumāryāṃ tu svāny ādāya nāśyaḥ || 21 ||
21. But [if he has had intercourse] with a [marriageable] girl, his property shall be confiscated and he shall be banished.
atha bhṛtye rājñā || 22 ||
22. Afterwards the king must support [such women and damsels],
rakṣye ca-ata ūrdhvaṃ maithunāt || 23 ||
23. And protect them from defilement.
nirveṣa abhyupāye tu svāmibhyo- ‘avasṛjet || 24 ||
24. If they agree to undergo the [prescribed] penance, he shall make them over to their [lawful] guardians.
ie. a married woman to her husband or father-in-law, an unmarried damsel to her father or to her brother.’ — Haradatta.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 10. Khaṇḍa 27.
carite yathā puraṃ dharmād-hi saṃbandhaḥ || 1 ||
1. If [adulteresses] have performed [the prescribed penance], they are to be treated as before [their fault]. For the connection [of husband and wife] takes place through the law.
sagotra sthānīyāṃ na parebhyaḥ samācakṣīta || kulāya hi strī pradīyata ity upadiśanti ||:2,3||
[A husband] shall not hand over his [wife], who belongs to his own gotra, to others [than to his blood-line], in order to beget children for himself, for they declare, that a bride is given to the family [of her husband, and not to the husband alone].
This Sūtra refers to the begetting of a surrogate or kṣetraja son, and gives the usual
rule, that only the Sagotras or clansman who is related by blood, a brother, a cousin, brother-in-law, etc. shall be employed as sperm donors rather than strangers. A woman is given to a family rather than an individual and therefore, in a pre-industrial agrarian society, it was in the interests of the whole family that procreation occurs some how or other.
tad indriya daurbalyād [vipratipannam || 4 ||
4. That is [at present] forbidden on account of the weakness of [men’s] senses.
For now-a-days the senses of men are weak, and therefore the peculiar [law formerly] in force regarding blood-lines is so no longer, lest husband should be set aside under the pretended sanction of the Shastras. — Haradatta
aviśiṣṭaṃ hi paratvaṃ pāṇeḥ || 5 ||
5. The hand [of a sagotra is considered in law to be] that of a stranger, and so is [that of any other person except the husband].
tad vyatikrame khalu punar ubhayor narakaḥ || 6 ||
6. If the [marriage vow] is transgressed, both [husband and wife] certainly go to hell.
niyama ārambhaṇo hi varṣīyān abhyudaya evam ārambhaṇād apatyāt || 7 ||
7. The reward [in the next world] resulting from obeying the restrictions of the law is preferable to offspring obtained in this manner [by means of Niyoga].
nāśya āryaḥ śūdrāyām || 8 ||
8. A man of one of the first three castes [who commits adultery] with a woman of the śūdra caste shall be banished.
vadhyaḥ śūdra āryāyām || 9 ||
9. A śūdra [who commits adultery] with a woman of one of the first three castes shall suffer capital punishment. (Manu 8:374 Yajñ. 2:286.)
According to Haradatta, this refers to a śūdra servant who seduces a woman committed to his charge In other cases the punishment prescribed, 2:10:26:10 is to take effect. The same opinion is expressed by Gautama.
dāraṃ ca-asya karśayet || 10 ||
10. And he shall emaciate a woman who has committed adultery with a [śūdra, by making her undergo penances and fasts, in case she had no child].
savarṇāyām anya pūrvāyāṃ sakṛt saṃnipāte pādaḥ patati-ity upadiśanti || 11 ||
11. They declare, that [a Brāhmaṇa] who has once committed adultery with a married woman of equal class, shall perform one-fourth of the penance prescribed for an outcast.
This refers to the wife of a śrotriya, as Haradatta states according to Gautama. The penance is three years’ chastity.
evam abhyāse pādaḥ pādaḥ || 12 ||
12. In like manner for every repetition of the crime], one-fourth of the penance must be added].
caturthe sarvam || 13 ||
13. [If the offence be committed] for the fourth time, the whole [penance of twelve years must be performed].
jihvā ācchedanaṃ śūdrasya-āryaṃ dhārmikam ākrośataḥ || 14 ||
14. The tongue of a śūdra who speaks evil of a virtuous person, belonging to one of the first three castes, shall be cut out.
vāci pathi śayyāyām āsana iti samībhavato daṇḍa tāḍanam || 15 ||
15. A śūdra who assumes a position equal [to that of a member of one of the first three castes], in conversation, on the road, on a couch, in sitting [and on similar occasions], shall be flogged.
In conversation, ie. addressing āryas familiarly, with tvam, ‘you,’ etc.
puruṣa vadhe steye bhūmi ādāna iti svāny ādāya vadhyaḥ || 16 ||
16. In case [a śūdra] commits murder or theft, appropriates land [or commits similar heinous crimes], his property shall be confiscated and he himself shall suffer capital punishment.
cakṣu nirodhas tv eteṣu brāhmaṇasya || 17 ||
17. But if these [offences be committed] by a Brāhmaṇa, he shall be made blind [by tying a cloth over his eyes].
Haradatta states expressly that the eyes of a Brāhmaṇa must not be put out by any sharp instrument. He should be kept blindfold all his life.
niyama atikramaṇam anyaṃ vā rahasi bandhayet || 18 ||
18. He shall keep in secret confinement him who violates the rules [of his caste or order], or any other offender, until [he promises] amendment.
ā samāpatteḥ asamāpattau nāśyaḥ || 19 ||
19. If he does not amend, he shall be banished.
ācārya ṛtvik snātako rājā-iti trāṇaṃ syur anyatra vadhyāt || 20 ||
20. A spiritual teacher, an oficiating priest, a Snātaka, and a prince shall be able to protect [a criminal from punishment by their intercession], except in case of a capital offence.
The intercession is to take effect in this manner:— mutilation is commuted to a fine, a fine to a flogging, a flogging to a reprimand – Haradatta.
Praśna 2. Paṭala 11. Khaṇḍa 28.
kṣetraṃ parigṛhya-utthānā bhāvāt phalābhāve yaḥ samṛddhaḥ sa bhāvi tad apahāryaḥ || 1
1. If a person who has taken [a lease of] land [for cultivation] does not exert himself, and hence [the land] bears no crop, he shall, if he is rich, be made to pay [to the owner of the land the value of the crop] that ought to have grown.
avaśinaḥ kīnāśasya karma nyāse daṇḍa tāḍanam || 2 ||
2. A servant in tillage who abandons his work shall be flogged.
Another commentator, quoted by Haradatta, connects this Sūtra with the preceding, and refers it to a poor lessee of land, who cannot pay the value of the crop which was lost through his negligence. A third explanation refers the Sūtra to a cultivator who neglects to till his land. Gagannatha’s authorities, the Cintāmaṇi and Ratnākara, agree with Haradatta’s first explanation.
tathā paśupasya || 3 ||
3. The same [punishment shall be awarded] to a herdsman [who leaves his work];
avarodhanaṃ ca-asya paśūnām || 4 ||
4. And the flock [entrusted] to him shall be taken away [and be given to some other herdsman].
hitvā vrajam ādinaḥ karśayet paśūn na-atipātayet || 5 ||
5. If cattle, leaving their stable, eat [the crops of others, then the owner of the crops, or the king’s servants], may make them lean [by impounding them]; [but] he shall not exceed [in such punishment]. (Manu 8:240; Yajñ. 2:159 s 161)
avarudhya paśūn māraṇe nāśane vā svāmibhyo- ‘avasṛjet || 6 ||
6. If [a herdsman] who has taken cattle under his care, allows them to perish, or loses [them by theft, through his negligence], he shall replace them [or pay their value] to the owners. (Manu 8:232; Yajñ. 2:164.)
pramādād araṇye paśūn utsṛṣtān dṛṣṭvā grāmam ānīya svāmibhyo- ‘avasṛjet || 7 ||
7. If [the king’s forester] sees cattle that have been sent into the forest through negligence [without a herdsman], he shall lead them back to the village and hand them over to the owners.
punaḥ pramāde sakṛd avarudhya || 8 ||
8. If the same negligence [occurs] again, he shall once impound them [and afterwards give them back].
tata ūrdhvaṃ na sūrkṣet || 9 ||
9. [If the same fault be committed again] after that [second time], he shall not take care [of them].
paraparigraham avidvān ādadāna edha udake mūle puṣpe phale gandhe grāse śāka iti vācā bādhyaḥ || 10 ||
10. He who has taken unintentionally the property of another shall be reprimanded, in case [the property be] fuel, water, roots, flowers, fruits, perfumes, fodder, or vegetables.
viduṣo vāsasaḥ parimoṣaṇam || 11 ||
11. [If he takes the above mentioned kinds of property] intentionally, his garment shall be taken away.
adaṇḍyaḥ kāmakṛte tathā prāṇa saṃśaye bhojanam ādadānaḥ || 12 ||
12. He who intentionally takes food when he is in danger of his life shall not be punished.
prāpta nimitte daṇḍa akarmaṇi rājānam enaḥ spṛśati || 13 ||
13. If the king does not punish a punishable offence, the guilt falls upon him. (Manu 8:308; Yajñ. 1:336).
Praśna 2. Paṭala 11. Khaṇḍa 29.
prayojayitā mantā kartā-iti svarga naraka phaleṣu karmasu bhāginaḥ || 1
1. He who instigates, he who assists in, and he who commits [an act, these three] share its rewards in heaven and its punishments in hell.
yo bhūya ārabhate tasmin phala viśeṣaḥ || 2 ||
2. The one amongst these who contributes most to the accomplishment [of the act obtains] a greater share of the result.
kuṭumbinau dhanasya-īśate || 3 ||
3. Both the wife and the husband have power over [their] common property.
It is the duty of the wife to spend and manage the finances of the home.
tayor anumate- ‘anye- ‘api tad-hiteṣu varteran || 4 ||
4. By their permission, others also may act for their good [in this and the next world, even by spending money].
‘Others, ie. the sons and the rest.’ — Haradatta.
vivāde vidyā abhijana saṃpannā vṛddhā medhāvino dharmeṣv a vinipātinaḥ || 5 ||
5. Men of learning and pure descent, who are aged, clever in reasoning, and careful in fulfilling the duties [of their caste and order, shall be the judges] in lawsuits. (Yajñ. 2:2)
saṃdehe liṅgato daivena-iti vicitya || 6 ||
6. In doubtful cases [they shall give their decision] after having ascertained [the truth] by inference, ordeals, and the like [means].
‘And the like, ie. by cross-examination, etc.’ — Haradatta.
puṇyāhe prātar agnāv iddhe- ‘apāmante rājavaty ubhayataḥ samākhyāpya sarva anumate mukhyaḥ satyaṃ praśnaṃ brūyāt || 7 ||
7. A person who is possessed of good qualities [may be called as a witness, and] shall answer the questions put to him according to the truth on an auspicious day, in the morning, before a kindled fire, standing near [a jar full of water, in the presence of the king, and with the consent of all [of both parties and of the judges], after having been exhorted [by the judge] to be fair to both sides. (Manu 8:87 seq.; Yajñ. 2:68 s 75)
anṛte rājā daṇḍaṃ praṇayet || 8 ||
8. If [he is found out speaking] an untruth, the king shall punish him. (Manu 8:119 seq.)
narakaś ca-atra-adhikaḥ sāṃparāye || 9 ||
9. Besides, in that case, after death, hell [will be his punishment]. (Manu 8:89 seq.)
satye svargaḥ sarva bhūta praśaṃsā ca || 10 ||
10. If he speaks the truth, [his reward will be] heaven and the approbation of all created beings. (Manu 8:81 seq.)
sā niṣṭhā yā vidyā strīṣu śūdreṣu ca || 11 ||
11. The knowledge which śūdras and women possess is the completion [of all study]. (Manu 2:223.)
The meaning of the Sūtra is, that men ought not to study solely or at first such śāstras as women or śūdras also learn, but that at first they must study the Veda. See Manu l1. 168. The knowledge which women and śūdras possess is dancing, music, and other branches of the Arthaśāstra.
ātharvaṇasya vedasya śeṣa ity upadiśanti || 12 ||
12. They declare, that [this knowledge] is a supplement of the Atharva Veda.
kṛcchrā dharma samāptiḥ samāmnātena| lakṣaṇa karmaṇāt tu samāpyate || 13 ||
13. It is difficult to learn the sacred law from [the letter of] the Vedas [only]; but by following the indications it is easily accomplished.
tatra lakṣaṇam | sarva jana padeṣv ekānta samāhitam āryāṇāṃ vṛttaṃ samyag vinītānāṃ vṛddhānām ātmavatām alolupānām adāmbhikānāṃ vṛtta sādṛśyaṃ bhajeta | evam ubhau lokāv abhijayati || 14 ||
14. The indications [for these doubtful cases] are: ‘He shall regulate his course of action according to the conduct which is unanimously recognised in all countries by people of the three twice-born castes, who have been properly obedient [to their teachers], who are mature, of subdued senses, neither given to avarice, nor hypocrites. Acting thus he will gain both worlds.’ (See above, 1:7:20:8 and 9)
strībhyaḥ sarva varṇebhyaś ca dharma śeṣān pratīyād ity eke- ity eke || 15 ||
15. Some declare, that the remaining duties [which have not been taught here] must be learnt from women and those of all castes.
|| samāptaṃ ca-idam āpastambīya dharmasūtram ||
ĀPASTAMBA GṚHYA SŪTRAS
The short treatise of Āpastamba on the Gṛhya ritual forms one Prasna of the great corpus of the Āpastambiya Kalpa-Sūtra and stands, among the Gṛhya texts, in closest connection with the Hiraṇyakeśin Grhya Sutra, these two Sutras, both belonging to the Taittiriya School of the Black Yajur-Veda. The difference between them is that Āpastamba gives only the rules for the performance of the Gṛhya rites without the Mantras, which are contained in a special collection, the Mantrapāṭha, standing by the side of the Sutras: Hiraṇyakeśin, on the other hand, follows the more usual practice, as adopted by śānkhāyana, āśvalāyana, Pāraskara, of interweaving the description of the ceremonies with the text of the corresponding Mantras.
Paṭala 1:Section 1.
1. Now [follow] the ceremonies [the knowledge of] which is derived from practice [and not from the śruti].
2. They should be performed during the northern course of the sun (uttarāyaṇa), on days of the first fortnight (śukla-pakṣa), on auspicious days,
3. With the sacrificial thread suspended over [the sacrificer’s] left shoulder (upavīti). 4. [The rites should be performed] from left to right.
5. The beginning should be made on the east side or on the north side.
6. And also the end.
7. Ceremonies relating to the Ancestors [are performed] in the second fortnight (kṛṣṇa- pakṣa).
8. With the sacrificial thread draped over the right shoulder (prācīnavīti)
9. From right to left.
10. Ending in the south.
11. Ceremonies occasioned by special occurrences [are performed] according as their occasions demand. 6
12. Having kindled the fire, one strews eastward-pointed Darbha grass around it, 7
6 The Paribhāṣas for the Pākayajñas. 7-10. Comp. 7 with 2, 8 with 3:9 with 4,10 with 6. 7 Description of the regular form of a Pākayajña.
13. Or eastward-pointed and northward-pointed [darbha grass];
14. Southward-pointed at sacrifices to the Ancestors,
15. Or southward-pointed and eastward-pointed.
16 To the north of the fire one strews Darbha grass and [on that] one places the vessels [required for sacrifice] upside-down, in pairs, if during ceremonies related to the gods.
17. All at once, if to humans.
18. One by one, if to the Ancestors.
19. The preparation of the [blades used as] “purifiers,” the measure of their length, the preparation of the Prokṣani water, and the sprinkling of the vessels are the same here [to the Ancestors] as at the sacrifices of the new and full moon, [but are performed] in silence. (Comp. śrauta-Sūtra 1: 1l, 6 seq.)
Preparation of the praṇīta water
20. To the west of the fire one pours water into a vessel over which one has laid [two grass blades called] pavitrīs, purifies [the water] three times with two northward- pointed pavitrīs, raises it to the level of the nose and mouth, places it to the north of the fire on Darbha grass, and covers it with Darbha grass.
Invocation of the Brāhman
21. On the south side he invites a Brāhmaṇa to sit down on Darbha grass.
Preparation of the Ghee
22. One melts the ājya8, pours it, to the west of the fire, into the ājya-sthāli, over which he has laid two purifiers, draws coals [out of the sacrificial fire] from the north, puts [the ājya-sthāli] on them, throws light on it by means of a burning [grass-blade] throws two Darbha points into it, moves a firebrand round it three times, takes it from the fire towards the north, sweeps the coals back [into the fire], purifies [the ājya] three times with two northward-pointed purifiers, moving them backward and forward, and throws the purifiers into the fire.
Paṭala 1: Section 2. Preparation of the Sruk-sruva
8 There are two types of clarified butter used in yajñas — Ājya is made from goat’s milk and ghṛta is made from cow’s milk.
1. One warms the [two] sacrificial ladles over the fire, wipes them with Darbha blades, warms them again, sprinkles it [with water], puts it down, touches them with Darbha blades with water, and throws [the blades] into the fire.
Placing the Paridhis
2. As paridhis [pieces of wood laid round the fire] yoke-pins are used at the marriage, the Upanayana, the Samāvartana, the parting of the [wife’s] hair, the tonsure of the child’s hair, the cutting of the beard, and at expiatory ceremonies.
3. He sprinkles water round the fire, on the south side from west to east with [the words], “Aditi, give thy consent !” on the west side from south to north with “Anumati, give thy consent!” on the north side from west to east with “Sarasvati, give thy consent!” all around with “God Savitri, please impel us!”
4. At ceremonies belonging to the Ancestors [water is sprinkled] only all round [the fire], silently.
The Åghāra and Åjya-bhāga Oblations
5. Having put a piece of wood on the fire, he offers the two āghāra oblations9 as at the sacrifices of the new and full-moon, silently.
6. Then he offers the two ājyabhāga oblations, over the easterly part of the northerly part [of the fire] with [the words], “To Agni Svāhā!” over the easterly part of the southerly part [another oblation] exactly like the preceding one, with [the words], “To Soma Svāhā!”10
The Pradhāna Homa
7. Having offered the chief oblations [belonging to each sacrifice] according to prescription, one adds the following oblations, viz. the Jaya, Abhyātana, Rāṣṭrabhṛt11 oblations, the oblation to Prajāpati, the Vyāhṛtis one by one, the oblation to [Agni] Sviṣṭakṛt with [the following formula]; “What I have done too much in this ceremony, or what I have done here too little, all that may Agni Sviṣṭakṛt, he who knows, make well sacrificed and well offered. Svāhā !”
8. The sprinkling [of water] round [the fire is repeated] as above; the Mantras are altered so as to say, “Thou hast given thy consent”, “Thou hast given thy impulse.”
9. The designation “Pāka-yajña” is used of ceremonies connected with material life. 10. There the ritual based on the Brāhmaṇa [holds good]. 12
9 The śrauta rules on the two āghāras are given śrauta-Sūtra 11:12, 7; 14,1 One to prajāpati – streaming the ghee from the North-west corner to the South-east corner of the kuṇḍa. The one oblation to Indra from the South-west corner to the North-east corner.
10 Comp. śrauta-Sūtra 11:18 5; Hillebrandt, loc. cit., p. 106, note 3
11 On the Jaya, Abhyātana, Rāṣṭrabhṛt formulas, comp. Pāraskara 1.
12 According to Haradatta, this Sutra would imply that wheresoever the ritual described in the preceding Sutras holds good, another ritual based on the Brāhmaṇa, and more especially on the treatment of the Agnihotra in the Brahmana, may be used in its stead.
11. [To which the words allude], “He sacrifices twice; he wipes off [his hand] twice; he partakes twice [of the sacrificial food]; having gone away he sips [out of the śruk] and licks off [the śruk].”
The Wedding Ceremony
12. All seasons are fit for marriage with the exception of the two months of the śiśira (flower) season, and of the last summer month.
13. All Nakṣatras which are stated to be faultless, [are fit for marriage];
14. And all [other] auspicious performances.
15. And one should learn from women what ceremonies [are required by custom].
16. Under the Invākas [Nakṣatra], [the messengers who go to the girl’s father] are sent out: such messengers are welcome.
Paṭala 1: Section 3.
1. Under Magha [Nakṣatra] cows are given;
2. Under Phālgunī [Nakṣatra] marriage is celebrated.
3. A daughter whom he wishes to be dear [to her husband], a father should give in marriage under the Nishṭya [Nakṣatra]; thus she becomes dear [to her husband]; she does not return [to her father’s] house: this is an observance based on a Brāhmaṇa.13
4. The word Invākās means Mṛgaśiras; the word Nishṭya means Svāti.14
5. At the wedding one cow [is given].
6. In the house one cow [is given].
7. With the [first cow] he should prepare an Arghya reception for the bridegroom as for a guest.
8. With the other [the bridegroom should do so] for a person whom he reveres. 15
9. These are the occasions for slaughtering a cow: [the arrival of] a guest, [the Aṣṭaka sacrifice offered to] the Ancestors, and marriage.
10. Let [the wooer] avoid in his wooing, a girl that sleeps, or cries, or has left home.16
11. And let him avoid one who has been given [married to another], and who is over protected [by her relations], and one who looks wicked [?], or who is a most excellent one [?], or [who is like the fabulous deer] sarabha [?], a hunch-back, a girl of monstrous appearance, a bald headed girl, a girl whose skin is like a frog’s [?], a girl who has gone over to another family [?], a girl given to sensual pleasures [?], or a
13 Comp. Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa I;5;2;3
14 Comp. Sūtra 3, and above, Section 2, Sūtra 16.)
15 5-8. Comp. Saṅkhāyana-Gṛhya 1;12;10. It is clear that with the first cow the bride’s father has to receive the bridegroom. The “house” mentioned in Sutra 6 seems to be the house of the newly married couple. In the expression “whom he reveres,” “he”, according to the commentaries, is the bridegroom.
16 This Sutra forms a half-sloka.
herdess, or one who has too many friends, or who has a fine younger sister, or one whose age is too near to that of the bridegroom [?]. 17
12. Girls who have the name of a Nakshatra, or of a river, or of a tree, are objectionable.
13. And all girls in whose names the second to last letter is r or l, one should avoid in wooing.
14. If possible, he should place [the following] objects hidden before the girl, and should say to her, “Touch [one of these things].”
15. [The objects are], different kinds of seeds mixed together, loose earth from [the sacrificial altar called] vedi, an earth-clod from a field, cow-dung, and an earth-clod from a cemetery.
16. If she touches one of the former [objects, this portends] prosperity as characterized [by the nature of what she has touched].
17. The last is regarded as objectionable.
18. Let him marry a girl of good family and character, with auspicious characteristics, and of good health.
19. Good family, a good character, auspicious characteristics, learning and good health: these are the required qualities of a bridegroom.
20. A bride who is pleasing to his mind and his eyes, will bring happiness to him; let him pay no attention to the other things: — such is the opinion of some.
Paṭala 2, Section 4
1. Let him send out as his wooers friends who have assembled, who are versed in the Mantras.
2. He should recite over them the first two verses (Mantrap. 1;1;1;2).
3. When he himself has seen [the bride], let him recite the third mantra (M. 1:1;3). 4. With the fourth (M. 1:1:4) let him gaze at her.
5. Let him seize with his [right] thumb and ring-finger a Darbha blade, and let him wipe [therewith] the forehead between her eye-brows with the next Yajus (M. 1:1:5), and let him throw it away towards the west.
6. If a negative omen occurs [such as the bride’s or her relations’ weeping], let him recite the next mantra (1:1:6).
7. With the next mantra (1:1:7) let him send an even number of persons who have assembled there, and who are versed in the Mantras, to fetch water.
17 11. Most expressions in this Sutra are quite doubtful, and their translation rests on the explanations of the commentators [see pp. 44:45 of Dr. Winternitz’s edition], which are evidently for the most part only guesses.
8. With the next Yajus (M. 1:1:8) he places [a crown of] Darbha grass on her head; on that, with the next mantra (M. 1;1;9) he places a right yoke-hole; on this hole he lays with the next mantra (M. 1:1:10), a piece of gold, and bathes her with the next five verses (M. 1:2, 1-5), [So that the water runs over that gold and through the yoke-hole]; with the next mantra (M. 1:2,6) he causes her to dress in a new garment, and with the next (M1:2,7) he girds her with a rope [made of darbha grass].
9. Then he takes hold of her with the next mantra (M.1;2;8) by her right hand, leads her to the fire, spreads a grass mat to west of the fire, so that the points of the blades in it are directed towards the north, and on this mat they both sit down, the bridegroom to the north.
10. After the ceremonies have been performed from the putting of wood on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations, he recites over her the first two [verses of the third Anuvāka].
11. Then he should take with his right hand, palm down, her right hand which she holds palm up.
12. If he wishes that only daughters may be born to him, he should seize only the fingers [without the thumb];
13. If he wishes that only sons may be born to him, the thumb.
14. He takes [her hand] so as just to touch her thumb and the little hairs [on her hand],
15. With the four verses, “I take your hand ………….” (1;3;3-6).
16. He then makes her step forward with her right foot, to the north of the fire, in an easterly or northerly direction, with [the formula], “ One step for nutrition” (M. 1;3;7)
17. At the seventh step 18 he recites, “You’re my friend in life …… ” (1;3;14)
Paṭala 2, Section 5.
1. Having before the sacrifice circumambulated the fire, in a clockwise manner.
2. They sit down in their former position, and while she touches him, he offers the oblations [indicated by the] next mantras, with [the Mantras], “To Soma, the acquirer of a wife, Svāhā!” (M.1:4,1-16), one oblation with each Mantra
3. He then makes her tread with her right foot on a [mill-]stone, to the north of the fire, with [the verse], “Tread upon this stone” (M.1:5.1). (See below, IV,10, 9.)
4. Having sprinkled ājya into her joined hands, he pours puffed grain19 twice [into them], and sprinkles ājya over it.
5. Pours the grain [into her hands].
18 The seventh step is the point at which the marriage becomes fixed and irrevocable. Ed.
19 Some prayogas have the brother of the bride perform the function of pouring puffed grains into the bride’s hands. Ed.
6. He20 sacrifices [that grain] with [the verse], “This woman …..” (M. 1:5:2).
7. Having circumambulated the fire, in a clockwise direction, with the next three verses; (M. 1:5:3-5) he makes her tread on the stone as above (M.1:5:6).
8. And the oblation [of puffed rice is performed] with the next mantra (M.1:5:7).
9. [Then follow] again the circumambulation (M.1:5:8-10), the injunction to tread on the stone (M.1:5,11), and the oblation with the next mantra (M.1;5,12).
10. [Then] the circumambulation again 21 (M.1:5,13-15).
11. He then undertakes the performance of the Jaya and other oblations.
12. Having performed [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire], and having untied the rope with the next two verses (M.1:5,6.7), he should then take her away [from her father’s house in a vehicle], or should have her taken away.
13. Having put that fire [with which the marriage rites have been performed, into a vessel], they carry it behind [the newly-married couple].
14. It should be kept constantly.
15. If it goes out, [a new fire] should be kindled by attrition,
16. Or it should be fetched from the house of a śrotriya.
17. Besides, if [the fire] goes out, one of them, either the wife or the husband, should fast.
18. Or he may sacrifice with the next mantra (M.1:5,18), and not fast.
19. The next mantra (M.1:6,1) is for putting the chariot [on which the young couple is to depart], in position;
20. With the next two verses (M.1:6,2,3), he harnesses the two animals to the chariot;
21. First the right one.
22. When she mounts [the chariot], he recites over her the next mantras (M.1:6,4-7).
23. With the next mantra (M.1:6,8), he spreads out two threads in the wheel-tracks [in which the chariot is to go], a dark-blue one in the right [track], a red one in the left.
24. With the next verses (M. 1:6,9) he walks on these [threads].
20 “The action of sacrificing belongs to the bridegroom; the hands of the wife represent the sacrificial vessel.” Haradatta.— “It is the bridegroom who sacrifices the grain with the verse, “This wife……” Sudarśanārya. 7. See above, Sutra 3.
There is a controversy over who exactly offers the grains — husband or wife. Some ācāryas direct the husband to simply hold the wife’s cupped hands like a vessel while she pours the grains into the fire, others opine that the wife receives the grains and then offers them into the hands of he husband who is the one to actually pour them into the fire. Ed.
21 There is also a controversy about how many times the couple circumambulate the fire. Some say that this verse indicates a separate and fourth round, some say it applies to the last of the group of 3 rounds. The prayogas usually direct 4 rounds – the first 3 are lead by the bride and the last by the groom. Ed.
25. And when they pass by bathing-places, posts, or cross-roads, let him recite the next mantra (M. 1:6,12).
Paṭala 2, Section 6.
1. The next mantra (M.1:6,13), he recites over a boat [with which they are going to cross a river].
2. And let the wife, when she is crossing, not look at the crew.
3. When they have crossed, let him recite the next mantra, (M. 1:6,14).
4. If they have to pass by a charnel ground, or if any article [which they carry with them], or their vehicle breaks, the ceremonies from the putting of wood on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations are performed, and while she touches him, he offers the oblations [indicated by the] next (Mantras; M.1:7.1-7) then he offers the Jaya and following oblations, and performs [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire].
5. If they pass by trees with milky sap or by other trees that serve as marks, by rivers or by deserts, he should recite the next two verses (M.1:7,8.9), according to the characteristics in them [which refer to these different cases].
6. With the next [verse] he shows her the house (M.1:7,10).
7. With the next two verses; (M.1:7,11-12) He unyokes the two animals; the right one first.
8. Having, with the next mantra (M.1:8,1), spread out, in the centre of the house, a red bull’s skin with the neck to the east, with the hair up, he makes her recite the next mantra (M. 1:8,2), while he makes her enter the house, [which she does] with her right foot.
9. And she should not tread on the threshold.
10. In the north-east part of the house the ceremonies from the putting of wood on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations are performed, and while she touches him, he offers the oblations [indicated by the] next Mantras; (M. 1:8, 3-15); then he offers the Jaya and following oblations, and performs [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire]. Then they sit down with the next mantra (M.3;1.1:9,1) on the [bull’s] hide, the bridegroom to the north.
11. He then places with the next mantra (M. 1:9,2), the son of a woman who has only sons and whose children are alive, in her lap, gives fruits to the [child] with the next Yajus (M. 1:9,3), and recites the next two verses; (M. 1:9, 4-5). Then he [and his wife] observe silence until the stars appear.
12. When the stars have appeared, he goes out [of the house with her] in an easterly or northerly direction, and shows her the polar star and [the star] Arundhati with the next two verses (M. 1:9,6-7), according to the characteristics [contained in those verses.
Paṭala 3. Section 7.
1. He then makes her offer the sacrifice of a Sthālipāka sacred to Agni.
2. The wife husks [the rice grains out of which this Sthālipāka is prepared].
3. After he has cooked [the Sthālipāka], and has sprinkled [ājya] over it, and has taken it from the fire towards the east or the north, and has sprinkled [ājya] over it while it stands [there near the fire], [the ceremonies] from the putting of wood on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations [are performed], and while she touches him, he offers oblations of that Sthālipāka.
4. The “spreading under” and the “sprinkling over” [of ājya are done] once; two Avadānas [or cut-off portions are taken].
5. Agni is the deity [of the first oblation]; the offering is made with the word Svāhā.
6. Or he may sacrifice after having picked out, once, a portion [of the sacrificial food with the Darvi spoon].
7. Agni Sviṣṭakṛt is the second [deity].
8. [At the Sviṣṭakṛt oblation] the “ spreading under” and taking an Avadāna are done once, the sprinkling over [of ājya] twice.
9. The Avadāna for the first deity [is taken] out of the middle [of the Sthālipāka]; 10. It is offered over the centre [of the fire].
11. [The Avadāna] for the second [deity is taken] from the northern part [of the Sthālipāka];
12. It is offered over the easterly part of the northerly part [of the fire].
13. Having silently anointed [a part of] the Barhis [by dipping it] into the remains both [of the Sthālipāka and the ājya] in the way prescribed [in the śrauta ritual] for the [part of the Barhis called] Prastāra, he throws [that part of the Barhis] into the fire.22
14. [The rule regarding] the second sprinkling [of water round the fire] is valid [here].
15. He gives [the remains of] that [sacrificial food] with butter to a Brāhmaṇa to eat —
16. — whom he reveres. To that [Brāhmaṇa] he makes the present of a bull.23
17. In the same way, with the exception of the dakshina, they should offer a Sthālipāka from then onwards, on the days of the new and full moon, after having fasted.
18. Some say that a vessel full [of grain] is the honorarium.
19. From then onwards he should offer morning and evening24 with his hand these two oblations [to Agni and to Agni Sviṣṭakṛt] of [rice] grains or of barley.
22 Comp. śrauta-Sūtra 111:5:9 seq.— See 1:2, 8. The upahomas prescribed above,1:2, 7, are not performed here, but the second pariśecana is.
23 Comp. Hiraṇyakeśin 1:7, 23:5-6
24 The two regular daily oblations corresponding to the Agnihotra of the śrauta ritual.
20. The deities are the same as at the Sthālipāka [just described].
21. Some say that the first oblation in the morning is sacred to Sūrya.
22. Before and after [those oblations] the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire is performed] as stated above. (See 1:2 3. 8.)
23. By the sacrifice of the new and full moon the other ceremonies have been explained [the knowledge of] which is derived from practice.
24. The deities [of those rites] are as stated [with regard to each particular case], having their place between Agni (Sutra 5) and Sviṣṭakṛt (Sutra 7).
25. The slaughter [of a cow] on the arrival of a guest [should be performed as stated below] without alterations. 25
26. [The deities] of the Vaiśvadeva ceremony are the Viśve-devas,26
27. Of ceremonies performed on full-moon days, the full-moon day on which they are performed.27
Paṭala 3, Section 8.
1. At the opening and concluding ceremonies of the Vedic study, the Rishi who is indicated [as the Rishi of the Kāṇḍa which they study, is the deity to whom the ceremony belongs], 28
2. And in the second place Sadasaspati (cf. Mantrap. 1:9, 8).
3. They reject a yajña performed by a wife [alone] or by one who has not received the Upanayana initiation, and a sacrifice of salt or pungent food, or of such food as has an admixture of a despised sort of food.
4. Sacrifices connected with special wishes and Bali sacrifices should be performed] as stated [even against the clauses of the last Sutra].
5. Whenever the fire flames up of itself, he should put two pieces of wood on it with the next two [verses; M. 1:9, 8-10),
6. Or with [the two formulas], “May wellbeing come me! May wellbeing come me! 7. Let him notice the day on which he brings his wife home.
8. [From that day] through three nights they should both sleep on the ground, they should refrain from having sex, and should avoid salt and pungent food.
25 See below, V,13,16.
26 See Åpastamba Dharma-Sūtra 11:2 3:I [S.B.E., vol. ii p. 103)
27 For instance, the śrāvani- paurṇamāsī is the deity of the ceremony described below, V11:18, 5 seq 7,1 seq. Hiraṇyakeśin 1:7, 23:2 seq. 6. As to the technical meaning of upahatya or upaghātam, comp. the note on Gobhila 1:8, s2; Grhya-saṅgraha 1:
28 1; Haradatta observes that at the kāṇḍopākaraṇa and kāṇḍasamāpana the Rishi of that kāṇḍa, at the general adhyāyopākaraṇa and samāpana all kāṇḍarṣis, should be worshipped.
9. Between their sleeping-places a staff is interposed, which is anointed with perfumes and wrapped round with a garment or a thread.
10. In the last part of the fourth night he takes up the [staff] with the next two verses (M. 1:10,1-2), washes it and puts it away; then [the ceremonies] from the putting of wood on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations [are performed], and while she touches him, he offers the oblations [indicated by the] next mantras; (M.1:10, 3-9); then he offer the Jaya and following oblations, and performs [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire]. Then he makes her sit down to the west of the fire, facing the east, and pours some ājya of the remains [of those oblations] on her head with the [three] Vyāhṛtis and the word Om as the fourth (M. 1:10, 10—13). Then they look at each other with the next two verses (M. 1:11:1—2), according to the characteristics [contained in those verses]; with the next verse (M.1:11:3) he besmears the region of their hearts with remains of ājya; then he should recite the next three verses (M.1:11:4-6), and should recite the rest [of the Anuvaka; 1:11:7-11] when cohabiting with her.
11. Or another person should recite [the rest of the Anuvaka] over her, [before they cohabit].
12. During her [first] monthly period he instructs her about the things forbidden [to menstruating women], contained in the Brāhmana, in the section, “A menstruating woman with whom,” &c. (Taittiriya Samhita 2:5,1:6 seq.)29
13. After the appearance of her monthly period, he should, when going to cohabit with her after her period, recite over her, after she has bathed, the next verses (M. 1:12, 1— 13:4).
29 ii. 5. 1. Viśvarupa, son of Tvastr, was the domestic priest of the gods, and the sister’s son of the Asuras. He had three heads, one which drank Soma, one Sura, and one which ate food. He promised openly the share to the gods, secretly to the Asuras. Men promise openly the share to every one; if they promise any one secretly, his share is indeed promised. Therefore Indra was afraid (thinking), ‘Such an one is diverting the sovereignty (from me).’ He took his bolt and smote off his heads. (The head) which drank Soma  became a hazelcock; (the head) which drank Sura a sparrow; (the head) which ate food a partridge. He seized with his hand the guilt of slaying him, and bore it for a year. Creatures called out upon him, ‘Thou art a Brahman slayer.’ He appealed to the earth, ‘Take a third part of my guilt.’ She said, ‘Let me choose a boon. I deem that I shall be overcome through digging. Let me not be overcome by that.’ He replied, ‘Before  a year is out it will grow up for thee.’ Therefore before the year is out the dug-out portion of earth grows up again, for that was what she chose as a boon. She took a third of his guilt. That became a natural fissure; therefore one who has piled up a fire-altar and whose deity is faith should not choose a natural fissure, for that is the colour of guilt. He appealed to the trees, ‘Take a third part of my guilt.’ They said, ‘Let us choose a boon. We deem that we shall be overcome through pruning . Let us not be overcome by that.’ He replied, ‘From pruning shall more (shoots) spring up for you.’ Therefore from the pruning of trees more (shoots) spring up, for that was what they chose as a boon. They took a third part of his guilt, it became sap; therefore one should not partake of sap, for it is the colour of guilt. Or rather of the sap which is red or which comes from the pruning one should not partake , but of other sap at will. He appealed to a concourse of women, ‘Take the third of my guilt.’ They said, ‘Let us choose a boon; let us obtain offspring from after the menses; let us enjoy intercourse at will up to birth.’ Therefore women obtain offspring from after the menses, and enjoy intercourse at will up to birth, for that was what they chose as a boon. They took a third of his guilt, it became (a woman) with stained garments; therefore one should not converse with (a woman) with stained garments , one should not sit with her, nor eat her food, for she keeps emitting the colour of guilt. Or rather they say, ‘Woman’s food is unguent, and therefore one should not accept (from her) unguent, but anything else (can be accepted) at will.
Paṭala 3, Section 9
1. Each following night with an even number, from the fourth [after the beginning of her period] till the sixteenth, brings more excellent offspring to them, if chosen for the [first] cohabiting after her period; thus it is said.
2. If he sneezes or coughs while going about on business, he should touch water and should recite the two following verses; (M.1:13;5—6) according to the characteristics [which they contain].
3. In the same way with the next Mantras (M. 1:13,7—10) — he should address the following objects], according to the characteristics [which those Mantras contain]: a conspicuous tree, a heap of excrements, the skirt [of his garment] which is blown against him by the wind, and a shrieking bird.
4. One [for instance, the wife’s father] who wishes that the hearts of both [husband and wife] may be in accord should observe chastity through at least three nights and should prepare a Sthālipāka. Then [the ceremonies] from the putting [of wood] on [the fire] down to the ājyabhāga oblations [are performed], and while the wife touches him, he sacrifices of the Sthālipāka the oblations [indicated by the] next Mantras; (M.1:14;1— 7); then he offers the Jaya and following oblations, and performs [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire]. [The remains of] the [sacrificial food] with butter, he should give to eat to an even number of Brāhmaṇas, at least to two, and should cause them to pronounce wishes for his success.
5. When the moon, on the following day, will be located in the nakṣatra of Tiśya, she strews three times seven barley-grains around [the plant pāṭham] Clypea Hernandifolia with [the formula], “If you belong to Varuṇa, I redeem you from Varuṇa. If you belong to Soma, I redeem you from Soma.”30
6. On the following day she should set upright [the plant] with the next mantra (M. 1:15,1), should recite the next three [verses; M. 1:15,2-4) over it, should tie [its root] with the next mantra (M. 1:15,5) to her hands so that [her husband] does not see it, and should, when they have gone to bed, embrace her husband with her arms, with the verse alluding to the word upadhāna [“putting on”] (M.1:15,6).
7. Thus he will be controlled by her.
8. By this [rite] also [a wife] overcomes her co-wives.
9. For this same purpose she worships the sun daily with the next Anuvāka (M.1:16).
10. If a wife is affected with consumption or is otherwise sick, one who has to observe chastity, should rub her limbs with young lotus leaves which are still rolled up, and with lotus roots, with the next mantras (limb by limb] according to the characteristics [contained in those formulas]: (M.1:17,1-6), and should throw away [the leaves and roots] towards the west.
11.With the next verses (M.1:17,7-10) he should give the wife’s garment [which she has worn at the wedding ?] to [a Brāhmaṇa] who knows this [ceremony].
30 Comp. Gobhila 11:6:6 seq.
Paṭala 4, Section 10
1. We shall explain the Upanayana (initiation of the student).
2. Let him initiate a Brāhmaṇa in the eighth year.
3. A Rājanya in the eleventh, a Vaiśya in the twelfth year.
4. Spring, summer, autumn: these are the [fit] seasons [for the Upanayana], corresponding to the order of the castes.
5. [The boy’s father] serves food to Brāhmaṇas and causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes, and serves food to the boy. [The teacher] pours together, with the first Yajus [of the next Anuvāka, warm and cold] water, pouring the warm water into the cold, and moistens [the boy’s] head with the next mantra (M. 11:1:2).
6. Having put three Darbha blades into his hair [on each of the four sides of the head] one shaves the hair with the next four verses; (M.2:1:3-6) with the different Mantras, at each of the different [four] sides [of the boy’s head]31.
7. With the following verse (M.2:1,7) somebody addresses [the barber] while he is shaving32.
8. In the southern direction, his mother or a Brahmacārin strews barley-grains on a lump of bull’s dung; with this [dung] she catches up the hair [that is cut off], and puts it down with the next [verse ; M. 2:1:8) at the root of an Udumbara tree or in a tuft of Darbha grass.
9. After [the boy] has bathed, and [the ceremonies] from the putting [of wood] on [the fire] down to the ājyabhāga oblations [have been performed], he causes him to put a piece of Palāśa wood on the fire with the next mantra (M. 2:2,1], and makes him tread with his right foot on a stone to the north of the fire, with [the verse], “ Tread” (M.2:2, 2).
10. Having recited the next two verses; (M.2:2,3,4) over a garment that has been spun and woven on one day, and has caused him, with the next three mantras (M.2:2,5-7), to put it on, he recites over him, after he has put it on, the next mantra (M.2:2,8) .
11. He ties thrice around him, from left to right, a threefold-twisted girdle of Muñja grass33 with the next two verses; (M.2:2, 9. 10), and [gives him] a skin as his outer garment with the next mantra (M.2,11).
12. To the north of the fire [the teacher] spreads out Darbha grass; on that he causes [the boy] to stand with the next mantra (M.2:3,1), pours his joined hands full of water into [the boy’s] joined hands, makes him sprinkle himself three times with the next mantra
31 In actual practice the teacher or the father holds the darbha blades to the four sides of the boys head – front, back and sides — the mantras and the blades of darbha are cut. The barber then shaves the head leaving the topknot.
32 Haradatta: The teacher addresses the barber, &c.—Sudarśanārya: The mother of the boy or a Brahmacārin [comp. Sutra 8) . . . addresses the teacher who shaves him.
33 Comp. Apast. Dharma-Sūtra 1:1:2, 33; 1:3:3 seq. 12. As to the words, “he initiates him” [upanayati], comp. Śānkhāyana 11:2,11. 12; āśvalāyana 1:20, 4 &C.
(M.2:3,2), takes hold of his right hand with the next formulas; (M.2:3:3-12), gives him with the next formulas; (M.2:3,13-23) in charge to the deities [mentioned in those Mantras], initiates him with the next Yajus (M.2:3,24), and recites into his right ear the (Mantra], “Blessed with offspring be”. (M.2:3,25).
Paṭala 4, Section 11.
1. The boy says, “I have come to lead the life of a student” (M:2:3,26).
2 The other [ie. the teacher] has to ask; the boy has to answer (M.2:3:27-30).
3. The other recites the rest [of the Anuvāka].
4. And causes the boy to repeat [the Mantra] which contains wishes for himself (M.2:3:32).
5. [The rites] down to the ājyabhāgas have been prescribed.
6. Having then caused him to sacrifice the oblations [indicated in the] next mantras; (M.2:4:1-11), following oblations.
7. Having performed [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire], he puts down, to the west of the fire, a bunch of northward-pointed grass; on that [the teacher] who performs the initiation, sits down with the next Yajus (M.2:4,12.
8. The boy, sitting to the east [of him], facing the west, seizes with his right hand [the teacher’s] right foot and says, “ Recite the Sāvitrī, Sir !”
9. He recites [the Sāvitrī] to him, “That [glorious splendour] of Sāvitrī” [Taitt. Samh. 1:5:6:4; M.2:4,13);
10. Pāda by Pāda, hemistich by hemistich, and the whole [verse].
11. [When repeating the Sāvitrī Pāda by Pāda, he pronounces] the Vyāhṛtis singly at the beginning or at the end of the Pādas;
12. In the same way [the first and the second Vyāhṛti at the beginning or at the end] of the hemistiches; the last [Vyāhṛti, when he repeats] the whole verse.
13. With the next Mantra (M.2:4,14) the boy touches his upper lip; 14. With the next (M.2:4,15) both his ears;
15. With the next (M.2:5:1) he takes up the staff.
16. The staff of a Brāhmaṇa is made of Palāśa wood, that of a Rājanya of a branch of the Nyagrodha tree, so that the downward-turned end [of the branch] forms the tip [of the staff], that of a Vaiśya of Bādara or Udumbara wood.
17. Some state [only], without any reference to caste, that the staff should be made of the wood of a tree.34
34 These Sutras are identical with Dharma-Sūtra 1:1:2, 3 [S. B. E., vol. 11:p. 9).
18. After [the teacher] has made him repeat [the formula], “My memory” (M. 11:5:2), and he has bestowed an optional gift on his teacher, and [the teacher] has made him arise with [the formula, M2:5,3), “Up, with life!” [the student] worships the sun with the next (Mantras; 11:5,4).
19. If [the teacher] wishes, “May this [student] not be estranged from me,” let him take [the student] by the right hand with the next mantra (M.2:5:6).
20. They keep that fire [used at the Upanayana] three days,
21. And [during that time] salted and pungent food should be avoided.
22. Having wiped [with his hand wet] around [the fire] with [the formula], “Around thee” (M.2:6,1), he should put [twelve] pieces of wood on that [fire] with the next- mantras (M.2:6:2-13).
23. In the same way also on another [fire, when the Upanayana fire is kept no longer], 24. Fetching fuel regularly from the forest.
25. With the next formula (M.2:6,14) the teacher instructs [the student in his duties].
26. On the fourth day [after the Upanayana the teacher] takes the garment [of the student]35 for himself with the next mantra (M.2:6,15), having made him put on another [garment].
Paṭala 5, Section 12.
1. Having studied the Veda, when going to take the bath [which signifies the end of his studentship], he enters a cow-shed before sunrise, hangs over its door a skin with the hair inside, and sits there.
2. On that day the sun should not shine upon him. 13:2. See above, 4,11:7.
3. At noon, after [the ceremonies] from the putting [of wood] on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations [have been performed], he puts a piece of Palāśa wood on [the fire] with the next mantra (M.2:7,1), sits down to the west of the fire on a mat or on erakā grass, recites the next mantra, (M.2:7, 2) over a razor, and hands it over to the barber with the next Yajus (M.2:7, 3). [The rites] beginning with the pouring together of [warm and cold] water down to the burying of the hair are the same as above (comp. M.2:7, 4).
4. He sits down behind the cow-shed, takes the mekhala off, and hands it over to a Brahmacārin.
5. The [Brahmacārin] hides it with the next Yajus (M.2:7,5) at the root of an Udumbara tree or in a tuft of Darbha grass.36
35 The garment which the teacher takes for himself is that mentioned above, IV,10,10. 12, 3. See above, IV,10, 5-8. 6. See IV,10, 5.
36 Comp. āśvalāyana-Gṛhya 1:24,11. 12.
6. With water of the description stated above he bathes with the six next [verses; M2:7,6-11), and with the next (M.2:7,12) he brushes his teeth with a stick of Udumbara wood.
7. Having bathed and anointed his body with such ingredients as are used in bathing, [aromatic powder, &c.],
8. He puts on with the next Yajus (M.2:713) a fresh under garment, and anoints himself, after having given the unguent in charge of the deities with the next mantras, (M.2:7,14), with the next mantra, (M.2:7,15) with sandal paste which is scented with all kinds of perfumes. With the next mantra, (M.2:7,16) he moves about a gold bead with its setting, which is strung on a string, three times from left to right in a water-pot; with the next mantra, (M.2:7,17) he ties the [bead] to his neck; in the same way, without Mantras, he ties a bead of Bādara wood to his left hand, and repeats the rites stated above with a fresh upper garment, with the [verses], “ May the rich”37.
9. To the hem [of that uttarīya] he ties two earrings, puts them into the [sacrificial spoon called] Darvi, offers the oblations [indicated by the] next (Mantras; M.2:8, I-8), pouring the ājya, over [the ear-rings], and offers the Jaya and the other oblations.
10. Having performed [the ceremonies] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire], he should fix [one of the ear-rings] with the same [verses] to his right ear, and with the same [verses one] to his left ear.
11. In the same way he should with the following mantras, (M.2:8, 9-9,5), according to the characteristics [contained in them], [put] a garland on his head, anoint [his eyes], look into a mirror, [put on] shoes, [and should take] an umbrella and a staff.
12. He keeps silence until the stars appear.
13. When the stars have appeared, he goes away towards the east or north, worships the quarters [of the horizon] with the next hemistich, and the stars and the moon with the next (M.2:9, 6).
14. Having spoken with a friend he may go where he likes.
Paṭala 5, Section 13.
1. Now this [is] another [way for performing the Samāvartana]. He bathes silently at a bathing-place and puts silently a piece of wood on [the fire].
2. He sits down on a bunch of grass, as stated above (comp. M.2:9,7), at a place where they are going to honour him [with the Argha reception].
3. A king and a chieftain [sit down] in the same way [as a Brāhmaṇa], with the next two mantras (M.2:9,8.9), according to the characteristics [contained in them].
4. [The host] announces [to the guest], “The water for washing the feet!” 37 comp. above, 4,10,10; M.2:7,18
5. [The guest] should recite the next mantra, (M.2:9,10) over [that water] and should stretch out the right foot first to a Brāhmaṇa, the left to a Sudra.
6. Having touched the person who washes him, he should touch himself [ie. his own heart] with the next mantra (M.2:9,11).
7. [The host, taking the Argha water] in an earthen vessel which he holds with two bunches of grass, announces [to the guest], “The Argha water!”
8. [The guest] should recite the next mantra (M.2:9,12) over [that water] and should recite the next Yajus (M.2:9,13), while a part [of the water] is poured over his joined hands.
9. Over the rest [of the water] which is poured out towards the east, he recites the next mantra, (M.2:9,14)
10. [The host] mixes together yoghurt and honey in a brass vessel, covers it with a larger [brass cover], takes hold of it with two bunches of grass, and announces [to the guest], “The honey-mixture!”
11. Some take three substances, [those stated before] and ghee.
12. Some take five, [the three stated before], and grains, and flour.
13. The guest recites the next two mantras (M.2:10,1.2) over [the honey-mixture] and sips water with the two Yajus (M.2:10,3.4) before [eating] and afterwards; with the next mantra, (M.2:10,5) he should partake three times [of the drink] and should give the remainder to a person towards whom he is kindly disposed.
14. A king or a chieftain should only accept it and [give it] to his Purohita.
15. [The host] announces the cow with [the word], “The cow!”
16. After the guest has recited the next mantra, (M.2:10,6] over [the cow, the host kills it and] cooks its omentum, and having performed the ‘spreading under” and the sprinkling over [of ājya], he sacrifices it with the next verse (M.2;10,7) with a palāśa leaf from the middle or the end [of the stalk].
17. If the guest chooses to let [the cow] loose, he recites the next mantras (M.2:10, 8- 11) in a low voice [and says] loudly, “Om! Let it loose!” (M.2:10,12).
18. [In this case] he recites the next mantras (M.2:10,13-17) in a low voice over the food which is announced to him [instead of the cow], [and says] loudly, “Om! Make it ready!” (M.2:10,18).
19. For his teacher, for a Ritvig, for his father-in-law, for a king he ought to perform this [Arghya ceremony] as often as they visit his house, if at least one year has elapsed [since they came last].
20. For a renowned teacher [of the Veda the ceremony should be performed] once.
Paṭala 6, Section 14.
1. The Sīmantonnayana [or parting of the pregnant wife’s hair, is performed] in her first pregnancy, in the fourth month 38.
2. [The husband] serves food to Brāhmaṇas and causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes; then, after [the ceremonies] from the putting [of wood] on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations [have been performed], he offers the oblations [indicated in the] next mantras (M.2:11,1— 8), while [the wife] touches him, and enters upon the [performance] of the Jaya and following oblations.
3. Having performed [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire], he makes her sit down to the west of the fire, facing the east, and parts her hair upwards [i.e. beginning from the front] with a porcupine’s quill that has three white spots, with three Darbha blades, and with a bunch of unripe Udumbara fruits, with the Vyāhṛtis or with the two next (verses, M.2:11:9.10).
4. He says to two lute-players, “play!”.
5. Of the next two (verses, M.2:11:11.12) the first [is to be sung on this occasion] among the [people of the] Sālvas.
6. The second [is to be used] for Brāhmaṇas; and the river near which they dwell is to be named.39 7. He ties barley-grains with young shoots [to the head of the wife]; then she keeps silent40 until the stars appear.
8. When the stars have appeared, he goes [with his wife] towards the east or north, touches a calf, and recites the Vyāhṛtis; then she breaks her silence.
9. The Pumsavana [ie. the ceremony to secure the birth of a male child] is performed when the pregnancy has become visible41, under the constellation Tiśya.
10. From a branch of a Nyagrodha tree, which points eastward or northward, he takes a shoot with two [fruits that look like] testicles. The putting [of wood] on the fire, &c., is performed as at the Sīmantonnayana (Sutra 2).
11. He causes a pre-pubescent girl to pound [the Nyagrodha shoot] on an upper mill- stone with another upper mill-stone, and to pour water on it; then he makes his wife lie down on her back to the west of the fire, facing the east, and inserts [the pounded substance] with his thumb into her right nostril, with the next Yajus M.2:11:13).
12. Then she will give birth to a son.
13. Here follows the ceremony to secure a quick delivery (kṣipram-suvanam).
38 The pumsavana sacrament is to be performed before the sīmantam — it is unclear why both Åpastamba and Hiraṇyakeśin describe the sīmantam first. Nowadays both sacraments are usually done on the same day for convenience.
39 āśvalāyana 1:14:7; Pāraskara I;15,8.
40 Sudarśanārya mentions that instead of the singular ‘she keeps silence, she breaks her silence’, some read the dual, so that the husband and his wife are referred to.
41 Usually in the 3rd month. This is actually the time at which the gender of the foetus is decided — having been female up to this point.
14. With a shallow cup that has not been used before, he draws water in the direction of the river’s current; at his wife’s feet he lays down a Turyanti plant; he should then touch his wife, who is soon to be delivered, on the head, with the next Yajus (M.2:11:14), and should sprinkle her with the water, with the next [three] verses (M.2:11:15-17).
15. If she miscarries then with the recitation of the 2 mantras (M.2.11;18,1942) she should be sprinkled with water.
Paṭala , Section 15.
1. After he has touched the new-born child with the Vātsapra hymn [Taitt. Samh. 4:2;2 M.2:11:20), and has taken him on his lap with the next Yajus (M.2:11:2 I], with the next [three] [verses— M.2:11:22; 12;1,22 — one by one] he addresses the child, kisses him on his head, and recites [the third verse] into his right ear.
2. And he gives him a Nakṣatra name.
3. That is secret.
4. He pours together honey and ghee; into this [mixture] he dips a piece of gold which he has tied with a noose to a Darbha blade. With the next [three] formulas (M.2:12, 3-5) he gives the boy [by means of the piece of gold, some of the mixture] to eat. With the next five [verses, M.2:12, 6-10) he bathes him. Then he pours curds and ghee together and gives him this [mixture which is called] “sprinkled butter” [priṣadājya] to eat out of a brass vessel, with the Vyāhṛtis to which the syllable “Om” is added as the fourth (M.2:12,11-14). The remainder he should mix with water and pour out in a cow-stable.
5. With the next mantra, (M.2:13:1] he places [the child] in the mother’s lap; with the next (M.2:13:2) he causes her to give him her right breast; with the next two [verses, M.2:13:3. 4) he touches the earth, and after [the child] has been laid down, [he touches him] with the next mantra (M.2:13:5).
6. With the next Yajus (M.2:13:6) he places a water-pot at [the child’s] head, sacrifices mustard seeds and rice-chaff with his joined hands three times with each of the next mantras (M.2:13:7-14:2), repeating each time the word Svāhā, and says [to the people who are accustomed to enter the room in which his wife lies], Whenever you enter, strew silently [mustard seeds with rice-chaff] on the fire.
7. This is to be done until the ten days [after the child’s birth] have elapsed.
8. On the tenth day, after [the mother] has risen and taken a bath, he gives a name to the son. The father and the mother [should pronounce that name first].
9. [It should be a name] of two syllables or of four syllables; the first part should be a noun; the second a verb; it should have a long vowel [or] the contain a semi-vowel.
10. Or it should contain the particle ‘su’, for such a name has a firm foundation; thus it is said in a Brāhmana text.
42 “tila deva padyasva…” and “niraitu pṛaśni śevalam …”
11. A girl’s name should have an odd number of syllables.
12. When [the father] returns from a journey, he should address the child and kiss him on his head with the next two [verses, M.2:14,3-4), and should recite the next Mantras (M.2:14,5) into his right ear. (Comp. above, Sutra 1.)
13. With the next Yajus (M.2:14,6) he addresses a daughter [when returning from a journey].
Paṭala 6, Section 16.
1. In the sixth month after birth he serves food to Brāhmaṇas and causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes; then he should pour together curds, honey, ghee, and boiled rice, and should give [the mixture] to the child to eat, with the next [four] Mantras (M.2:14:7-10);
2. [He should feed him] with the flesh of a partridge, according to some [teachers].
3. In the third year after his birth the Caula [or tonsure is performed] under [the Nakṣatra of] the two Punarvasus.
4. Brāhmaṇas are entertained with food as at the initiation [Upanayana].
5. The putting [of wood] on the fire, &c. [is performed] as at the Sīmantonnayana.
6. He makes [the boy] sit down to the west of the fire, facing the east, combs his hair silently with a porcupine’s quill that has three white spots, with three Darbha blades, and with a bunch of unripe Udumbara fruits; and he arranges the locks in the fashion of his ancestral Rishis,
7. Or according to their family custom.
8. The ceremonies beginning with the pouring together of [warm and cold] water and ending with the putting down of the hair are the same [as above; comp. M.2:14,11). (See IV,10, 5-8.)
9. He puts down the razor after having washed it off.
10, The ceremony is [repeated] three days with the [same razor]. [Then] the rite is finished. 43
11. [The father] gives an optional gift [to the Brāhmaṇa who has assisted].
12. The Godāna [or the ceremony of shaving the beard, is performed] in the sixteenth year, in exactly the same way or optionally under another constellation.
13. Or he may perform the Godāna sacred to Agni.44
43 I translate as if the words tena tryanam and karmanivṛttim formed two Sutras.
44 “Having performed the same rites as at the opening of the study of the Agneya-kāṇḍa, he performs an Upasthāna to the deities as taught with regard to the Sukriyavrata.” Haradatta.—”After the ceremonies down to the ājyabhāgas have been performed, one chief oblation of is offered with the formula, “To Agni, the ṛṣi of the kāṇḍa svāhā. Sudarśanārya
14. Some prescribe the keeping of a vow through one year in connection with the Godāna. (Compare the statement given in Gobhila III;1;1).
15. The difference [between the Caula and the Godāna] is that [at the Godāna] the whole hair is shaven [without leaving the locks].
16. According to the followers of the Sama-Veda he should “ touch water.” 45
Paṭala 7, Section 17.
1. The ground for building a house should be inclined towards the south-west.46 He elevates the surface and sweeps [the earth] with a broom of Palāśa wood or of śami wood, with the next mantra, (M.2:15:1), in the same [south-west] direction;
2. In the same way three times.
3. He touches the ground, which has thus been prepared, with the next mantra, (M.2:15:2). Then he has the pits for the posts dug from left to right, throws the earth [from the pits] towards the inside [of the building-ground], and erects the right doorpost with the next two verses, (M.2:15:3. 4);
4. In the same way the other [door-post].
5. Having erected after [the door-posts] the other [posts] in the same order in which [the pits] have been dug, he recites the next Yajus (M.2:15:5) over the ridge-pole when it is placed [on the posts],
6. The next [six] Yajus mantras, (M.2:15:6-11) over the [house when it is] finished, according to the characteristics contained in the single formulas.
7. He offers a piece of Palāśa wood or śami wood on fire, takes the fire up [in a dish] with the next verse (M.2:15,12), carries it to the house with the next Yajus (M.2:15,13), and places the fire in the north-eastern part of the house with the next (M.2:15,14).
8. The place for the kumbha (water-vessel) is to the south of that spot.
9. He strews there Darbha grass, so that its points are turned in every direction, pours rice and barley-grains over the [grass] with the next mantra, (M.2:15,15), and thereon he places the water-vessel.
10. With the next Yajus, (M.2:15,16) he pours four potfuls of water into it.
11. If [the kumbha] breaks, he recites the next mantra, (11:15,17) over it.
12. After the ceremonies from the putting of wood on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations have been performed, he offers the [four] oblations [indicated by the] next (Mantras; 11:15,18-21); then he offers the Jaya and following oblations.
45 The udakopasparśana according to the rite of the Sāmavedins is described by Gobhila,1:2, 5 seq.
46 This does not accord with vāstu principles which suggest that the house should incline either to the north, north-east or east.
13. Having performed [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire], he should sprinkle [water] with a water-pot around the house or the resting-place on the inside, with the next Yajus (M.2:15:22) three times from left to right; then he should serve cakes, flour, and boiled rice to the Brāhmaṇas.
Paṭala 7 Section 18.
1. When a boy is attacked by the dog-demon [piśāca], [the father or another performer of the ceremony], having devoted himself to austerities [such as fasting], covers him with a net. Then he causes a gong to be beaten or a bell to be rung, takes [the boy] by another way than the [main] door into the gambling-hall, raises [the earth in the middle of the hall] at the place in which they gamble, sprinkles it [with water], casts the dice, lays [the boy] on his back on the dice, and besprinkles him with his joined hands with curds and salt, with the next [eleven] mantras (M.2:16,1-11), in the morning, at noon, and at night.47
2. Then he will get well.
3. Over a boy who suffers from the “śaṅkha disease”48, [the father, &c.] having devoted himself to austerities, should recite the next two [verses, M.2:16,12-13), and should pour [water] on his head with a water-pot with the next mantra, (M.2:16,14), in the morning, at noon, and at night.
4. Then he will get well.
5. On the day of the full moon of [the month] śrāvana after sunset a Sthālipāka [is offered]49.
6. After the ceremonies down to the ājyabhāga oblations have been performed in the same way as at the fortnightly sacrifices, he sacrifices of the Sthālipāka, and with each of the next mantras (M.2:16,15-17) he offers with his joined hands Kimsuka flowers.50
7. With the next [three] verses (M.2:17,1-3) [he offers] pieces of āragvadha wood [Cathartocarpus fistula];
8, Then the ājya oblations [indicated by the] next mantras (M.2:17,4-7).
9. Then he offers the Jaya and following oblations.
10. Having performed [the rites] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire], he silently takes the objects required [for the rites which he is going to perform], goes out in an easterly or northerly direction, prepares a raised surface, draws on it three lines directed towards the east and three towards the north, pours water on the [lines], and lays [an offering of] flour [for the sarpas] on them, with the next mantra (M.2:17,8).
11. Silently [he lays down] whole grain, roasted grain, collyrium, ointment, [the fragrant substance called] Sthagara, and Uśīra root.
47 Comp. Pāraskara 1:16:24; Hiraṇyakeśin 11:2, 7.
48 śaṅkhin is a person attacked by such a disease makes the sound of a conch — śaṅkha. Haradatta. 49 Here follows a description of the Sarpabali.
50 Comp. above, 3:7, 2-3.
12. With the next mantras (M.2:17,9-26) he should worship [the serpents], should sprinkle water round [the oblations], should return [to his house] silently without looking back, should sprinkle [water] with a water-pot from left to right, thrice around the house or the resting-place on the inside, with the two verses, “Beat away O white one, with thy foot” (M.2:17,27,28), and should offer food to the Brāhmaṇas.
Paṭala 7, Section 19.
1. The whole grain [which is left over, see above, 7:18,11] they give to the boys to eat.
2. Let him repeat in the same way this Bali offering of whatever food he has got or of flour, from that day to full moon of [the month] Mārgaśīrṣa.
3. On the day of the full moon of Mārgaśīrṣa after sunset a Sthālipāka [is offered as above, 7:18, 5).
4. In the Mantra for the Bali-offering he changes [the word “I shall offer” into] “I have offered.”
5. Then he does not offer [the Bali] any longer.
6. [Now follows] the āgrayaṇa sacrifice [or partaking of the first-fruits] of one who has not set up the [śrauta] fires.
7. He prepares a Sthālipāka of the fresh fruits, sacrifices to the deities of the [śrauta] āgrayaṇa sacrifice with [Agni] Sviṣṭakṛt as the fourth, fills his mouth with grains, swallows them, sips water, forms a lump of the boiled [sacrificial] food, and throws it up with the next Yajus (M.2:18,1) to the roof of the house.
8. [Now follows] the sleeping arrangements in the winter.
9. With the next Yajus (M.2:18,2) they “descend” [or take as their sleeping-place a mattress of straw instead of the high beds which they have used before]. With the next Yajus formulas (M.2:18,3-7) they lie down on a new layer [of straw] on their right sides.
10. The father to the south, the mother to the north [of him], and so the others, one after the other from the eldest to the youngest.
11. After he has arisen, he touches the earth with the next two verses. (M.2;18;8;9).
12. In the same way the lying down, &c., is repeated thrice.
13. Having prepared a Sthālipāka for īśāna51 and one for Kṣetrapati, he goes out in an easterly or northerly direction, prepares a raised surface, [and then follow the ceremonies] beginning with the putting of wood on the fire.
14. To the west of the fire he builds two huts.
51 The description of the śūlagava sacrifice, which here follows, agrees in most points with the statements of Hiraṇyakeśin 11:3, 8
Paṭala 7, Section 20.
1. With the next mantra, (M.2:18,10) he invokes īśāna in the southern [hut].
2. With worldly words [he invokes] the mīḍuṣi devī (“bountiful goddess”) in the northern [hut].
3. To the middle [between the two huts] jayanta (“the conqueror.”)52
4. He offers them water to drink in the same order in which they have been invoked [to their places], takes three portions of boiled rice [from the Sthālipāka prepared for īśāna], takes [these portions of rice] to the fire, makes [the three gods] touch them with the next mantras (M.2:18,11-13), sacrifices of these portions, to each god of the portion which belongs to him, with the next mantras (M.2:18,14-30), cuts off [Avadānas] from all [portions], and sacrifices with the next Yajus (M.2:18,31) to Agni Sviṣṭakṛt.
5. Having worshipped [the god īśāna] with the next Yajus (M.2:18,32), he distributes with the next mantras (M.2:18, 33-39) leaves together with portions of boiled rice, two [leaves] with each [Yajus], then ten to the divine hosts (M.2:18, 40), and ten to the [divine hosts] that follow [and are referred to in the next Yajus. (M.2:18,41).
6. With the next mantras (M.2:18, 42-45) he does the same as before [ie. he distributes two leaves with each Mantra].
7. Having formed a lump of boiled rice, he puts it into a basket of leaves, and with the next Yajus (M.2:18, 46) hangs it up on a tree.
8. Here he should recite the Rudra texts (Taitt. Samh. 4: 5), 9. Or the first and last [Anuvaka].
10. He places his cows around the fire so that the smoke [of the sacrifice] may reach them.
11. With his firmly shut fist full of Darbha grass he sprinkles [them] with scents; the bull first.
12. He should perform a sacrifice to Kṣetrapati, without a fire, in the path used by his cows.
13. He has [the Kṣetrapati] brought to his place in the same way as the īśāna (see above, Sutra 1).
14. He puts [portions of boiled rice] into four or seven leaves, naming [the god]. 15. Let him sacrifice quickly; the god is impatient53.
16. With the next two verses, (M.2:18, 47. 48) he offers worship [to Kṣetrapati]. 17. The Sthālipāka [belonging to īśāna] he gives to the Brāhmaṇas to eat.
52 verses 1—3. Comp. Hiranyak. 11:3:8, 2—4. Haradatta explains the iśāna, the mīḍuśī, and the jayanta as images of the three gods.
53 The Kṣetrapati is like a child — unable to sit for very long without getting fidgety and moving off elsewhere.
18. That belonging to Kṣetrapati his blood relatives eat. Or as is the custom in their family.
Paṭala 8, Section 21.
1. The times for the monthly śrāddha are in the Dark Fortnight [of the month], as they are stated.
2. Let him feed, without ulterior motives, pure Brāhmaṇas, versed in the Mantras, who are not connected with himself by blood or by Gotra or by the Mantras [such as his teacher or his pupils], an odd number, at least three.
3. He makes oblations of the food [prepared for the Brāhmaṇas] with the next verses, (M.2:19, 1-7);
4. Then the ājya oblations [indicated by the] next mantras, (M.2:19,8-13).
5. Or in the opposite manner (i.e. he offers ājya with the verses referred to in Sutra 3c and food with those referred to in Sutra 4).
6. Let him touch the whole [food] with the next mantras (M.2:19,14—16).
7. Or the [single] prepared [portions of food destined] for the single Brāhmaṇas.
8. Having caused them with the next mantra (M.2:20,1) to touch [the food, he gives it to them to eat].
9. When they have eaten [and gone away], he goes after them, circumambulates them, turning his right side towards them, spreads out southward pointed Darbha grass in two different layers, pours water on it with the next mantras (M.2:20, 2-7), offers the Piṇḍas, ending in the south, with the next mantras (M.2:20,8-13), pours out water as before with the next mantras (M.2;14-19), worships [the ancestors] with the next mantras (M.2:20,20-23), sprinkles with the next mantra, (M.2:20,24) water three times from right to left round [the Piṇḍas] with a water-pot, besprinkles the vessels, which are turned upside down, repeating the next Yajus (M.2:20,25) at least three times without taking breath, sets up the vessels two by two, cuts off [Avadānas] from all [portions of food], and eats of the remains at least one morsel with the next Yajus (M.2:20,26).
10. Of the dark fortnight that follows after the full moon of Magha, the eighth day falls under [the constellation of] Jyeṣṭa: this day is called Ekāṣṭaka.
11. In the evening before that day [he performs] the preparatory ceremony. 12. He bakes a cake of four cups [of rice]
13. [The cake is prepared] in eight dishes [like a Puroḍāśa], according to some [teachers].
Paṭala 8. Section 22.
1. After the ceremonies down to the ājyabhāga oblations have been performed in the same way as at the fortnightly sacrifices, he makes with his joined hands oblations of the cake with the next mantra, (M.2:20,27).
2. The rest [of the cake] he makes ready, divides [it] into eight parts and offers it to the Brāhmaṇas.
3. On the following day he touches a cow with a Darbha blade, with the words, “I touch thee agreeable to the Ancestors.”
4. Having silently offered five ājya oblations, and having cooked the omentum of the [cow], and performed the “spreading under” and the “sprinkling over” [of ājya], he oblates [the omentum] with the next mantra, (M.2:20—28) with a Palāśa leaf from the middle or the end [of the stalk].
5. [He oblates] boiled rice together with the meat [of the cow] with the next verses. (M.2:20,29—35).
6. Food prepared of meal (Piṣṭanna) with the next mantra. (M.2:21:1).
7. Then the ājya oblations [indicated by the] next mantras. (M.2:21:2—9).
8. [The rites] from the Sviṣṭakṛt down to the offering of the Piṇḍas are the same [as at the śrāddha].
9. Some [teachers] prescribe the Piṇḍa offering for the day after the Aṣṭakā.
10. Here [follows] another [way for celebrating the Aṣṭakā]. He offers yoghurt with his joined hands in the same way as the cake (apūpa).
11. Having left over from the meat of the [cow], (see above, 3.4) as much as is required, on the day after [the Aṣṭakā] [he performs] the rite of the Anvaṣṭakā.
12. This rite has been explained in the description of the monthly śrāddha.
13. If he goes out in order to beg for something, let him recite the next mantras (M.2:21:10-16) and then state his desire.
14. If he has obtained a chariot, he has the horses harnessed to it, turns it to face the east, and touches with the next mantra, (M.2:21:17) the two wheels of the chariot or the two sides.
15. With the next Yajus (M.2:21:18) he should mount, and drive with the next mantra, (M.2:21:19) towards the east or north, and should then drive off on his business.
16. Let him mount a horse with the next mantras (M.2:21:20-30), 17. An elephant with the next mantra (M.2;21;31) .
18. If any harm is done him by these two [beasts], let him touch the earth as indicated above.
19. If he is going to a dispute, he takes the parasol and the staff in his left hand.
Paṭala 8. Section 23.
1. Having sacrificed, with his right hand, a fist full of chaff with the next mantra, (M.2:21:32), he should go away and recite the next mantra. (M.2:21:33).
2. Over an angry person let him recite the two next mantras (M.2:22,1-2); then his anger will be appeased.
3. One who wishes that his wife should not have sex with other men, should have big living centipedes ground to powder, and should insert [that powder] with the next mantra (M.2:22,3), while she is sleeping, into her secret parts.
4 For success [in the procreation of children] let him wash [his wife] with the urine of a red-brown cow.
5. For success [in trade] let him offer with the next mantra, (M.2:22,4) —some [portion] from the articles of trade which he has in his house.
6. If he wishes that somebody be not estranged from him, let him pour his own urine into the horn of a living animal, and sprinkle [it] with the next two mantras; (M.2:22,5- 6) three times from right to left around [the person] while he is sleeping.
7. In a path which servants or labourers use to run away, he should put an iṇvā (an instrument for holding a hot sacrificial pan) on [a fire], and should offer the oblations [indicated by the] next mantras (M.2:22,7-10).54
8. If a fruit falls on him from a tree, or a bird shits on him, or a drop of water falls on him when no rain is expected, he should wipe that off with the next mantras (M.2:22,13), according to the characteristics [contained in these Mantras].
9. If a post of his house puts forth shoots, or if a hive is made in his house [by bees], or if the footprint of a dove is seen in the kitchen, or if diseases arise in his household, or in the case of other marvels or omens, let him perform in the new-moon night, at dead of night, at a place where he does not hear the noise of water, the rites from the putting [of wood] on the fire down to the ājyabhāga oblations, and let him offer the oblations [indicated in the] next mantras; (M.2:22,14-23), and perform the Jaya and following oblations.
10. Having performed [the ceremonies] down to the sprinkling [of water] round [the fire], he puts out towards the south with the next mantra (M.2:22,24) a stone as a barrier for those among whom a death has occurred.
|| End of the Apastambīya-Gṛhya-Sūtra. ||